Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Internet

  • mobile internet

  • Terms modified by Internet

  • internet access
  • internet addiction
  • internet age
  • internet application
  • internet communication
  • internet company
  • internet connectivity
  • internet forums
  • internet information
  • internet protocol
  • internet resource
  • internet search
  • internet searching
  • internet service provider
  • internet site
  • internet source
  • internet stock
  • internet survey
  • internet technology
  • internet tracking registry
  • internet traffic
  • internet usage
  • internet use
  • internet user
  • internet website

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2002
    Article first published online: 9 MAY 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    This paper investigates the relationship between the focus and implementation degree of Internet-based information technology (IT) applications and the scope and orientation of process-oriented integration in global supply chains. Using data from 205 plants, which were collected in conjunction with the High Performance Manufacturing project, the degree of supplier and customer integration and its match with the implemented IT instruments supporting interorganizational collaboration are investigated empirically. Different types of integration are differentiated from each other with the help of factor, percentile and cluster analyses. The focus and degree of IT integration is measured for each of the resulting groups and the alignment of both aspects is analyzed with the help of an approach referred to as the angles of integration. With respect to supply chain integration and IT implementation, the analysis of different integration strategies shows that most of the plants do not align their IT implementation with their supply chain strategy. The paper helps companies to evaluate the alignment of their use of IT techniques with their global supply chain management emphases. Additionally, possible reasons for a potential missmatch of functional strategies are discussed giving managers insights for dealing more effectively with a strategic alignment. Furthermore, it refines an existing framework for the comparison of different supply chain integration strategies and applies it with IT. Based on the angles of integration, the match of supply chain integration and IT is investigated by statistical analyses. [source]


    Christopher Helland
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Mapping cityscapes into cyberspace for visualization

    Jiang Yu Zheng
    Abstract This work establishes a cyberspace of a real urban area for visiting on the Internet. By registering entire scenes along every street and at many locations, viewers can visually travel around and find their destinations in cyberspace. The issues we discuss here are mapping of a large-scale area to image domains in a small amount of data, and effective display of the captured scenes for various applications. Route Panoramas captured along streets and panoramic views captured at widely opening sites are associated to a city map to provide navigation functions. This paper focuses on the properties of our extended images,route panorama, addressing the archiving process applied to an urban area, an environment developed to transmit image data as streaming media, and display for scene traversing on the WWW in real time. The created cyberspaces of urban areas have broad applications such as city tour, real estate searching, e-commerce, heritage preservation, urban planning and construction, and vehicle navigation. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Modular hardware design for distant-internet embedded systems engineering laboratory

    Xicai Yue
    Abstract A novel hardware system providing remote accessible embedded system experiments of microcontroller, digital signal processor (DSP), and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) via Internet is presented. Three newly developed hardware modules for integrating experimental boards, experimental instrumentation, and a PC workstation in the distant embedded laboratory are fully described. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 17: 389,397, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20259 [source]

    New methodologies in teaching e-structural mechanics using WWW,

    Carmelo Maiorana
    Abstract A recently initiated phase of experimentation and research in the online Distance Learning (DL) is here described. The project has been developed by the Department of Construction and Transportation Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Padua along with the well-established e-learning experience of the SSIS Veneto (Institute for the Formation of Secondary School's Teachers) of Cà Foscari,University of Venice, in collaboration with the webmaster management of TCN-EnginSoft of Padua. The work deals with teaching methodologies supported by the net, computer communication and information technologies, finalized to give both widespread access to useful resources and to create a more flexible exchange due to net communication. The experimentation of using web-based technologies to support traditional teaching for working students is described; in fact, Internet-based innovations offer opportunities for a curriculum improvement to those categories of students who could be considered at a disadvantage, like worker students or students with ear or motion deafness. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 16: 189,210, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae20167 [source]

    Flexible manufacturing cell SCADA system for educational purposes

    Sarah Reynard
    Abstract This article deals with the development of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition SCADA system to be used in a flexible manufacturing cell for educational purposes in different automation engineering fields (SCADA development, PLC programming and industrial communications). When dealing with industrial communications or PLC programming the SCADA is employed as a supervision tool. In the other hand, when teaching SCADA systems the application will be developed by the students and the SCADA presented in this article is employed as a model. The application communicates through Internet with four controllers, by means of an OPC server, visualizes comprehensive information about the elements of the cell, includes the video streaming of an IP camera, and features traceability and report generation capabilities. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 16: 21,30, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20115 [source]

    Environment for engineering design, analysis, and simulation for education using MATLAB via the World Wide Web.


    Abstract In Part II of this paper, we present representative examples that demonstrate the capabilities and features of the developed education environment that allows one to simulate in real time engineering systems utilizing the power of MATLAB through a web browser interface. The web-based graphical user interface (GUI) provides the means for the user to input system parameters and the display of the analysis results. The examples presented demonstrate the required clarity of the developed GUI, and the nature and type of the results returned to the web browser of the user in real time. This environment has the capability to return to the user textual, graphical, pictorial, and animation related material. The user has the option to download analysis results in any of the generated forms to the client computer. This work demonstrates the ease of implementation and advantages of using this technology to aid in classroom instruction. Users with Internet can access the developed simulation modules at © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 10: 109,120, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.10019 [source]

    Interactive Web-based package for computer-aided learning of structural behavior

    X. F. Yuan
    Abstract This paper presents an innovative Web-based package named CALSB for computer-aided learning of structural behavior. The package was designed to be widely accessible through the Internet, user-friendly by the automation of many input functions and the extensive use of cursor movements, and dynamically interactive by linking all input and output data to a single graphical display on the screen. The package includes an analysis engine based on the matrix stiffness method, so the response of any two-dimensional skeletal structure can be predicted and graphically displayed. The package thus provides a virtual laboratory environment in which the user can "build and test" two-dimensional skeletal structures of unlimited choices to enhance his understanding of structural behavior. In addition, the package includes two other innovative features, structural games and paradoxes. The structural games in the package represent perhaps the first attempt at intentionally combining the learning of structural behavior with joy and excitement, while the structural paradoxes provide a stimulating environment conducive for the development of creative problem solving skills of the user. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 10: 121,136, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.10020 [source]

    Fast Volume Rendering and Data Classification Using Multiresolution in Min-Max Octrees

    Feng Dong
    Large-sized volume datasets have recently become commonplace and users are now demanding that volume-rendering techniques to visualise such data provide acceptable results on relatively modest computing platforms. The widespread use of the Internet for the transmission and/or rendering of volume data is also exerting increasing demands on software providers. Multiresolution can address these issues in an elegant way. One of the fastest volume-rendering alrogithms is that proposed by Lacroute & Levoy 1 , which is based on shear-warp factorisation and min-max octrees (MMOs). Unfortunately, since an MMO captures only a single resolution of a volume dataset, this method is unsuitable for rendering datasets in a multiresolution form. This paper adapts the above algorithm to multiresolution volume rendering to enable near-real-time interaction to take place on a standard PC. It also permits the user to modify classification functions and/or resolution during rendering with no significant loss of rendering speed. A newly-developed data structure based on the MMO is employed, the multiresolution min-max octree, M 3 O, which captures the spatial coherence for datasets at all resolutions. Speed is enhanced by the use of multiresolution opacity transfer functions for rapidly determining and discarding transparent dataset regions. Some experimental results on sample volume datasets are presented. [source]

    On-Line Control Architecture for Enabling Real-Time Traffic System Operations

    Srinivas Peeta
    Critical to their effectiveness are the control architectures that provide a blueprint for the efficient transmission and processing of large amounts of real-time data, and consistency-checking and fault tolerance mechanisms to ensure seamless automated functioning. However, the lack of low-cost, high-performance, and easy-to-build computing environments are key impediments to the widespread deployment of such architectures in the real-time traffic operations domain. This article proposes an Internet-based on-line control architecture that uses a Beowulf cluster as its computational backbone and provides an automated mechanism for real-time route guidance to drivers. To investigate this concept, the computationally intensive optimization modules are implemented on a low-cost 16-processor Beowulf cluster and a commercially available supercomputer, and the performance of these systems on representative computations is measured. The results highlight the effectiveness of the cluster in generating substantial computational performance scalability, and suggest that its performance is comparable to that of the more expensive supercomputer. [source]

    Using Web 2.0 for scientific applications and scientific communities

    Marlon E. Pierce
    Abstract Web 2.0 approaches are revolutionizing the Internet, blurring lines between developers and users and enabling collaboration and social networks that scale into the millions of users. As discussed in our previous work, the core technologies of Web 2.0 effectively define a comprehensive distributed computing environment that parallels many of the more complicated service-oriented systems such as Web service and Grid service architectures. In this paper we build upon this previous work to discuss the applications of Web 2.0 approaches to four different scenarios: client-side JavaScript libraries for building and composing Grid services; integrating server-side portlets with ,rich client' AJAX tools and Web services for analyzing Global Positioning System data; building and analyzing folksonomies of scientific user communities through social bookmarking; and applying microformats and GeoRSS to problems in scientific metadata description and delivery. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    InterGrid: a case for internetworking islands of Grids

    Marcos Dias de Assunção
    Abstract Over the last few years, several nations around the world have set up Grids to share resources such as computers, data, and instruments to enable collaborative science, engineering, and business applications. These Grids follow a restricted organizational model wherein a Virtual Organization (VO) is created for a specific collaboration and all interactions such as resource sharing are limited to within the VO. Therefore, dispersed Grid initiatives have led to the creation of disparate Grids with little or no interaction between them. In this paper, we propose a model that: (a) promotes interlinking of islands of Grids through peering arrangements to enable InterGrid resource sharing; (b) provides a scalable structure for Grids that allow them to interconnect with one another and grow in a sustainable way; (c) creates a global Cyberinfrastructure to support e-Science and e-Business applications. This work identifies and proposes architecture, mechanisms, and policies that allow the internetworking of Grids and allows Grids to grow in a similar manner as the Internet. We term the structure resulting from such internetworking between Grids as the InterGrid. The proposed InterGrid architecture is composed of InterGrid Gateways responsible for managing peering arrangements between Grids. We discuss the main components of the architecture and present a research agenda to enable the InterGrid vision. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Performance of computationally intensive parameter sweep applications on Internet-based Grids of computers: the mapping of molecular potential energy hypersurfaces

    S. Reyes
    Abstract This work focuses on the use of computational Grids for processing the large set of jobs arising in parameter sweep applications. In particular, we tackle the mapping of molecular potential energy hypersurfaces. For computationally intensive parameter sweep problems, performance models are developed to compare the parallel computation in a multiprocessor system with the computation on an Internet-based Grid of computers. We find that the relative performance of the Grid approach increases with the number of processors, being independent of the number of jobs. The experimental data, obtained using electronic structure calculations, fit the proposed performance expressions accurately. To automate the mapping of potential energy hypersurfaces, an application based on GRID superscalar is developed. It is tested on the prototypical case of the internal dynamics of acetone. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Applying fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms to enhance the efficacy of the PID controller in buffer overflow elimination for better channel response timeliness over the Internet

    Wilfred W. K. Lin
    Abstract In this paper two novel intelligent buffer overflow controllers: the fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and the genetic algorithm controller (GAC) are proposed. In the FLC the extant algorithmic PID controller (PIDC) model, which combines the proportional (P), derivative (D) and integral (I) control elements, is augmented with fuzzy logic for higher control precision. The fuzzy logic divides the PIDC control domain into finer control regions. Every region is then defined either by a fuzzy rule or a ,don't care' state. The GAC combines the PIDC model with the genetic algorithm, which manipulates the parametric values of the PIDC as genes in a chromosome. The FLC and GAC operations are based on the objective function . The principle is that the controller should adaptively maintain the safety margin around the chosen reference point (represent by the ,0' of ) at runtime. The preliminary experimental results for the FLC and GAC prototypes indicate that they are both more effective and precise than the PIDC. After repeated timing analyses with the Intel's VTune Performer Analyzer, it was confirmed that the FLC can better support real-time computing than the GAC because of its shorter execution time and faster convergence without any buffer overflow. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    HLA real-time extension

    Hui Zhao
    Abstract The IEEE 1516 Standard ,High Level Architecture (HLA)' and its implementation ,Run-Time Infra-structure (RTI)' defines a general-purpose network communication mechanism for Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS). However, it does not address real-time requirements of DIS. Current operating system technologies can provide real-time processing through some real-time operating systems (RTOSs) and the Internet is also moving to an age of Quality of Service (QoS), providing delay and jitter bounded services. With the availability of RTOSs and IP QoS, it is possible for HLA to be extended to take advantage of these technologies in order to construct an architecture for Real-Time DIS (RT-DIS). This extension will be a critical aspect of applications in virtual medicine, distributed virtual environments, weapon simulation, aerospace simulation and others. This paper outlines the current real-time technology with respect to operating systems and at the network infrastructure level. After summarizing the requirements and our experiences with RT-DIS, we present a proposal for HLA real-time extension and architecture for real-time RTI. Similar to the growth of real-time CORBA (Common Object Request Broker) after the mature based CORBA standard suite, Real-Time HLA is a natural extension following the standardization of HLA into IEEE 1516 in September 2000. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Security Maintenance Mediation: a technology for preventing unintended security breaches

    Roger (Buzz) KingArticle first published online: 4 DEC 200
    Abstract Web-resident information is becoming ,smarter', in the sense that emerging technology will support the annotation of it with ontological terms, which will be used to locate and reuse information. This will pose a great security risk in the form of unintended breaches (as distinct from deliberate invasions). Web-resident information will be far more readily available and relevant, thus causing inadvertent releases of secure information to potentially cause it to be diffusely spread across the Internet. Then as this information is iteratively transformed and integrated with other information, it will become irretrievable and potentially used in a myriad of unpredictable ways. The problem is that ontological annotations, while making information more understandable in its original form, do not provide a means for easily capturing the complex semantics of information that has been transformed via abstraction, aggregation, and integration. This demands the development of a semantically rich way of specifying ,views' of Web information, to which security controls can be attached. Also needed is a way for users of secure information to easily and voluntarily blend,and thereby propagate,security controls as information is transformed. Information mediators designed by collaborative teams of experts are proposed as the vehicle for wrapping information, so that at each step of reuse, high-level views and their corresponding integrity controls can be made easily accessible to trusted users who will then be able to ensure their proper maintenance. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Resource management in open Linda systems

    Ronaldo Menezes
    Abstract Coordination systems, in particular Linda, have established themselves as important tools for the development of applications to open systems such as the Internet. This paper shows how to tackle a forgotten, but crucial problem in open coordination systems: memory management. As with any system which intends to be of wide use and because memory is a finite resource, coordination systems must address the problems of memory exhaustion. This paper first explores the orthogonality between coordination and computation in order to make it clear that the problem of memory exhaustion in coordination systems cannot be solved using garbage collection schemes implemented at the computation language,a garbage collection scheme must exist in the coordination environment as well. Following the explanation on orthogonality, the paper will focus on describing a garbage collection scheme for the Linda family of coordination systems. It is expected that the solution in Linda can be adapted to other coordination systems as long as they are based on tuple space communication. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A stochastic load balancing algorithm for i-Computing

    Yuk-Yin Wong
    Abstract This paper presents a stochastic dynamic load balancing algorithm for Internet computing, which is a new type of distributed computing involving heterogeneous workstations from different organizations on the Internet. To realize the practical environment, we assume the system to be comprised of heterogeneous, untrusted and non-dedicated workstations connected by a non-dedicated network. Our algorithm uses the product of the average processing time and the queue length of system jobs as the load index. Dynamic communication delay is included in the execution cost calculation. The transfer policy and the location policy are combined in a stochastic algorithm. State information exchange is done via information feedback and mutual updating. Simulations demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms conventional approaches over a wide range of system parameters. These results are reconfirmed by empirical experiments after we have implemented the algorithms on the Distributed Java Machine global virtual machine. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit

    Gregor von Laszewski
    Abstract In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit (Java CoG Kit). The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus Toolkit protocols, allowing the Java CoG Kit to also communicate with the services distributed as part of the C Globus Toolkit reference implementation. Thus, the Java CoG Kit provides Grid developers with the ability to utilize the Grid, as well as numerous additional libraries and frameworks developed by the Java community to enable network, Internet, enterprise and peer-to-peer computing. A variety of projects have successfully used the client libraries of the Java CoG Kit to access Grids driven by the C Globus Toolkit software. In this paper we also report on the efforts to develop serverside Java CoG Kit components. As part of this research we have implemented a prototype pure Java resource management system that enables one to run Grid jobs on platforms on which a Java virtual machine is supported, including Windows NT machines. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Improving Heart Failure Self-Management Support by Actively Engaging Out-of-Home Caregivers: Results of a Feasibility Study

    John D. Piette PhD
    The benefits of heart failure (HF) care management have been demonstrated, yet health systems are often unable to meet patients' needs for support between outpatient visits. Informal care provided by family or friends is a low-cost, and potentially effective, adjunct to care management services. The authors evaluated the feasibility of augmenting HF care management with weekly, automated assessment and behavior change calls to patients, feedback via the Internet to an out-of-home informal caregiver or CarePartner (CP), and faxes to the patient's health care team. The program included 52 HF patient-CP pairs participating for an average of 12 weeks. Patients completed 586 assessments (92% completion rate) and reported problems that might otherwise have gone unidentified. At follow-up, 75% had made changes in their self-care as a result of the intervention. The CP program may extend the impact of HF telemonitoring beyond what care management programs can realistically deliver. [source]

    Geeks, Social Imaginaries, and Recursive Publics

    Christopher Kelty
    This article investigates the social, technical, and legal affiliations among "geeks" (hackers, lawyers, activists, and IT entrepreneurs) on the Internet. The mode of association specific to this group is that of a "recursive public sphere" constituted by a shared imaginary of the technical and legal conditions of possibility for their own association. On the basis of fieldwork conducted in the United States, Europe, and India, I argue that geeks imagine their social existence and relations as much through technical practices (hacking, networking, and code writing) as through discursive argument (rights, identities, and relations). In addition, they consider a "right to tinker" a form of free speech that takes the form of creating, implementing, modifying, or using specific kinds of software (especially Free Software) rather than verbal discourse. [source]

    Musical Community on the Internet: An On-line Ethnography

    René T. A. Lysloff
    First page of article [source]

    How Do We Know?: Students Examine Issues of Credibility With a Complicated Multimodal Web-Based Text

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 2 2009
    Mark Baildon
    ABSTRACT As reading continues to become governed by a spatial "logic of the image" rather than strictly a temporal or linear logic of written language (Kress, 2003), and readers increasingly engage with a range of Internet-based texts, a host of challenges ensue for educators and students alike. One of the most vexing of these challenges deals with discernments of credibility. Determining the credibility of multimodal texts, especially on/within the Internet with its "vast network of relations of credibility" (Burbules & Callister, 2000), is particularly challenging because these texts mix images, music, graphic arts, video, and print to make sophisticated claims supported by various forms or types of evidence. This article examines how a group of ninth-grade students grappled with issues of credibility after viewing the controversial Internet video, Loose Change, a well-documented and comprehensive multimedia account that argues the "real story" of September 11 was covered up by the U.S. government. Findings from the study highlight the range of knowledge and literacy practices students mobilized to "read" the video and the challenges they experienced reading and evaluating the video as a multimodal text. Implications of this work point to the need to consider epistemological issues and further develop tools that can support teachers and students in critically assessing multimodal texts. [source]

    Supply Management Under High Goal Incongruence: An Empirical Examination of Disintermediation in the Aerospace Supply Chain

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 3 2008
    Christian L. Rossetti
    ABSTRACT Aftermarket sales and profits are becoming an increasingly important part of an original equipment manufacturer's (OEM) business model. Because replacement parts often do not require further manufacturing, OEMs act as intermediaries in the aftermarket. As with any intermediary, the OEM must concern itself with suppliers disintermediating its supply chain selling replacement parts directly to the OEM's customers. We frame supply chain disintermediation (SCD) as a principal,agent contracting problem between an OEM buyer and a supplier. Hypotheses relate contract conditions, goal incongruence, supplier capabilities and contract enforcement to SCD. The data are collected from the aerospace industry using a multimethod study, combining an Internet-based survey with archival data. Causal modeling with structural equation modeling (SEM) shows general support for the hypotheses. Particularly, SCD is positively related to buyer,supplier goal incongruence. The agency model offers insights that differ from previous transaction-cost-based models of buyer,supplier relationships. OEM buyers with a lucrative aftermarket should consider aligning goals through incentives rather than relying entirely on economic hostages associated with specific assets. [source]

    e-Integration in the Supply Chain: Barriers and Performance,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 4 2002
    Markham T. Frohlich
    ABSTRACT Current opinion holds that Internet-based supply chain integration with upstream suppliers and downstream customers (called "e-integration" in this paper) is superior to traditional ways of doing business. This proposition remains untested, however, and similarly we know little about what are the upstream, internal, and downstream barriers to implementing e-integration. This paper empirically addressed these questions using data from a large single nation study, and found (1) a positive link between e-integration and performance, and (2) that internal barriers impeded e-integration more than either upstream supplier barriers or downstream customer barriers. Findings from this study contribute to our theoretical understanding of implementing change in contemporary supply chains, and have important implications for manufacturers interested in improving their supply chain's performance using the Internet. [source]

    In-Class Simulation of Pooling Safety Stock

    D. Brent Bandy
    ABSTRACT In managing business process flows, safety stock can be used to protect against stockouts due to demand variability. When more than one location is involved, the concept of aggregation enables the pooling of demands and associated inventories, resulting in improved service levels without increasing the total level of safety stock. This pooling of safety stock can be done physically by consolidating inventory in one location, or by using virtual centralization, where inventories are kept at decentralized locations, but information is centralized. In teaching the concept of pooling safety stock, a simple in-class simulation can be helpful in demonstrating why the approach works. The approach presented here involves operations for a company where total product demand is constant, but there are two products and product mix can vary. The simulation can also be implemented using an electronic spreadsheet for classes that are taught on the Internet. A quiz was given to two sections, one that experienced the simulation and one that did not. A comparison of the results from the quiz provided evidence of the effectiveness of the simulation in helping students understand the impact of pooling safety stock. In addition, a brief anonymous survey that was administered in the section that had the simulation provided further support for the effectiveness of the simulation. [source]

    The Future of Search: A Different Perspective

    Stephen P. Anderson Vice President
    The mission at Viewzi is to dramatically improve the search experience. But, as Stephen Anderson explains, that doesn't mean developing a better search engine; rather, it means developing a better way to view search results. The results are a series of custom-tailored scenes whose look and feel change depending on the intent of the search. It's an impressive innovation that promises to reshape the Internet landscape. [source]

    Information and Communication Technologies for Direct Poverty Alleviation: Costs and Benefits

    Charles Kenny
    Information and communications technologies (ICTs) are powerful tools for empowerment and income generation in developing countries. The cost-effectiveness of different ICTs does vary between developed and less developed countries, however. This article reviews the potential efficacy of radio, telephony and the Internet as tools of direct poverty alleviation in the latter. While the requirements for their successful utilisation make radio and telephone far more suitable technologies for the poor, traditional ICTs can act as a sustainable intermediary for them to gain indirect access to the power of the Internet. Governments should concentrate on opening up private and community provision of broadcasting and widening access to telephone services, so that they can effectively play this intermediary role. [source]

    Internet forums: a self-help approach for individuals with schizophrenia?

    H. Haker
    Objective:, To study if and how online self-help forums for individuals with schizophrenia are used. Method:, We analysed 1200 postings of 576 users in 12 international schizophrenia forums regarding communicative skills [fields of interest and self-help mechanisms (SHM)]. Results:, The forums were predominantly used by affected individuals, few relatives or friends. The fields of interest of the users concern daily problems of the illness like symptoms and emotional involvement with the illness. Self-help mechanisms mostly used are disclosure and providing information. Emotional interaction e.g. empathy or gratitude were comparatively rare. Conclusion:, Individuals suffering from schizophrenia participate in online self-help forums using the same SHM, discussing similar topics as do individuals with other psychiatric disorders as well as not affected relatives and caregivers. Therefore, this tool seems to be a useful approach to cope with alienation and isolation, albeit only a small number of schizophrenia forums are found in the Internet. [source]