Intermediate Filaments (intermediate + filament)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Intermediate Filaments

  • keratin intermediate filament

  • Terms modified by Intermediate Filaments

  • intermediate filament network
  • intermediate filament protein

  • Selected Abstracts

    Phosphorylation and reorganization of vimentin by p21-activated kinase (PAK)

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 2 2002
    Hidemasa Goto
    Background: Intermediate filament (IF) is one of the three major cytoskeletal filaments. Vimentin is the most widely expressed IF protein component. The Rho family of small GTPases, such as Cdc42, Rac and Rho, are thought to control the organization of actin filaments as well as other cytoskeletal filaments. Results: We determined if the vimentin filaments can be regulated by p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of targets downstream of Cdc42 or Rac. In vitro analyses revealed that vimentin served as an excellent substrate for PAK. This phosphorylated vimentin lost the potential to form 10 nm filaments. We identified Ser25, Ser38, Ser50, Ser65 and Ser72 in the amino-terminal head domain as the major phosphorylation sites on vimentin for PAK. The ectopic expression of constitutively active PAK in COS-7 cells induced vimentin phosphorylation. Fibre bundles or granulates of vimentin were frequent in these transfected cells. However, the kinase-inactive mutant induced neither vimentin phosphorylation nor filament reorganization. Conclusion: Our observations suggest that PAK may regulate the reorganization of vimentin filaments through direct vimentin phosphorylation. [source]

    Oestradiol Induced Inhibition of Neuroendocrine Marker Expression in Leydig Cells of Adult Rats

    HH Ortega
    Contents The objectives of this work were to determine the changes in the expression of neuroendocrine markers in Leydig cell by oestradiol treatment, and to determine whether testosterone is able to recover partially the effects of hormonal suppression induced by oestradiol. Adult male rats were injected daily with either 50 ,g of oestradiol or oestradiol plus testosterone propionate (25 mg every 3 days) for 15 days. The animals were sacrificed and testicles were dissected and processed by routine histological protocols. FSH and LH serum levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The visualization of antigens was achieved by the streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical method. Antibodies against chromogranin A (CrA), S-100 protein (S-100), P substance (PS), synaptofisin (SYN), neurofilament protein (NF), gliofibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) were used. The mean LH and FSH serum concentrations were consistently suppressed with hormonal treatments. Intermediate filaments (NF and GFAP) showed no difference in their expression. The expression of S-100, NSE and SYN was significantly lower in both hormone-treated groups. In oestradiol-treated rats, the immunoreactivity of CrA and SP decreased significantly but was restored after testosterone supplementation. Although the nature and functions of many of these substances in Leydig cells remain unknown, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the expression of some neuroendocrine markers is hormonally controlled. [source]

    Regulatory mechanisms and functions of intermediate filaments: A study using site- and phosphorylation state-specific antibodies

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2006
    Ichiro Izawa
    Intermediate filaments (IF) form the structural framework of the cytoskeleton. Although histopathological detection of IF proteins is utilized for examining cancer specimens as reliable markers, the molecular mechanisms by which IF are involved in the biology of cancer cells are still unclear. We found that site-specific phosphorylation of IF proteins induces the disassembly of filament structures. To further dissect the in vivo spatiotemporal dynamics of IF phosphorylation, we developed site- and phosphorylation state-specific antibodies. Using these antibodies, we detected kinase activities that specifically phosphorylate type III IF, including vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and desmin, during mitosis. Cdk1 phosphorylates vimentin-Ser55 from prometaphase to metaphase, leading to the recruitment of Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) to vimentin. Upon binding to Phospho-Ser55 of vimentin, Plk1 is activated, and then phosphorylates vimentin-Ser82. During cytokinesis, Rho-kinase and Aurora-B specifically phosphorylate IF at the cleavage furrow. IF phosphorylation by Cdk1, Plk1, Rho-kinase and Aurora-B plays an important role in the local IF breakdown, and is essential for the efficient segregation of IF networks into daughter cells. As another part of our research on IF, we have set out to find the binding partners with simple epithelial keratin 8/18. We identified tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain protein (TRADD) as a keratin 18-binding protein. Together with data from other laboratories, it is proposed that simple epithelial keratins may play a role in modulating the response to some apoptotic signals. Elucidation of the precise molecular functions of IF is expected to improve our understanding of tumor development, invasion and metastasis. (Cancer Sci 2006; 97: 167,174) [source]

    GFAP: Functional implications gleaned from studies of genetically engineered mice

    GLIA, Issue 1 2003
    Albee Messing
    Abstract GFAP is the major intermediate filament of mature astrocytes, and its relatively specific expression in these cells suggests an important function. To study the role of the GFAP gene, mice have been created carrying null alleles (no protein), modified alleles (altered protein), or added wild type alleles (elevated protein). Surprisingly, absence of GFAP has relatively subtle effects on development. On the other hand, over-expression can be lethal, and led to the discovery that GFAP coding mutations are responsible for most cases of Alexander disease, a devastating neurodegenerative disorder. Here we review what the various GFAP mouse models reveal about GFAP and astrocyte function. GLIA 43:87,90, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Three-dimensional analysis of intermediate filament networks using SEM tomography

    S. LÜCK
    Summary We identified tomographic reconstruction of a scanning electron microscopy tilt series recording the secondary electron signal as a well-suited method to generate high-contrast three-dimensional data of intermediate filament (IF) networks in pancreatic cancer cells. Although the tilt series does not strictly conform to the projection requirement of tomographic reconstruction, this approach is possible due to specific properties of the detergent-extracted samples. We introduce an algorithm to extract the graph structure of the IF networks from the tomograms based on image analysis tools. This allows a high-resolution analysis of network morphology, which is known to control the mechanical response of the cells to large-scale deformations. Statistical analysis of the extracted network graphs is used to investigate principles of structural network organization which can be linked to the regulation of cell elasticity. [source]

    Defective axonal transport of neurofilament proteins in neurons overexpressing peripherin

    Stéphanie Millecamps
    Abstract Peripherin is a type III neuronal intermediate filament detected in motor neuron inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We previously reported that overexpression of peripherin provokes late-onset motor neuron dysfunction in transgenic mice. Here, we show that peripherin overexpression slows down axonal transport of neurofilament (NF) proteins, and that the transport defect precedes by several months the appearance of axonal spheroids in adult mice. Defective NF transport by peripherin up-regulation was further confirmed with dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons cultured from peripherin transgenic embryos. Immunofluorescence microscopy and western blotting revealed that excess peripherin provokes reduction in levels of hyperphosphorylated NF-H species in DRG neurites. Similarly the transport of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NF-M, delivered by means of a lentiviral construct, was impaired in DRG neurites overexpressing peripherin. These results demonstrate that peripherin overexpression can cause defective transport of type IV NF proteins, a phenomenon that may account for the progressive formation of ALS-like spheroids in axons. [source]

    Small heat shock proteins, the cytoskeleton, and inclusion body formation

    M. W. Head
    Since first being implicated in central nervous system disease 10 years ago, much has been learned concerning the regulation and function of the small heat shock protein ,B-crystallin. Neuropathological, cellular and molecular studies all now point to a functional relationship between ,B-crystallin and intermediate filaments. ,B-crystallin accumulation marks reactive astrocytes in general in a wide variety of disorders and specifically intermediate filament-based glial inclusion bodies such as Rosenthal fibres found in astrocytes in Alexander's disease. In vitro, ,B-crystallin expression suppresses intermediate filament aggregation and can prevent or reverse experimentally induced glial inclusion body formation. Conversely, dysregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in vivo results in Rosenthal fibre formation and upregulation of endogenous ,B-crystallin expression. These data and those from studies recently carried out on other tissues strongly suggest that one function of this small heat shock protein is to modulate intermediate filament organization under conditions of physiological stress and neurodegenerative disease. [source]

    Transitin, a nestin-related intermediate filament, is expressed by neural progenitors and can be induced in Müller glia in the chicken retina

    Andy J. Fischer
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to test whether transitin, the avian homologue of nestin, is expressed by retinal progenitors in the developing and postnatal chicken. Because nestin has been widely used as a cell-distinguishing marker of neural progenitors in the mammalian nervous system, we expected to find transitin expressed specifically by the neural progenitors of the retina. In early stages of development, transitin is expressed by neural progenitors in the retina and by cells in the developing ciliary body. During later stages of development, transitin expression persists in differentiating Müller glia but is down-regulated by these cells as maturation proceeds. In the postnatal chick, transitin expression is restricted to neural progenitors at the peripheral edge of the retina. We found that the expression of transitin in mature Müller glia was induced by intraocular injections of insulin and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) but not by ciliary neurotrophic factor. In response to insulin and FGF2, the expression of transitin was induced in the nonpigmented epithelium (NPE) of the ciliary body. In the postnatal retina, acute retinal damage transiently induces transitin expression in Müller glia. We propose that the expression of transitin by retinal Müller glia and NPE cells in the postnatal animal represents a state of de-differentiation and a step toward becoming neurogenic progenitor cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that transitin is expressed by neural progenitors in the embryonic and postnatal chicken retina. However, transitin is not exclusively expressed by neural progenitors and is also expressed by non-neurogenic cells. J. Comp. Neurol. 484:1,14, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Proteome analysis of cashmere

    Michinari YOKOHAMA
    ABSTRACT As an analysis of the cashmere proteins by Type IV 2-DE, ten kinds of components, including three components with molecular mass 42,50 kDa whose expression level increased in the winter, were separated. In analyzing nine components of these ten using a mass spectrometer, the three components of molecular mass 70,120 kDa and pI 5.3 were identified as keratin type II microfibrillar (accession no. KRSHL2), keratin 48 k type I microfibrillar component 8c-1 (accession no. KRSHL1) and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (accession no. O77793), respectively. The three components whose expression level increased in the winter, were identified as keratin type I microfibrillar 48 kDa component 8C-1 (accession no. P02534) and keratin type I microfibrillar 47.6 kDa (accession no. P25690) (pI 5.2/42 kDa), keratin type II microfibrillar component 7C (accession no. P15241) and keratin typeII-sheep (accession no. S34165) (pI 5.5/45 kDa), and the keratin type II microfibrillar component 5 (accession no. P25691) (pI 5.8,6.0/45 kDa), respectively. The three components of less than 17 kDa were identified as hair keratin type II intermediate filament (accession no. CAA51836) (pI 5.2) and keratin high-sulfur matrix protein IIIB2 (accession no. P02447) with a different isoelectric point (pI 5.4 and 5.9), respectively. [source]

    Impact of topical oils on the skin barrier: possible implications for neonatal health in developing countries

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2002
    GL Darmstadt
    Topical therapy to enhance skin barrier function may be a simple, low-cost, effective strategy to improve outcome of preterm infants with a developmentally compromised epidermal barrier, as lipid constituents of topical products may act as a mechanical barrier and augment synthesis of barrier lipids. Natural oils are applied topically as part of a traditional oil massage to neonates in many developing countries. We sought to identify inexpensive, safe, vegetable oils available in developing countries that improved epidermal barrier function. The impact of oils on mouse epidermal barrier function (rate of transepidermal water loss over time following acute barrier disruption by tape-stripping) and ultrastructure was determined. A single application of sunflower seed oil significantly accelerated skin barrier recovery within 1 h; the effect was sustained 5 h after application. In contrast, the other vegetable oils tested (mustard, olive and soybean oils) all significantly delayed recovery of barrier function compared with control- or Aquaphor-treated skin. Twice-daily applications of mustard oil for 7 d resulted in sustained delay of barrier recovery. Moreover, adverse ultrastructural changes were seen under transmission electron microscopy in keratin intermediate filament, mitochondrial, nuclear, and nuclear envelope structure following a single application of mustard oil. Conclusion: Our data suggest that topical application of linoleate-enriched oil such as sunflower seed oil might enhance skin barrier function and improve outcome in neonates with compromised barrier function. Mustard oil, used routinely in newborn care throughout South Asia, has toxic effects on the epidermal barrier that warrant further investigation. [source]

    An in vitro model system for cytoskeletal confinement

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 10 2009
    Sarah Köster
    Abstract The motility, shape, and functionality of the cell depend sensitively on cytoskeletal mechanics which in turn is governed by the properties of filamentous proteins - mainly actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. These biopolymers are confined in the dense cytoplasm and therefore experience strong geometric constraints on their equilibrium thermal fluctuations. To obtain a better understanding of the influence of confinement on cytoskeletal filaments we study the thermal fluctuations of individual actin filaments in a microfluidic in vitro system by fluorescence microscopy and determine the persistence length of the filaments by analyzing the radial distribution function. A unique feature of this method is that we obtain the persistence length without detailed knowledge of the complete contour of the filament which makes the technique applicable to a broad range of biological polymers, including those with a persistence length smaller than the optical resolution. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cell adhesion in zebrafish myogenesis: Distribution of intermediate filaments, microfilaments, intracellular adhesion structures and extracellular matrix

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 10 2008
    Manoel L. Costa
    Abstract To overcome the limitations of in vitro studies, we have been studying myogenesis in situ in zebrafish embryos, at a sub-cellular level. While in previous works we focused on myofibrillogenesis and some aspects of adhesion structures, here we describe in more detail cell adhesion structures and interactions among cytoskeletal components, membrane and extracellular matrix during zebrafish muscle development. We studied the intermediate filaments, and we describe the full range of desmin distribution in zebrafish development, from perinuclear to striated, until its deposition around the intersomite septa of older somites. This adhesion structure, positive for desmin and actin, has not been previously observed in myogenesis in vitro. We also show that actin is initially located in the intersomite septum region whereas it is confined to the myofibrils later on. While actin localization changes during development, the adhesion complex proteins vinculin, paxillin, talin, dystrophin, laminin and fibronectin always appear exclusively at the intersomite septa, and appear to be co-distributed, even though the extracellular proteins accumulates before the intracellular ones. Contrary to the adhesion proteins, that are continuously distributed, desmin and sarcomeric actin form triangular aggregates among the septa and the cytoskeleton. We studied the cytoskeletal linker plectin as well, and we show that it has a distribution similar to desmin and not to actin. We conclude that the in situ adhesion structures differ from their in vitro counterparts, and that the actual zebrafish embryo myogenesis is quite different than that which occurs in in vitro systems. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 65: 801,815, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ultrastructural characteristics of the process of cornification in developing claws of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    Lorenzo Alibardi
    Abstract Cornification of developing claws in the brush possum has been analysed by electron microscopy and compared with the process in other tetrapods. Newborns from 3 to 60 days postparturition were studied. After formation of symmetric and round outgrowth in digits the epidermis becomes thicker in the dorsal with respect to the ventral digit tip. The claw elongates forming the unguis and a shorter subunguis. Spinosus keratinocytes in both unguis and subunguis accumulate tonofilaments that fill their cytoplasm. Keratohyaline-like granules are formed in early stages of differentiation in both unguis and subunguis but they later disappear in highly cornified corneocytes. Tonofilaments become electron-dense in keratinocytes of the precorneous layer in the large corneocytes of the unguis and in narrow corneocytes of the subunguis. Keratin bundles transform into an amorphous corneous material that embeds or masks the original keratin intermediate filaments. Nucleated corneocytes are accumulated in the unguis while thinner corneocytes are present in the subunguis. The latter contain a dense material, possibly containing high sulphur keratin associated proteins, as occurs during cornifcation of the cortex and cuticle hair cells and in the nail. The process of cornification of mammalian claws is compared with that of reptilian and avian claws. [source]

    Cortical Dysplasia: Electroclinical, Imaging, and Neuropathologic Study of 13 Patients

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2001
    Laura Tassi
    Summary: ,Purpose: The aim of this study was to correlate the electroclinical and radiologic data with the neuropathologic findings and surgical outcome in epileptic patients with epilepsy and Taylor's focal cortical dysplasia (TFCD) and to characterize further the abnormal intermediate filaments expression in the balloon cell present in the peculiar dysplasia. Methods: We retrospectively selected 13 TFCD patients who underwent surgery for intractable epilepsy with the aim of removing the magnetic resonance (MR)-detectable lesion and/or the epileptogenic zone defined by stereoelectroencephalographic recordings. The surgical specimens were analyzed by means of routine neuropathologic and immunocytochemical studies. Antisera against different intermediate filaments also were used in serial adjacent sections to evaluate their coexpression in balloon cells. Results: Histopathologic abnormalities typical of TFCD were found not only within the MR-visible lesions but also in most of the epileptogenic zones with no MR signal alterations. Furthermore, the MR-visible lesions contained a high proportion of cells with an abnormal expression of intermediate filament proteins. After a long follow-up, 10 of the patients are now seizure free. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that highly epileptogenic zones may correspond to tissue alterations not revealed by neuroimaging. Furthermore, the immunocytochemical data show that the dysplastic tissue detected by MR contained high concentrations of cells filled with abnormal intermediate filaments. The detected colocalization of neuronal and glial markers in balloon cells indicates a failure of cellular commitment during development. [source]

    Keratin 9 gene mutations in five Korean families with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma

    Joo-Heung Lee
    Abstract:, Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized clinically by localized palmoplantar thickening and histopathologically by granular degeneration of the epidermis. Recent molecular biological studies have revealed that EPPK is caused by mutations of the keratin 9 gene in sequences mainly encoding the highly conserved 1 A rod domain. Here we demonstrate a novel mutation of N160H (position 8 of the 1 A domain) and two other previously reported mutations, R162W and N160S, in five unrelated Korean families with EPPK. The three-dimensional structure of the 1 A domain of the related vimentin intermediate filament protein chain is now known. Based on its likely similarity to the keratin 9 chain, we predict that inappropriate amino acid substitutions in position 10 of 1 A will likely interfere with coiled-coil dimer stability, and those in position 8 will interfere with tetramer stability. Accordingly, these mutations compromise the structural integrity of the keratin intermediate filaments leading to the pathology of EPPK. [source]

    Novel member of the mouse desmoglein gene family: Dsg1-,

    L. Pulkkinen
    Abstract: Desmosomes are major intercellular adhesion junctions that provide stable cell,cell contacts and mechanical strength to epithelial tissues by anchoring cytokeratin intermediate filaments of adjacent cells. Desmogleins (Dsg) are transmembrane core components of the desmosomes, and belong to the cadherin supergene family of calcium-dependent adhesion molecules. Currently, there are three known isoforms of Dsgs (Dsg1, Dsg2, and Dsg3), encoded by distinct genes that are differentially expressed to determine their tissue specificity and differentiation state of epithelial cells. In this study, we cloned a novel mouse desmoglein gene sharing high homology to both mouse and human Dsg1. We propose to designate the previously published mouse Dsg1 gene as Dsg1- , and the new gene as Dsg1-,. Analysis of intron/exon organization of the Dsg1-, and Dsg1-, genes revealed significant conservation. The full-length mouse Dsg1-, cDNA contains an open reading frame of 3180 bp encoding a precursor protein of 1060 amino acids. Dsg1-, protein shares 94% and 76% identity with mouse Dsg1-, and human DSG1, respectively. RT-PCR using a multitissue cDNA panel demonstrated that while Dsg1-, mRNA was expressed in 15- to 17-day-old embryos and adult spleen and testis, Dsg1-, mRNA was detected in 17-day-old embryos only. To assess subcellular localization, a FLAG-tagged expression construct of Dsg1-, was transiently expressed in epithelial HaCaT cells. Dsg1-,-FLAG was found at the cell,cell border and was recognized by the anti-Dsg1/Dsg2 antibody DG3.10. In summary, we have cloned and characterized a novel member of the mouse desmoglein gene family, Dsg1-,. [source]

    Actin-binding domain of mouse plectin

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 10 2004
    Crystal structure, binding to vimentin
    Plectin, a large and widely expressed cytolinker protein, is composed of several subdomains that harbor binding sites for a variety of different interaction partners. A canonical actin-binding domain (ABD) comprising two calponin homology domains (CH1 and CH2) is located in proximity to its amino terminus. However, the ABD of plectin is unique among actin-binding proteins as it is expressed in the form of distinct, plectin isoform-specific versions. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of two distinct crystalline forms of one of its ABD versions (pleABD/2,) from mouse, to a resolution of 1.95 and 2.0 Å. Comparison of pleABD/2, with the ABDs of fimbrin and utrophin revealed structural similarity between plectin and fimbrin, although the proteins share only low sequence identity. In fact, pleABD/2, has been found to have the same compact fold as the human plectin ABD and the fimbrin ABD, differing from the open conformation described for the ABDs of utrophin and dystrophin. Plectin harbors a specific binding site for intermediate filaments of various types within its carboxy-terminal R5 repeat domain. Our experiments revealed an additional vimentin-binding site of plectin, residing within the CH1 subdomain of its ABD. We show that vimentin binds to this site via the amino-terminal part of its rod domain. This additional amino-terminal intermediate filament protein binding site of plectin may have a function in intermediate filament dynamics and assembly, rather than in linking and stabilizing intermediate filament networks. [source]

    Phosphorylation and oligomerization states of native pig brain HSP90 studied by mass spectrometry

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 8 2001
    Cyrille Garnier
    HSP90 is one of the most abundant proteins in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. HSP90 forms transient or stable complexes with several key proteins involved in signal transduction including protooncogenic protein kinases and nuclear receptors, it interacts with cellular structural elements such as actin-microfilament, tubulin-microtubule and intermediate filaments, and also exhibits conventional chaperone functions. This protein exists in two isoforms ,-HSP90 and ,-HSP90, and it forms dimers which are crucial species for its biological activity. PAGE, ESI-MS and MALDI-MS were used to study HSP90 purified from pig brain. The two protein isoforms were clearly distinguished by ESI-MS, the , isoform being ,,six times more abundant than the , isoform. ESI-MS in combination with ,,phosphatase treatment provided direct evidence of the existence of four phosphorylated forms of native pig brain ,-HSP90, with the diphosphorylated form being the most abundant. For the , isoform, the di-phosphorylated was also the most abundant. MALDI mass spectra of HSP90 samples after chemical cross-linking showed a high percentage of ,,, homodimers. In addition, evidence for the existence of higher HSP90 oligomers was obtained. [source]

    Complement and its implications in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion: strategies to inhibit complement

    Tiphaine Monsinjon
    Although reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium is an absolute necessity to salvage tissue from eventual death, it is also associated with pathologic changes that represent either an acceleration of processes initiated during ischemia or new pathophysiological changes that were initiated after reperfusion. This so-called ,reperfusion injury' is accompanied by a marked inflammatory reaction, which contributes to tissue injury. In addition to the well known role of oxygen free radicals and white blood cells, activation of the complement system probably represents one of the major contributors of the inflammatory reaction upon reperfusion. The complement may be activated through three different pathways: the classical, the alternative, and the lectin pathway. During reperfusion, complement may be activated by exposure to intracellular components such as mitochondrial membranes or intermediate filaments. Two elements of the activated complement contribute directly or indirectly to damages: anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and the membrane attack complex (MAC). C5a, the most potent chemotactic anaphylatoxin, may attract neutrophils to the site of inflammation, leading to superoxide production, while MAC is deposited over endothelial cells and smooth vessel cells, leading to cell injury. Experimental evidence suggests that tissue salvage may be achieved by inhibition of the complement pathway. As the complement is composed of a cascade of proteins, it provides numerous sites for pharmacological interventions during acute myocardial infarction. Although various strategies aimed at modulating the complement system have been tested, the ideal approach probably consists of maintaining the activity of C3 (a central protein of the complement cascade) and inhibiting the later events implicated in ischemia/reperfusion and also in targeting inhibition in a tissue-specific manner. [source]

    Major histocompatibility complex class II, fetal skin dendritic cells are potent accessory cells of polyclonal T-cell responses

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    A. Elbe-Bürger
    Summary Whereas dendritic cells (DC) and Langerhans cells (LC) isolated from organs of adult individuals express surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens, DC lines generated from fetal murine skin, while capable of activating naive, allogeneic CD8+ T cells in a MHC class I-restricted fashion, do not exhibit anti-MHC class II surface reactivity and fail to stimulate the proliferation of naive, allogeneic CD4+ T cells. To test whether the CD45+ MHC class I+ CD80+ DC line 80/1 expresses incompetent, or fails to transcribe, MHC class II molecules, we performed biochemical and molecular studies using Western blot and polymerase chain reaction analysis. We found that 80/1 DC express MHC class II molecules neither at the protein nor at the transcriptional level. Ultrastructural examination of these cells revealed the presence of a LC-like morphology with indented nuclei, active cytoplasm, intermediate filaments and dendritic processes. In contrast to adult LC, no LC-specific cytoplasmic organelles (Birbeck granules) were present. Functionally, 80/1 DC in the presence, but not in the absence, of concanavalin A and anti-T-cell receptor monoclonal antibodies stimulated a vigorous proliferative response of naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, we found that the anti-CD3-induced stimulation of naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was critically dependent on the expression of Fc,R on 80/1 DC and that the requirement for co-stimulation depends on the intensity of T-cell receptor signalling. [source]

    Stratum corneum keratin structure, function and formation , a comprehensive review

    L. Norlén
    Synopsis A comprehensive review on stratum corneum keratin organization, largely based on the recently published cubic rod-packing and membrane templating model [J. Invest. Dermatol., 123, 2004, 715], is presented. Keratin is the major non-aqueous component (wt/wt) of stratum corneum. As 90,100% of the stratum corneum water is thought to be located intracellularly one may presume that keratin also is a major factor (together with filaggrin-derived free amino acids) determining stratum corneum hydration level and water holding capacity. This water holding capacity depends in turn on the structural organization of the corneocyte keratin intermediate filament network. The cubic rod-packing model for the structure and function of the stratum corneum cell matrix postulates that corneocyte keratin filaments are arranged according to a cubic-like rod-packing symmetry. It is in accordance with the cryo-electron density pattern of the native corneocyte keratin matrix and could account for the swelling behaviour and the mechanical properties of mammalian stratum corneum. The membrane templating model for keratin dynamics and for the formation of the stratum corneum cell matrix postulates the presence in viable epidermal cellular space of a highly dynamic small lattice parameter (<30 nm) membrane structure with cubic-like symmetry, to which keratin is associated. It further proposes that membrane templating, rather than spontaneous self-assembly, is responsible for keratin intermediate filament formation and dynamics. It is in accordance with the cryo-electron density patterns of the native keratinocyte cytoplasmic space and could account for the characteristic features of the keratin network formation process, the dynamic properties of keratin intermediate filaments, the close lipid association of keratin, the insolubility in non-denaturating buffers and pronounced polymorphism of keratin assembled in vitro, and the measured reduction in cell-volume and hydration level between stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. Résumé, La kératine est le composant majeur anhydre de la couche cornée. Etant donné que l'on considère que 90 à 100% de l'eau de la couche cornée est localisée à l'intérieur des cellules, on peut penser que la kératine joue également un rôle important (en association avec les acides aminés libres dérivés de la filagrine) dans le niveau d'hydratation de la couche cornée et sa capacité de rétention de l'eau. Cette capacité de rétention de l'eau dépend elle-même de l'organization structurelle du réseau de filaments intermédiaires de la kératine des cornéocytes. Le modèle de cylindre en réseau cubique appliquéà la structure et aux fonctions de la matrice des cellules de la couche cornée stipule que les filaments de la kératine des cornéocytes sont disposés symétriquement, les paquets de fibrilles formant une structure cubique. Ceci est conforme au modèle de densité cryo-électronique de la matrice kératinique des cornéocytes natifs et pourrait expliquer le comportement de gonflement et les propriétés mécaniques de la couche cornée des mammifères. Le modèle d'assemblage membranaire appliquéà la dynamique de la kératine et à la formation de la matrice cellulaire du stratum cornéum postule la présence dans l'espace cellulaire viable de l'épiderme d'une structure membranaire hautement dynamique présentant un petit paramètre de maille (<30 nm) et une organization en forme de cube, à laquelle la kératine est associée. D'autre part, ce modèle suggère qu'un assemblage membranaire plutôt qu'un auto-assemblage spontané puisse être à l'origine de la formation des filaments intermédiaires de kératine et de leur dynamique. Ceci concorde avec les modèles de densité cryo-électronique du cytoplasme des kératinocytes natifs et pourrait expliquer les caractéristiques du processus de formation du réseau kératinique, les propriétés dynamiques des filaments intermédiaires de kératine, l'association de la kératine avec les lipides, l'insolubilité dans les tampons non dénaturants, le polymorphisme caractéristique de la kératine assemblée in vitro, ainsi que la diminution mesurée du volume cellulaire et du niveau d'hydratation entre le stratum granulosum et le stratum corneum. [source]

    Involvement of the cytoskeletal elements in articular cartilage homeostasis and pathology

    Emma J. Blain
    Summary The cytoskeleton of all cells is a three-dimensional network comprising actin microfilaments, tubulin microtubules and intermediate filaments. Studies in many cell types have indicated roles for these cytoskeletal proteins in many diverse cellular processes including alteration of cell shape, movement of organelles, migration, endocytosis, secretion, cell division and extracellular matrix assembly. The cytoskeletal networks are highly organized in structure enabling them to fulfil their biological functions. This review will primarily focus on the organization and function of the three major cytoskeletal networks in articular cartilage chondrocytes. Articular cartilage is a major load-bearing tissue of the synovial joint; it is well known that the cytoskeleton acts as a physical interface between the chondrocytes and the extracellular matrix in ,sensing' mechanical stimuli. The effect of mechanical load on cytoskeletal element expression and organization will also be reviewed. Abnormal mechanical load is widely believed to be a risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis. Several studies have intimated that the major cytoskeletal networks are disorganized or often absent in osteoarthritic cartilage chondrocytes. The implications and possible reasoning for this are more widely discussed and placed into context with their potential relevance to disease and therapeutic strategies. [source]

    The testicular capsule and peritubular tissue of birds: morphometry, histology, ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 6 2007
    T. A. Aire
    Abstract The testicular capsule was studied histologically, morphometrically, ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically in the Japanese quail, domestic fowl, turkey and duck (all members of the Galloanserae). The testicular capsule was, relative to mammals, thin, being 81.5 ± 13.7 µm in the quail, 91.7 ± 6.2 µm in the domestic fowl, 104.5 ± 29.8 µm in the turkey and 91.8 ± 18.9 µm in the duck. The orchido-epididymal border (hilus) of the capsule was much thicker than elsewhere in all birds (from 233.7 ± 50.7 µm in the duck to 550.0 ± 147.3 µm thick in the turkey). The testicular capsule, other than the tunica serosa and tunica vasculosa, comprised, in the main, smooth muscle-like or myoid cells running mainly in one direction, and disposed in one main mass. Peritubular tissue was similarly composed of smooth muscle-like cells disposed in several layers. Actin and desmin intermediate filaments were immunolocalized in the inner cellular layers of the capsule in the quail, domestic fowl and duck, but uniformly in the turkey. Vimentin intermediate filament immunoreaction in the capsule was moderately and uniformly positive in the testicular capsule of only the quail. Actin and desmin, but not vimentin (except very faintly in the turkey) or cytokeratin, were immunolocalized in the peritubular tissue of all birds. The results therefore establish, or complement, some previous observations that these birds have contractile cells in their testicular capsule and peritubular tissue, whose function probably includes the transport of testicular fluid into the excurrent duct system. [source]

    Type and ultrastructure of Didymocystis wedli and Koellikerioides intestinalis (Digenea, Didymozoidae) cysts in captive Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus, 1758)

    I. Mladineo
    Summary Tissue encapsulation, one of the most common tissue reactions to invading parasites, is the hallmark sign of didymozoid (Digenea, Didymozoidae) infections in fish. Investigated were the types of intermediate filaments and ultrastructure of the connective tissue capsule elicited by the presence of didymozoids in the gills and intestine of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus, 1758). The evaluation was done performing TEM microscopy of two tissue-embedded didymozoid species, along with monoclonal antibodies labeling (anti-fish collagen type I, anti-human cytokeratin, anti-vimentin antibodies). Ultrastructure of Didymocystis wedli (Ariola, 1902) (prevalence = 61.75%, abundance = 28.91) encapsulated in gill filaments and Koellikerioides intestinalis (Yamaguti, 1970) (prevalence = 54.65%, abundance = 10.96) in the intestinal submucosa showed that the thin parasitic hindbody tegumentum was directly embedded in layers of connective tissue bands. Only a few cellular elements (lymphocytes, fibroblasts and fibrocytes) infiltrated the connective tissue capsule, which differed between the two didymozoid species in thickness, not in the type of filaments expressed. Cysts showed positive reaction to extracellular collagen as well as appearing positive for the cytoskeletal intermediate filaments vimentin and cytokeratin. [source]

    Nestin expression in cutaneous melanomas and melanocytic nevi

    Svetlana Brychtova
    Background:, Nestin is one of the intermediate filaments that are expressed in proliferating neural progenitor cells during development of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system. Postnatal re-expression of the protein occurs mainly under pathological conditions, including injury and neoplasia. In this study, nestin expression was detected in both benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions and its diagnostic relevance was then evaluated. Methods:, Altogether 139 bioptic tissue samples consisting of 42 nodular melanomas, 32 superficial spreading melanomas, 12 metastatic melanomas, 10 dysplastic nevi and 43 common melanocytic intradermal and dermoepidermal nevi were analysed using indirect immunohistochemical staining. Results:, We demonstrated that nestin immunostaining was significantly increased in melanomas where it correlated with more advanced stages of the disease. Conclusion:, We conclude that expression of the intermediate filament protein nestin might be an indicator of tumor dedifferentiation and more aggressive behaviour. Furthermore, we suggest that nestin might be a relevant marker of tumorous and non-tumorous angiogenesis. [source]

    Ultrastructure of the embryonic snake skin and putative role of histidine in the differentiation of the shedding complex

    Lorenzo Alibardi
    Abstract The morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the epidermis of snake embryos were studied at progressive stages of development through hatching to determine the time and modality of differentiation of the shedding complex. Scales form as symmetric epidermal bumps that become slanted and eventually very overlapped. During the asymmetrization of the bumps, the basal cells of the forming outer surface of the scale become columnar, as in an epidermal placode, and accumulate glycogen. Small dermal condensations are sometimes seen and probably represent primordia of the axial dense dermis of the growing tip of scales. Deep, dense, and superficial loose dermal regions are formed when the epidermis is bilayered (periderm and basal epidermis) and undifferentiated. Glycogen and lipids decrease from basal cells to differentiating suprabasal cells. On the outer scale surface, beneath the peridermis, a layer containing dense granules and sparse 25,30-nm thick coarse filaments is formed. The underlying clear layer does not contain keratohyalin-like granules but has a rich cytoskeleton of intermediate filaments. Small denticles are formed and they interdigitate with the oberhautchen spinulae formed underneath. On the inner scale surface the clear layer contains dense granules, coarse filaments, and does not form denticles with the aspinulated oberhautchen. On the inner side surface the oberhautchen only forms occasional spinulae. The sloughing of the periderm and embryonic epidermis takes place in ovo 5,6 days before hatching. There follow beta-, mesos-, and alpha-layers, not yet mature before hatching. No resting period is present but a new generation is immediately produced so that at 6,10 h posthatching an inner generation and a new shedding complex are forming beneath the outer generation. The first shedding complex differentiates 10,11 days before hatching. In hatchlings 6,10 h old, tritiated histidine is taken up in the epidermis 4 h after injection and is found mainly in the shedding complex, especially in the apposed membranes of the clear layer and oberhautchen cells. This indicates that a histidine-rich protein is produced in preparation for shedding, as previously seen in lizard epidermis. The second shedding (first posthatching) takes place at 7,9 days posthatching. It is suggested that the shedding complex in lepidosaurian reptiles has evolved after the production of a histidine-rich protein and of a beta-keratin layer beneath the former alpha-layer. J. Morphol. 251:149,168, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Basement membrane changes in lichen planopilaris

    K Al-Refu
    Abstract Background, Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is an inflammatory disease that affects the scalp and tends to produce cicatricial alopecia. The inflammatory process frequently results in the disruption of the basal cell of the external root sheath of the hair follicle. Objectives, To investigate the alterations in the basement membrane zone (BMZ) in LPP by immunohistochemistry. Methods, Skin biopsies from six patients with LPP plus six normal controls were studied by immunohistochemistry with antibodies to the following BMZ components: cytokeratin 5, cytokeratin 14, BP230 (bullous pemphigoid), BP180, plectin, laminin 5, collagen IV and collagen VII. Results, The localization and staining of the hemidesmosome, laminin and collagen components were strikingly different in the inflamed follicular epithelium when compared to the uninvolved follicles or interfollicular epithelium in active LPP lesions. The hemidesmosome-associated complexes were weakly expressed and discontinuous in involved hair follicles. The expression of laminin-5, type IV collagen and type VII collagen was disrupted and not linear along the BMZ with finger-like projections of the staining protruding into the dermis. The expression of the intermediate filaments was normal. Conclusion, These alterations in the BMZ in LPP may explain the abnormal healing at follicular level which leads to irreversible hair loss and scarring in this condition. [source]

    Intraventricular metaplastic meningioma in a child: case report and review of the literature

    NEUROPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Mohanpal Singh Dulai
    Childhood meningiomas are rare and display important differences from adult forms. We report the first case of an intraventricular metaplastic meningioma arising in a child. A 7-year-old female underwent resection of an enhancing tumor arising within the left lateral ventricle. It was composed of monomorphic cells embedded within an abundant myxoid stroma. The cells demonstrated epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin immunoreactivity. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated intermediate filaments, complex intercellular interdigitations and desmosomes, and a diagnosis of myxoid (metaplastic) meningioma was rendered. This case reflects the higher incidence of intraventricular meningiomas in childhood and greater incidence of intraventricular meningiomas in the left lateral ventricle. Recognition of the grade I myxoid meningioma in this case is paramount since chordoid meningiomas, which share similar histologic features, are of a higher grade and worse prognosis. [source]

    "Free-Floating" Desmosomes in Lipoid Proteinosis: An Inherent Defect in Keratinocyte Adhesion?

    Jon A. Dyer M.D.
    However, the characteristic manifestation in children , erosive, crusted lesions that lead to scarring , is rarely discussed and poorly understood. Lipoid proteinosis results from mutations in extracellular matrix protein 1, but the function of this protein is largely unknown. We performed ultrastructural studies on lesional epidermis, cultured monolayer keratinocytes, and raft keratinocyte cultures from blistering lesions of a child with lipoid proteinosis. All sections showed the dissociation of relatively intact desmosomes from keratinocytes, with desmosomes that were "free-floating" in the intercellular spaces or attached by thin strands to the cell membrane. These changes were present in serial sections of both tissue and cultured keratinocytes, suggesting this observation to be an inherent feature of keratinocytes devoid of extracellular matrix protein 1, rather than an artifact. Although additional patients should be studied, the diminished appearance of the inner dense plaque , the region of attachment of keratin intermediate filaments to desmosomal proteins , provides preliminary evidence that extracellular matrix protein 1 may participate in attaching keratin intermediate filaments to desmosomal region protein(s). [source]

    Identification of Cytokeratins in Bovine Sperm Outer Dense Fibre Fractions

    E Hinsch
    Contents Outer dense fibres (ODF) are important substructures of mammalian sperm tails that are involved in the regulation of sperm motility. In this study, we investigated the identity of several sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-insoluble ODF proteins. Bovine ODF were purified by separating sperm heads and tails using ultrasound and Percoll® density gradient centrifugation. Sperm flagella were treated with the detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). CTAB-insoluble material, which reportedly represents the ODF fraction, was collected, and electron microscopy confirmed a highly purified ODF fraction. We found after solubilization of this fraction with SDS that high amounts of insoluble material were retained after centrifugation. SDS-insoluble material was collected and quantitatively dissolved in 8 M urea. SDS-gel electrophoresis in the presence of urea revealed polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of approximately 25, 43, and 50 kDa. Subsequent immunoblotting with anti-cytokeratin antibodies detected two urea-soluble, SDS-insoluble proteins with apparent molecular masses of 45 and 66 kDa. The 45-kDa protein was identified as cytokeratin 19. An antibody reacting with a palette of cytokeratins (CK 1,18 and CK 20), KL1, was the only antibody that reacted with the 66-kDa polypeptide. We conclude that sperm ODF fractions contain at least one each of type I and type II intermediate filaments. As keratins and intermediate filaments are described as rope-like structures, we suggest that these intermediate filaments play an important structural or tension-bearing role in sperm flagella. [source]