Intestinal Transit Time (intestinal + transit_time)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Drug metabolism and disposition in children

M. Strolin Benedetti
Abstract Key factors undergoing maturational changes accounting for differences in drug metabolism and disposition in the pediatric population compared with adults are reviewed. Gastric and duodenal pH, gastric emptying time, intestinal transit time, bacterial colonization and probably P-glycoprotein are important factors for drug absorption, whereas key factors explaining differences in drug distribution between the pediatric population and adults are membrane permeability, plasma protein concentration and plasma protein characteristics, endogenous substances in plasma, total body and extracellular water, fat content, regional blood flow and probably P-glycoprotein, mainly that present in the gut, liver and brain. As far as drug metabolism is concerned, important differences have been found in the pediatric population compared with adults both for phase I enzymes [oxidative (e.g. cytochrome CYP3A7 vs. CYP3A4 and CYP1A2), reductive and hydrolytic enzymes] and phase II enzymes (e.g. N -methyltransferases and glucuronosyltransferases). Finally, key factors undergoing maturational changes accounting for differences in renal excretion in the pediatric population compared with adults are glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. It would be important to generate information on the developmental aspects of renal P-glycoprotein and of other renal transporters as done and still being done with the different isozymes involved in drug metabolism. [source]

Relationship between faecal character and intestinal transit time in normal dogs and diet-sensitive dogs

V. E. Rolfe
The relationship between stool character and whole gut transit time (WGTT), which is the average time for the passage of material through the lumen of the alimentary tract from ingestion to defecation, was studied in eight control dogs and 12 dogs with nonspecific dietary sensitivity. Dogs were fed four diets in a cross-over design, and faecal quality was assessed daily and WGTT determined using plastic pellets. Faecal quality was unaffected by diet in the control dogs. Dogs with dietary sensitivity produced looser faeces compared with the control dogs, and this was significant for two of the diets. There was no significant effect of diet on mean WGTT within or between groups. Minimum WGTT, which was the interval to the first appearance of markers in faeces, was shorter in sensitive dogs compared with controls, and this was significant for two of the four diets. There were significant, inverse relationships between minimum WGTT and both mean faeces score and percentage unacceptable defecations. These data suggest that rapid transit of certain dietary components may impact negatively on stool quality and contribute to loose faeces in dogs with non-specific dietary sensitivity. [source]

Impact of formulation excipients on human intestinal transit

Julia D. R. Schulze
The accelerating effect of polyethylene glycol 400 on small intestinal transit has been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of other solubility-enhancing excipient, propylene glycol, D-,-tocopheryl-polyethylene glycol-1000 succinate (VitE-TPGS) and Capmul MCM, on human intestinal transit. A 5-g dose of each excipient was administered to seven healthy male subjects. Propylene glycol and VitE-TPGS were administered dissolved in 150 mL water. Capmul MCM was administered in the form of four 000 hard gelatin capsules to mask its taste and then given with 150 mL water. On a separate occasion, 150 mL water was administered as the control. Each formulation was radiolabelled with technetium-99 m to follow its transit using a gamma camera. The mean small intestinal transit times were 234, 207, 241 and 209 min for the control, propylene glycol, VitE-TPGS and Capmul MCM treatments, respectively. Although there were differences in the small intestinal transit times for the excipients investigated compared with the control, none of the results were statistically significant. Unlike polyethylene glycol 400 at the same dose of 5g, the excipients tested (propylene glycol, VitE-TPGS and Capmul MCM) had little or no impact on small intestinal transit. [source]

Magnet Tracking: a new tool for in vivo studies of the rat gastrointestinal motility

R. Guignet
Abstract, Digestive motility was studied in the rat using a miniaturized version of the Magnet Tracking system which monitored the progression of a small magnetic pill through the entire digestive tract. The dynamics of movement was followed and three-dimensional (3-D) images of digestive tract were generated. After a retention period in the stomach and rapid passage through duodenum, the magnet progressed along the small intestine with gradually decreasing speed and longer stationary periods. It remained in the caecum for variable intervals. In the colon, periods of progress alternated with long quiescent periods. Gastric activity oscillated at 5,6 min,1. In the small intestine, two frequency domains coexisted, showing independent modulations and proximo-distal gradients (40 to >32 and 28 to >20 min,1). Caecal oscillations were of 1.5 min,1. The data allowed the magnet location and calculation of gastric and small intestinal transit times (58 36 and 83 14 min respectively), both significantly prolonged by oleate administration (243 130 and 170 45 min respectively). Magnet Tracking is a non-invasive tool to study the in vivo spatial and temporal organization of gastrointestinal motility in the rat. [source]