Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Intention

  • behavior intention
  • behavioral intention
  • behavioural intention
  • career intention
  • consumer intention
  • employee turnover intention
  • entrepreneurial intention
  • future intention
  • good intention
  • greater intention
  • implementation intention
  • lower intention
  • mother intention
  • nurse intention
  • own intention
  • positive intention
  • purchase intention
  • repurchase intention
  • secondary intention
  • smoking intention
  • stronger intention
  • transfer intention
  • turnover intention
  • user intention

  • Terms modified by Intention

  • intention healing

  • Selected Abstracts


    Jeff McMahan
    First page of article [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 6 2009
    ABSTRACT Informed consent is the practical expression of the doctrine of autonomy. But the very idea of autonomy and conscious free choice is undercut by the view that human beings react as their unconscious brain centres dictate, depending on factors that may or may not be under rational control and reflection. This worry is, however, based on a faulty model of human autonomy and consciousness and needs close neurophilosophical scrutiny. A critique of the ethics implied by the model takes us towards a ,care of the self' view of autonomy and the subject's attunement to the truth as the crux of reasoning rather than the inner mental/neural state views of autonomy and human choice on offer at present. [source]

    Indigenous Population, Fertility, and Reproductive Intention in the Lowland Neotropics: Response to McSweeney

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Personality, cognition, and university students' examination performance

    Pru Phillips
    A prospective study explored the relationship between personality traits (as defined by the five factor model), type of motivation (as defined by self-determination theory), and goal-specific cognitions (including those specified by the theory of planned behaviour) as antecedents of degree performance amongst undergraduate students. A sample of 125 students completed a questionnaire two to three months before their final examinations. Structural equation modelling was used to explore relationships. Intention and perceived behavioural control explained 32% of the variance in final degree marks, with intention being the strongest predictor. Controlling for theory of planned behaviour variables, anticipated regret, good-student identity, controlled extrinsic motivation, Conscientiousness, and Openness had direct significant effects on intention. In total, 65% of the variance in intention was explained. The resultant model illustrates how personality traits may affect examination performance by means of mediators such as intention, anticipated regret, student identity, and autonomous intrinsic motivation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Assess Predictors of Intention to Eat Fruits Among 9th-Grade Students Attending Two Public High Schools in Eastern North Carolina

    Roman Pawlak
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify specific beliefs regarding eating two cups of fruits among ninth-grade youth attending public high schools in easternNorth Carolinautilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Methods: A preliminary open-ended questionnaire was used to elicit beliefs about fruits. These beliefs along with statements adopted from the literature tailored toward fruit intake were used to develop a survey instrument. This survey was subsequently used to measure the variables of the TPB. There were 157 students (103 girls [65.6%], mean ±SD age =14.69 ±0.79 and 54 boys [34.4%], mean ±SD age = 14.74 ±0.89) from two schools who completed the final copy of the survey. Results: Attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control significantly predicted intention to eat fruits, accounting for 55% of variance. Conclusion: The findings of this research suggest that peer leaders may have a significant influence on intentions to eat fruits. [source]

    Developmental Stages of Age and Moral Reasoning as Predictors of Juvenile Delinquents' Behavioral Intention to Steal Clothing

    William Scott Forney
    This study explored juvenile delinquents' moral reasoning and behavioral intention to steal clothing using age group and the aligned theories of planned behavior and cognitive developmental moralization. Participants (n = 100) were preteen and teen first-time theft/shoplifting offenders participating in a diversion program aimed at preventing future offenses. Factor analysis revealed three strongly correlated dimensions of moral reasoning: risk and need (preconventional ethics), and peers (conventional ethics). Multiple regressions predicted positive moral reasoning that justified stealing clothing for risk, need, and peers by preteens but not teens. Risk and need, but not peers or age group, predicted behavioral intention to steal clothing. Adevelopmental shift existed from preteens to teens in their moral reasoning to steal clothing. Juvenile delinquents that identified with preconventional ethics exhibited behavioral intention to steal clothing. [source]

    Intention and Meaning in Young Children's Drawing

    Sue Cox
    In this article I present some ideas, based on qualitative research into young children's drawing, related to the developing discourse on young children's thinking and meaning making. I question the relationship between perception and conception and the nature of representation, challenging traditional ideas around stage theory and shifting the focus from the drawings themselves to the process of drawing, and thus to the children's own purposes. I analyse examples of my observations (made in naturalistic settings within a nursery classroom) to reveal the range of representational purposes and meaning in children's drawing activity. My analysis shows that, rather than being developmentally determined, the way children configure their drawings is purposeful; children can recognise the power of drawing to represent, and that they themselves can be in control of this. I explore aspects of the process, including transformation and talk to show the importance of understanding drawing in its specific contexts. I show how children's drawing activity is illuminated by the way in which it occurs and the other activities linked to it, presenting drawing as part of children's broader, intentional, meaning-making activity. As an aspect of the interactive, communicative practices through which children's thinking develops, representation is a constructive, self-directed, intentional process of thinking in action, through which children bring shape and order to their experience, rather than a developing ability to make visual reference to objects in the world. I suggest that in playing with the process, children are actively defining reality rather than passively reflecting a given reality. [source]

    Evaluation of NOC Measures in Home Care Nursing Practice

    Gail M. Keenan
    PURPOSE To evaluate the reliability, validity, usefulness, and sensitivity of 89 NOC outcomes in two Visiting Nurse Associations in Michigan. METHODS Of a total 190 NOC outcomes 89 were assigned for testing. Interrater reliability and criterion validity were assessed a total of 50 times per outcome (on 50 different patients) across the study units. The total number of times the reliability and validity were assessed for each of the 89 measures studied ranged from 5,45. Three RN research assistants (RNRAs) oversaw and participated in data collection with the help of 15 clinicians. Convenience sampling was used to identify subjects. A roster of outcomes to be studied was maintained and matched with patient conditions whenever possible until the quota of outcomes assigned had been evaluated. Clinicians and RNRAs independently rated the outcomes and indicators applicable to the patient. NANDA diagnoses, NIC interventions, and medical diagnoses were recorded. FINDINGS A total of 258 patients (mean age 62) enrolled; 60% were women, 23% were from minority groups, and 78% had no college degree. Thirty-six of the 89 NOC measures were designated "clinically useful." The 10 outcomes with the highest interrater reliability were Caregiver Home Care Readiness; Caregiver Stressors; Caregiving Endurance Potential; Infection Status; Mobility Level; Safety Status: Physical Injury; Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living; Self-Care: Bathing; Self-Care: Hygiene; and Wound Healing: Secondary Intention. Criterion measurement and repeated ratings provided evidence to support the validity and sensitivity of the NOC outcomes. Evidence also suggested that NOC label level ratings could be a feasible, reliable, and valid method of evaluating nursing outcomes under actual use. For some measures, adjustments in the scales and anchors are needed to enhance reliability. For others, it may be unrealistic to reliably score in one encounter, thus scoring should be deferred until the clinician has adequate knowledge of the patient. CONCLUSIONS Continued study and refinement that are coordinated and integrated systematically strongly recommended. Comprehensive study in an automated system with a controlled format will increase the efficiency of future studies. [source]

    What Monet Meant: Intention and Attention in Understanding Art

    Mark Rollins
    First page of article [source]

    Directors and DVD Commentary: The Specifics of Intention

    Deborah, Mark Parker Parker
    First page of article [source]

    The Relation Between Past Behavior, Intention, Planning, and Quitting Smoking: The Moderating Effect of Future Orientation

    Velibor Bobo Kova
    The present study examined the moderating effects of two measures of future orientation on the relation between intention, planning, and past behavior on the one hand, and quitting smoking on the other. The degree of future orientation was assessed by the Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC) Scale and the Stanford Time Perspective Inventory (STPI). Both CFC and STPI significantly moderated the intention,quitting behavior and past behavior,quitting behavior relationships. CFC also moderated the relation between planning and quitting behavior, whereas STPI failed to moderate the planning,quitting relation. The results indicate that the extent to which a person is future oriented represents an important moderating variable when it comes to the relation between deliberative processes and actual behavior. The implications of the results are discussed. [source]

    Quitting Smoking: Applying an Extended Version of the Theory of PlannedBehavior to Predict Intention and Behavior,

    Inger Synnøve MOAN
    This study examined the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB)to predict students' intentions to quit smoking and the subsequent behavior6 months later. In addition, the impact of past behavior, moral norms, self-identity, group identity, and positive/negative anticipated affect was examined. The intention-behavior relationship was examined by dividing the sample in four subgroups: inclined actors/abstainers and disinclined actors/abstainers. Analyses were based on data from a prospective sample of 698 smokers. Attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control accounted for 36% (adjusted R2) of the variance in intentions. Moral norms, positive anticipated affect, group identity, and past behavior added 9% (adjusted R2) to the explained variance in intention, beyond the effect accounted for by the TPB components. Subsequent behavior was predicted by intentions (adjusted R2= .12). Past behavior, moral norms, self-identity, and the Past Behavior x Intention and Moral Norm x Negative Affect interactions explained an additional 9% (adjusted R2) of the variance in behavior. Inclined abstainers constituted the main source of the discrepancy between intention and behavior. [source]

    Negative Beliefs as a Moderator of the Intention,Behavior Relationship: Decisions to Use Performance-Enhancing Substances

    Tonya Dodge
    The theory of reasoned action framework was used to examine performance-enhancing substance use among a sample of college athletes in a prospective longitudinal design. Results indicate that attitudes and subjective norms predicted intention to use the substances, and these intentions predicted actual substance use 6 weeks later. A statistically significant interaction emerged between negative beliefs and intentions predicting behavior such that as negative beliefs grew increasingly negative, the intention,behavior relationship became stronger. Practical and theoretical implications of the influence of negative information on the intention,behavior relationship are discussed. [source]

    The Importance of Affective Beliefs and Attitudes in the Theory of Planned Behavior: Predicting Intention to Increase Physical Activity,

    David P. French
    Standard theory of planned behavior (TPB) questions to elicit salient behavioral beliefs may elicit instrumental consequences of behavior, and overlook affective consequences. Two hundred thirteen English adults (35 to 75 years of age) completed a questionnaire that contained closed measures of TPB constructs, and open-ended questions that asked not only about advantages and disadvantages, but also what respondents would like or enjoy and dislike or hate about being more physically active. Beliefs elicited by affective questions were associated more strongly with a closed affective attitude scale. Beliefs elicited by instrumental questions were associated more strongly with a closed instrumental attitude scale. Closed measures of the standard TPB variables explained 48% of the variance in intention to increase physical activity, while affective attitude explained an additional 11% of the variance. Applications of the TPB should consider affective and not just instrumental determinants of behavior. [source]

    Social Influence in Personally Relevant Contexts: The Respect Attributed to the Source as a Factor Increasing Smokers' Intention to Quit Smoking,

    Federica Invernizzi
    The study examined the effects of the status of the source in personally relevant persuasion contexts. Smokers (N= 117) with either weak or strong identity as smokers were exposed to an anti-smoking message, targeting either the tobacco industry or smokers, and attributed either to a health institute or a neighborhood association. The main dependent variable was the change in intention to quit smoking. As expected, the neighborhood association was considered more respectful of the freedom of choice of the target than was the health institute. In high personal relevance conditions (i.e., participants with strong identities as smokers and message explicitly targeting smokers), smokers strengthened their intention to quit smoking when the source was the neighborhood association, but decreased it when the source was the health institute. Implications for health campaign implementation are discussed. [source]

    Reasoned Action and Irrational Motives: A Prediction of Drivers' Intention to Violate Traffic Laws,

    Dana Yagil
    The aim of the study was to predict drivers' intention to commit traffic violations by means of the model of reasoned action. The respondents were 359 drivers. Four scenarios, each describing 1 of 4 traffic violations, were presented to the respondents. Two situational factors, time pressure and the presence of an authority figure, were manipulated through the description of the scenarios. Attitudes toward the commission of traffic violations affect the intention to commit the violations. Sensation seeking and external locus of control are positively related to behavioral attitudes. Both aggression and anxiety are directly related to intention to commit violations. The results are discussed in regard to the influence of cognitive and noncognitive variables on driving behavior. [source]

    Exploratory factor analysis of the research and development culture index among qualified nurses

    Bill Watson MSc
    Aims and objectives., This paper presents the exploratory factor analysis of a rating instrument for assessing the strength of organizational Research and Development (R&D) culture. Background., Despite nursing's limited research capacity, the discipline is capitalising upon opportunities to become involved in research and is making strong progress. Within the context of the debate on nursing research capacity, the R&D Culture Index was developed as a means of appraising R&D culture within health care organizations. Design., Factor analysis was carried out on data collected from 485 nursing staff. The method of extraction was Principal Components Analysis with oblique rotation. Methods., The Index was developed from the findings of qualitative research conducted with NHS staff. Eighteen items, encompassing the main themes from the data, were initially included in the Index. This pilot instrument was distributed to nursing staff within three different types of NHS Trust. Factor analysis resulted in rejection of two items and the analysis was repeated using the remaining 16 items. Results., Three latent factors were extracted accounting for 58·0% of the variance in the data. The factors were: R&D Support, describing the perceived support within the working environment for R&D activity; Personal R&D Skills and Aptitude, describing an individual's perception of their ability towards R&D activity; and Personal R&D Intention, describing an individual's willingness to engage in R&D activity. Each factor had good internal reliability, as did the overall index. Conclusion., The R&D Culture Index provides an efficient means of assessing the strength of an organization's R&D culture in a way that captures the role of the individual practitioner and the organizational environment. Relevance to practice., These findings suggest that the continuing promotion of R&D within health care organizations is dependent upon a multi-faceted approach that addresses the learning needs of the organization as well as those of the individual practitioners. [source]

    Intention to 'leave' or 'stay' in nursing

    Background, Turnover in nursing and midwifery has recently become a problem in the Republic of Ireland and Irish health-care managers are constantly challenged to retain qualified nurses. The literature suggests that intention to stay or leave employment is the final step in the decision-making process. It is, therefore, reasonable to suggest that understanding ,intent to stay or leave' might facilitate nurse managers in introducing of appropriate retention strategies. Aim, The aim of this study was to investigate registered nurses ,intent to stay or leave' employment. Methods, A cross-sectional quantitative design was utilized. A questionnaire was designed and these were randomly distributed to 352 registered nurses at 10 hospital sites throughout the Republic of Ireland. Results, Almost 60% of the sample, comprising of young, female, college educated nurses, expressed an intent to leave their current post. The most statistically significant predictors of intent to leave were ,kinship responsibilities' (P < 0.05) and ,job satisfaction' (P < 0.0001). Conclusion, ,Intent to leave' has serious implications for workforce planning. Investigating the impact of focussed interventions in relation to job satisfaction and kinship responsibilities may be key retention strategies for nurse managers. [source]

    Exploring the Intention to React to Aggressive Action Among Israeli Adolescents

    Zeev Winstok
    The aim of the current study was to explore male and female adolescents' intentions to react to verbal and physical aggression issued by other males and females of the same age. The study is based on a sample of 292 male and female adolescents from 12 classes in four schools in northern Israel, two junior-high and two high-schools, 46.7% were males and 53.3% females. Sixteen short scenarios were presented to the interviewees, consisting of eight verbal provocations (four by males and four by females) and eight physical provocations. The results indicated that girls and boys perceived provocation differently. Males are more "gender oriented," whereas girls are more "content oriented," Males attend more to details of physical aggression, whereas females to details of verbal aggression. Yet, males are most concerned with the gender of the provocateur, whereas females are more attentive to the severity of the provocation, thus differentiating between verbal and physical forms of provocation, as representing different levels of attack, and within each form, differentiating along a continuum of severity of the attack. The results are discussed within the theoretical framework of reactive aggression. [source]

    Teaching and Learning Guide for: Locutionary, Illocutionary, Perlocutionary

    Mikhail Kissine
    This guide accompanies the following article: Mikhail Kissine, ,Locutionary, Illocutionary, Perlocutionary', Language and Linguistics Compass 2/6 (2008) pp. 1189,1202. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-818x.2008.00093.x. The terms locutionary act, illocutionary act and perlocutionary act originate from Austin's classical How to do with words. The corresponding notions, however, prove difficult to define. Yet, lack of careful delineating of each level can lead to important theoretical confusions. This Teaching and Learning Guide explains why proper understanding of Austin's trichotomy is crucial for semantics and pragmatics. Author's Introduction Most contemporary discussions in semantics and pragmatics employ , implicitly or explicitly , some or all of the concepts of locutionary,illocutionary or perlocutionary acts. These notions originate from Austin's posthumous and notoriously intricate book, How to do things with words. The point of interest for the linguist, however, is not so much the exegesis of Austin's ideas, as the precise delimitation of these levels of meaning. First, it is important to characterise the locutionary level , which falls short of any illocutionary force , to avoid contaminating analyses of utterance meanings with matters relative to the illocutionary level, viz. to the speech act performed. Second, the precise definition of illocutionary acts is an extremely difficult matter. However, the first, imperative step must be a clear demarcation between perlocutionary acts , relative to causal effects of the utterances , and the utterance's illocutionary force. Third, to assess theories of illocutionary forces, one must take into account the requirements for psychological and empirical plausibility. For instance, classical Gricean theories of illocutionary force attribution link it with the cognitive capacity to perform complex multi-layered mental state attributions, which is incompatible with the data available on the pragmatic and cognitive functioning of young children. In sum, gaining better understanding of the tripartite distinction between the locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary levels is not a taxonomical exercise, but a prerequisite for anyone willing to tackle semantic and/or pragmatic issues with the right tools. Suggested Reading Austin, J.L. (1975) How to do things with words, Second edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Lecture VIII. Difficult reading, but essential to understand Austin's intuitions and the origin of the debate. Strawson, P.F. (1964) "Intention and convention in speech acts", Philosophical Review, 73, 439,60. Classical criticism of Austin's claim abut the conventionality of illocutionary acts and first formulation of a Gricean theory of speech acts. Strawson, P.F. (1973) "Austin and ,Locutionary meaning'", in I. Berlin et al. (eds.) Essays on J.L. Austin, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 46,68. This equally classical paper sheds light onto the difficult notions of rhetic and locutionary acts; it paves the way for using these concepts interchangeably. Recanati, F. (1987) Meaning and Force. The pragmatics of performative utterances, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Chapter 9. This is a lucid discussion and elaboration of Strawson's conception of the locuitonary act as a potential for the illocutionary level. Wilson, D. and Sperber, D. (1988) "Mood and the analysis of non-declarative sentences", in J. Dancy et al. (eds.) Human Agency, Language, Duty and Value. Philosophical essayes in honour of J.O. Urmson, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 77,101. This paper gives important reasons for not confusing the analysis of mood , of the locutionary level , with the analysis of speech acts. Kissine, M. (2009) "Illocutionary forces and what is said", Mind and Language, 24, 122,38. Provides a definition of locutionary acts as linguistic representations of mental states, and lays grounds for a theory of speech acts as reasons to believe or to act. Bach, K. (1994) "Conversational impliciture", Mind and Language, 9, 124,62. An important defence of the distinction between illocutionary and locutionary acts. However, the reader should be warned that Bach conceives of locutionary acts as context-independent propositional radicals, which is not a self-evident position. Alston (2000) Illocutionary Acts and Sentence Meaning, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, Chapter 2. Contains a clear and lucid criticism of theories that confuse illocutionary and perlocutionary levels. Dominicy, M. (2008) "Epideictic rhetoric and the representation of human decision and choice", in K. Korta and J. Garmendia (eds.) Meaning, Intentions, and Argumentation, Stanford, CSLI, 179,207. This paper contains a useful test for distinguishing verbs that describe illocutionary acts form those that describe perlocutionary acts. It is also the first proposal to formulate the illocutionary/perlocutionary divide in Davidsonian terms. Focus Questions 1,What kind of philosophy of action is called for by the distinction between locutions, perlocutions and illocutions? 2,Should the locutionary level be always fully propositional? 3,Can illocutionary acts be characterised in terms of prototypical perlocutional effects? 4,Should illocutionary acts be divided in conventional (institutional) and non-conventional (non-insitutional) ones? 5,Are there good reasons for singling out a locutionary level? 6,,Does the attribution of illocutionary forces presuppose a complex mindreading process? Connexion with to Related Material in Lectures or Discussions 1,The distinction between the locutionary and illocutionary levels is crucial for any discussion about the semantics/pragmatics interface. Many scholars hastily characterise semantics as related to sentence-meaning and pragmatics as concerning the speech act performed. However, one should not take for granted that any level where the meaning is context-dependant is necessarily that of the illocutionary act performed. 2,This distinction can also be relevant for the discussions about the meaning of moods. For instance, the imperative mood is often analysed in terms of the directive illocutionary force. However, there are cases where utterances of imperative sentences do not correspond to a directive speech act. 3,The distinction between perlocutionary and illocutionary acts remains central for any attempt to classify or to define illocutionary forces. 4,Different conceptions of illocutionary acts are important for discussions about the ontogeny and phylogeny of the pragmatic dimension(s) of linguistic competence. [source]

    Joint Intention, We-Mode and I-Mode

    First page of article [source]

    Collective Moral Responsibility and Collective Intention

    First page of article [source]

    Defect of Sacramental Intention: The Background of Apostolicae Curae

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 959 2001
    Simon Francis Gaine OP
    First page of article [source]

    Pregnancy Intention and Preterm Birth: Differential Associations Among a Diverse Population of Women

    Aimee Afable-Munsuz
    CONTEXT:,Studies published to date provide mixed evidence on the relationship between unintended pregnancy and preterm birth, and none take into consideration that the meaning of unintended pregnancy may vary across racial and ethnic groups. METHODS:,Data from the 1999,2003 rounds of the Maternal and Infant Health Assessment, a population-based, representative survey of postpartum women in California, were used to assess the relationship between pregnancy intention and preterm birth. For racial and ethnic groups in which an association was found, sequential logistic regression was conducted to further examine the relationship while controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. RESULTS:,In unadjusted results, pregnancy intention was associated with preterm birth among both whites and immigrant Latinas, but not among blacks or U.S.-born Latinas. Among whites, compared with women who reported that their pregnancy was intended, those who were unsure about their pregnancy had elevated odds of preterm birth (odds ratio, 1.4), as did those who reported their pregnancy was unwanted (1.7) or mistimed (1.4). Among immigrant Latinas, those who reported being unsure about their pregnancy were at higher risk of preterm birth than were those who reported an intended pregnancy (1.6). After adjustment for socioeconomic factors, the association remained significant for immigrant Latinas who were unsure about their pregnancy (1.5), but none of the associations remained significant for whites. CONCLUSIONS:,Women's interpretations of questions about pregnancy intention and their social experiences regarding pregnancy intention may vary by race or ethnicity. Studies on the association between pregnancy intention and preterm birth may need to be group-specific. [source]

    Pregnancy Intention from Men's Perspectives: Does Child Support Enforcement Matter?

    Chien-Chung Huang
    CONTEXT: Most research on pregnancy intention has focused on women's perspectives and characteristics. Because decisions about sexual activity and contraceptive use usually involve both men and women, it is important to understand factors associated with men's intentions,for example, child support enforcement,to maximize the potential for reducing unwanted pregnancies. METHODS: Data from the 1982,2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used in multinomial logit analyses to examine the determinants of pregnancy intention from men's perspectives. RESULTS: Forty-six percent of pregnancies reported by never-married men were unwanted, compared with 21% of those reported by married men. Stronger child support enforcement was marginally associated with men's decreased likelihood of being involved in an unwanted pregnancy compared with no pregnancy (coefficient, ,0.14) and of being involved in an unwanted pregnancy compared with a wanted pregnancy (,0.15). Without the improvement of child support enforcement over the survey period, the rate of unwanted pregnancies would have been an estimated 7% higher than the observed rate. CONCLUSIONS: Strengthening child support enforcement may have a positive impact on preventing unwanted pregnancies. Programs designed to reduce unwanted pregnancies and nonmarital births should include information on child support enforcement to increase their success. [source]

    Theory in practice: Helping providers address depression in diabetes care,

    Chandra Y. Osborn PhD
    Abstract Introduction A continuing education (CE) program based on the theory of planned behavior was designed to understand and improve health care providers' practice patterns in screening, assessing, and treating and/or referring patients with diabetes for depression treatment. Methods Participants completed assessments of attitudes, confidence, intentions, and behaviors regarding depression management at 3 time points: immediately prior to the CE program (baseline), immediately after the CE program (posttest) and 6 weeks after the CE program (follow-up). Results Ninety-eight providers attended the CE program: 71 completed the baseline assessment, 66 completed the posttest assessment, and 37 completed the 6-week follow-up. Compared to baseline, at posttest providers reported significantly more favorable attitudes, fewer negative attitudes, greater confidence, and greater intention to address depression with their diabetes patients. At the 6-week follow-up, participants reported a marginally significant increase in educating patients about depression, but no other depression management practices changed. Intention to change and confidence predicted some depression practice patterns at follow-up. Fewer barriers were a consistent predictor of depression practice patterns at follow-up. Discussion In the short term, provider attitudes, confidence, and intentions to address depression with their patients improved. Intentions, confidence, and especially barriers are important intervention targets. [source]

    Dietary Planning as a Mediator of the Intention,Behavior Relation: An Experimental-Causal-Chain Design

    Tabea Reuter
    Health behavior change is seen as a self-regulatory process that consists of a motivation phase of goal setting and a volition phase of goal pursuit. Previous studies suggest that the intention,behavior association is mediated by planning. However, evidence is based on observational studies rather than on experimental designs. To validate the causal assumptions, an experimental-causal-chain design was employed. Study 1 (n= 145) examined whether changing dietary intentions by a motivational intervention engenders changes in planning activities 1 month later. Study 2 (n= 115) examined, in a different sample, whether a volitional planning intervention engenders changes in dietary behavior 1 month later. In both studies, repeated measures ANOVAs revealed a significant Time × Condition interaction. Changes in intention mediated the effects of the motivational intervention on planning activities (Study 1). Changes in planning mediated the effect of a planning intervention on dietary behavior (Study 2). Previous observational findings on planning as a mediator in the intention,behavior association were supported by the two experiments. The findings might help to identify points of intervention in the process underlying health behavior change. Le changement de comportement au plan de la santé est considéré comme un processus d'auto-régulation qui se compose d'une phase de motivation (fixation des buts) et d'une phase de volition (poursuite des buts). Des études précédentes suggèrent que le passage de l'intention au comportement est médiatisé par la planification. Ces résultats sont obtenus par voie d'observations plutôt que par expérimentations. Pour valider les hypothèses de causalité, un modèle de chaîne-causale-expérimentale a été employé. L'étude 1 examine si, en changeant les intentions alimentaires par une intervention motivationnelle, on obtient des changements dans la planification des activités un mois après (n= 145). L'étude 2 examine, sur un échantillon différent, si la planification d'une intervention engendre des changements du comportement alimentaire un mois plus tard (n= 115). Pour ces deux études, des ANOVA à mesures répétées révèlent une interaction significative entre le temps et la condition étudiée. Les changements de l'intention influencent les effets de l'intervention motivationnelle sur la planification des activités (étude 1). Les changements de la planification influencent les effets de l'intervention de la volition sur le comportement alimentaire (Etude 2). Les résultats obtenus par observation sur la planification comme lien entre l'intention et le comportement sont confirmés par les expérimentations. Les résultats peuvent permettre d'identifier les modalités d'interventions relatives au processus sous-tendant le changement du comportement de santé. [source]

    How do trends in smoking prevalence among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian secondary students between 1996 and 2005 compare?

    Victoria White
    Abstract Objective: To compare trends in smoking prevalence between 1996 and 2005 among Indigenous and non-Indigenous secondary students across Australia. Methods: Representative random samples of secondary students aged 12-17 years completed self-report anonymous surveys. Questionnaires assessed any cigarette smoking in lifetime, and smoking in past month, week and on at least three of the previous seven days. Intention to smoke in the next 12 months was assessed on a 7-point scale. Students self-identified as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent. Results: Three to four per cent of students identified as being Indigenous at each survey. Smoking was more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous students. Between 1996 and 2005, the proportion of smoking declined among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. However, among 12-15 year olds, the rate of decline was different for the two groups. Among non-Indigenous students in this age group, prevalence decreased steadily between 1996 and 2005. Among Indigenous students, the decrease mainly occurred between 1999 and 2002. Smoking intention was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous students. The mean intention decreased between 1996 and 2005 among both student groups. Conclusions: Smoking prevalence decreased among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students between 1996 and 2005. Implications: Reductions in Indigenous students' tobacco use and intentions coincided with a period of increased tobacco control activity, suggesting that these activities may positively influence smoking behaviours. [source]

    A national evaluation of school breakfast clubs: evidence from a cluster randomized controlled trial and an observational analysis

    I. Shemilt
    Abstract Study objective To measure the health, educational and social impacts of breakfast club provision in schools serving deprived areas across England. Design A cluster randomized controlled trial and an observational analysis. Setting England, the UK. Intervention: funding to establish a school-based breakfast club vs. control (no funding). Main results Intention to treat analysis showed improved concentration (Trail Making Test Part A) amongst the intervention group at 3 months. Fewer pupils within the intervention group reported having skipped classes within the last month and fewer pupils within the intervention group reported having skipped 1 or more days of school within the last month at 1 year. Observational analysis at 1 year showed a higher proportion of primary-aged breakfast club attendees reported eating fruit for breakfast in comparison to non-attendees. A higher proportion of breakfast club attendees had borderline or abnormal conduct and total difficulties scores (primary-aged pupils) and prosocial score (secondary-aged pupils). Conclusions Analyses revealed a mixed picture of benefit and apparent disbenefit. This study illustrated the challenges of evaluating a complex intervention in which the evaluators had less control than is usual in randomized trials over recruitment, eligibility checking and implementation. If the impact of new policy initiatives is to be assessed using the most robust forms of evaluation, social policy needs to be organized so that evaluations can be constructed as experiments. This is likely to prove most difficult where the perceived value of implementing an intervention rapidly is high. [source]

    Knowledge and impressions regarding the concept of mutation among Japanese university students

    CLINICAL GENETICS, Issue 1 2008
    N Ando
    Although the term mutation is frequently used in genetic counseling, it may carry negative connotations and create misunderstanding. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between the impressions regarding three Japanese terms mutation of gene, change of gene, and lesion of gene as well as to investigate the depth of understanding regarding mutation. A total of 175 university students and auditing students were included and responded to two questionnaires that were Impressions regarding the term in the semantic differential method and Knowledge about the concept of mutation. In factor analysis, three factors (Value, Change Rate, and Intention) were extracted. Participants were divided into three groups depending on their knowledge, and a two-way analysis of variance (Term × Knowledge Group) was conducted on the factor score for each. Results showed that the main effect of the ,Term' was significant for the Value Factor and that interaction was significant for the Change Rate Factor, and that the main effect of Knowledge Group was significant for the Intention Factor. The findings suggest that healthcare professionals should demonstrate an awareness of varying impressions of the different terms used to refer to the identical concepts of mutation. This is of particular importance when communicating with patients and their families. [source]