Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Intelligence

  • adult intelligence
  • artificial intelligence
  • average intelligence
  • business intelligence
  • emotional intelligence
  • fluid intelligence
  • general intelligence
  • market intelligence
  • non-verbal intelligence
  • normal intelligence
  • social intelligence
  • trait emotional intelligence

  • Terms modified by Intelligence

  • intelligence agency
  • intelligence community
  • intelligence level
  • intelligence official
  • intelligence quotient
  • intelligence scale
  • intelligence scale for children
  • intelligence score
  • intelligence services
  • intelligence test

  • Selected Abstracts


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 1 2006
    In making his famous claim that the good life would have to include appropriate emotions, Aristotle obviously considered the schooling of emotions to be an indispensable part of moral education. However, in this essay Kristján Kristjánsson casts doubt on the assumption that Aristotelians should approve of the clarion call for EI, as understood by Daniel Goleman and the proponents of social and emotional learning, in the classroom. Various marked differences between EI and Aristotelian emotional virtue are highlighted and explored. Kristjánsson argues that the claims of EI lack moral ballast and that when this fact is added to an existing heap of educational problems attached to the implementation of EI programs, educators had better rethink their reliance on EI as a model of emotion cultivation, and perhaps revert to the teachings of Aristotle himself. [source]


    In its report published in 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (known as the ,9/11 Commission') analyses the functioning of the Intelligence Community (ICo). It indicates that the ICo is both over-fragmented and guilty of not sharing enough information. The Commission recommends that central control of the ICo needs to be strengthened and that more incentives for information-sharing should be designed. This article takes a critical look at these two recommendations. Sharing information carries major risks and is therefore not something that can take place as a matter of course. Moreover, information has to be subject to a selection process before it can be shared. This selection cannot be measured objectively, so mistakes in the selection are unavoidable. Strengthening central control also poses risks: it engenders more battles over territory, it does not improve understanding of the capillaries of the organization , the capillaries being where the primary processes of information gathering, validation and assessment take place , and it involves the destruction of checks and balances. Fragmentation may even be functional since it leads to redundancy, itself a safeguard against the risk of misselecting relevant information. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 1 2005
    ABSTRACT In 2001, Julian Savulescu wrote an article entitled ,Procreative Beneficence: Why We Should Select the Best Children', in which he argued for the genetic selection of intelligence in children. That article contributes to a debate on whether genetic research on intelligence should be undertaken at all and, if so, should intelligence selection be available to potential parents. As such, the question of intelligence selection relates to wider issues concerning the genetic determination of behavioural traits, i.e. alcoholism. This article is designed as an engagement in the intelligence selection debate using an analysis of Savulescu's arguments to raise a series of problematic issues in relation to the ethics of parental selection of intelligence. These problematic issues relate to wider assumptions that are made in order to put forward intelligence selection as a viable ethical option. Such assumptions are more generic in character, but still relate to Savulescu's article, concerning issues of genetic determinism, private allocation and inequality, and, finally, individual versus aggregate justice. The conclusion focuses on what the implications are for the question of agency, especially if intelligence selection is allowed. [source]

    Architectural Methodology Based on Intentional Configuration of Behaviors

    François Michaud
    Intelligence has been an object of study for a long time. Different architectures try to capture and reproduce these aspects into artificial systems (or agents), but there is still no agreement on how to integrate them into a general framework. With this objective in mind, we propose an architectural methodology based on the idea of intentional configuration of behaviors. Behavior-producing modules are used as basic control components that are selected and modified dynamically according to the intentions of the agent. These intentions are influenced by the situation perceived, knowledge about the world, and internal variables that monitor the state of the agent. The architectural methodology preserves the emergence of functionality associated with the behavior-based paradigm in the more abstract levels involved in configuring the behaviors. Validation of this architecture is done using a simulated world for mobile robots, in which the agent must deal with various goals such as managing its energy and its well-being, finding targets, and acquiring knowledge about its environment. Fuzzy logic, a topologic map learning algorithm, and activation variables with a propagation mechanism are used to implement the architecture for this agent. [source]

    A case study of a cooperative learning experiment in artificial intelligence

    Fernando Díez
    Abstract This article describes an innovative teaching experiment (part of a project for Innovation in Teaching at the University Autónoma of Madrid) which was undertaken by the authors during the first semester of the academic year 2004/2005. This teaching experiment has been the object of evaluation by the students as part of their coursework and has consisted of the use of the groupware system KnowCat, by which the students prepare a repository of documents related to topics and themes associated with the subject matter (Artificial Intelligence). During the process of elaboration both the votes for the best documents and the annotation made about them play an essential role. These documents are carried out exclusively by the students and they are who decide, by means of their activity, which of the documents presented are to be chosen as representative of the entire collection. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 15: 308,316, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20114 [source]

    Tactics-Based Behavioural Planning for Goal-Driven Rigid Body Control

    Stefan Zickler
    Computer Graphics [I.3.7]: Animation-Artificial Intelligence; [I.2.8]: Plan execution, formation, and generation; Computer Graphics [I.3.5]: Physically based modelling Abstract Controlling rigid body dynamic simulations can pose a difficult challenge when constraints exist on the bodies' goal states and the sequence of intermediate states in the resulting animation. Manually adjusting individual rigid body control actions (forces and torques) can become a very labour-intensive and non-trivial task, especially if the domain includes a large number of bodies or if it requires complicated chains of inter-body collisions to achieve the desired goal state. Furthermore, there are some interactive applications that rely on rigid body models where no control guidance by a human animator can be offered at runtime, such as video games. In this work, we present techniques to automatically generate intelligent control actions for rigid body simulations. We introduce sampling-based motion planning methods that allow us to model goal-driven behaviour through the use of non-deterministic,Tactics,that consist of intelligent, sampling-based control-blocks, called,Skills. We introduce and compare two variations of a Tactics-driven planning algorithm, namely behavioural Kinodynamic Rapidly Exploring Random Trees (BK-RRT) and Behavioural Kinodynamic Balanced Growth Trees (BK-BGT). We show how our planner can be applied to automatically compute the control sequences for challenging physics-based domains and that is scalable to solve control problems involving several hundred interacting bodies, each carrying unique goal constraints. [source]

    Artificial Animals and Humans: From Physics to Intelligence

    Demetri Terzopoulos
    The confluence of virtual reality and artificial life, an emerging discipline that spans the computational and biological sciences, has yielded synthetic worlds inhabited by realistic, artificial flora and fauna. Artificial animals are complex synthetic organisms that possess functional biomechanical bodies, sensors, and brains with locomotion, perception, behavior, learning, and cognition centers. Artificial humans and other animals are of interest in computer graphics because they are self-animating characters that dramatically advance the state of the art of production animation and interactive game technologies. More broadly, these biomimetic autonomous agents in their realistic virtual worlds also foster deeper, computationally oriented insights into natural living systems. [source]

    Congenital Cardiovascular Disease in Turner Syndrome

    Carolyn A. Bondy MD
    ABSTRACT Turner syndrome (TS), or monosomy X, occurs in ,1/2000 live born females. Intelligence is normal and short stature is the most obvious and consistent feature of the syndrome. Congenital cardiovascular disease affects ,50% of individuals and is the major cause of premature mortality in adults. Unfortunately, this most important aspect of the syndrome has received little attention outside of pediatric medicine, and adult cardiological follow-up is seriously lacking. This review describes the spectrum of cardiovascular defects with particular attention to identifying risk factors for aortic dissection/rupture. X-chromosome genetic pathways implicated in Turner cardiovascular disease, including premature coronary artery disease, are discussed. Recent guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of girls and women with TS are reviewed. [source]

    What do you think you're looking at?

    Investigating social cognition in young offenders
    Aim,This small study was designed to assess the nature and severity of social-cognitive deficits in antisocial adolescents. Method,Thirty-seven boys aged 15,18 from a Young Offenders Institute and Community College participated. They were asked to complete a test of general intellectual ability and self-rating of social competence as well as tasks from the Skuse Schedules for the Assessment of Social Intelligence. Results,Young offenders were poor at recognizing the facial expression of anger, regardless of intellectual ability. They could not accurately identify the direction of another's eye gaze. Their performance on theory of mind tasks, however, was unimpaired. Conclusion,These preliminary findings imply selective impairment in the cognitive appraisal of threat, which may contribute to social maladjustment. Further such study of social cognition among young offenders is indicated. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Criminal cognitions and personality: what does the PICTS really measure?

    Dr Vincent Egan
    Introduction The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) is a measure of the criminal cognitions and thinking styles that maintain offending. The scale comprises 8 a priori thinking styles and two validation scales, the validation scales having been found to be unreliable. Owing to the large amount of apparently shared variance in the original validation study, this data matrix needs re-analysis. Results from the PICTS were examined in relation to general measures of individual differences, in order to link the PICTS to the broader literature on the characteristics of offenders. Method The original PICTS data-matrix was re-analysed using a more parsimonious method of analysis. The PICYS was also given to 54 detained, mentally disordered offenders along with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS), the Attention Deficit Scales for Adults (ADSA) and, as a measure of general intelligence, the Standard Progressive Matrices. Results Principal components analysis suggested that the PICTS really comprised two factors: a lack of thoughtfulness (i.e. lack of attention to one's experience), and wilful hostility, with the first factor being most well defined. Intelligence was not associated with any factor of criminal thinking style. High scores on the ADSA and Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility subscales of the SSS were associated with much greater endorsement of criminal sentiments; high Neuroticism, low Extroversion, and low Agreeableness were slightly lower correlates. Discussion The issues involved in criminogenic cognitions need clarification and to be linked to the broader literature on cognitive distortions and personality. Interventions targeted at dismantling impulsive destructive behaviour, whether it be thoughtlessness or wilful hostility, may be effected by increasing thinking skills, so breaking down the cognitions that maintain criminal behaviour. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Knowledge-based system for structured examination, diagnosis and therapy in treatment of traumatised teeth

    A. Robertson
    Abstract , Dental trauma in children and adolescents is a common problem, and the prevalence of these injuries has increased in the last 10,20 years. A dental injury should always be considered an emergency and, thus, be treated immediately to relieve pain, facilitate reduction of displaced teeth, reconstruct lost hard tissue, and improve prognosis. Rational therapy depends upon a correct diagnosis, which can be achieved with the aid of various examination techniques. It must be understood that an incomplete examination can lead to inaccurate diagnosis and less successful treatment. Good knowledge of traumatology and models of treatments can also reduce stress and anxiety for both the patient and the dental team. Knowledge-based Systems (KBS) are a practical implementation of Artificial Intelligence. In complex domains which humans find difficult to understand, KBS can assist in making decisions and can also add knowledge. The aim of this paper is to describe the structure of a knowledge-based system for structured examination, diagnosis and therapy for traumatised primary and permanent teeth. A commercially available program was used as developmental tool for the programming (XpertRule, Attar, London, UK). The paper presents a model for a computerised decision support system for traumatology. [source]

    General measures of cognition for the preschool child

    Elizabeth O. LichtenbergerArticle first published online: 13 SEP 200
    Abstract Preschool-age children who are experiencing delays in physical, cognitive, communication, social, emotional, or adaptive development are often referred for a comprehensive assessment to make diagnostic determinations and to help develop appropriate interventions. Typically cognitive assessment has a key role in a comprehensive evaluation of a young child. In this article, five individually administered tests of cognitive ability, normed for the preschool-age child, are reviewed. These specific tests include the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, 5th edition, and the Differential Abilities Scales. The following is provided for these cognitive instruments: a description of the test procedures, information on scoring systems, highlights of the technical qualities, and a summary of the general meaning of test results. The article concludes with strengths and limitations of the instruments. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11:197,208. [source]

    Psychological functioning and health-related quality of life in adulthood after preterm birth

    Stuart R Dalziel FRACP PhD
    The aim of this study was to determine if preterm birth is associated with socioeconomic status (SES), psychological functioning, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adulthood. We used prospective follow-up of 192 adult offspring of mothers who took part in a randomized controlled trial of antenatal betamethasone for the prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (66 born at term [33 males, 33 females] 126 born preterm [66 males, 60 females]). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Working memory and attention was assessed using the Benton Visual Retention Test, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, and the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Schizotypy Traits Questionnaire. Handedness was assessed using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. HRQoL was assessed using the Short Form-36 Health Survey. Moderately preterm birth (median gestation 34wks, mean birthweight 1946g [SD 463g]) was not related to later marital status, educational attainment, SES, cognitive functioning, working memory, attention, or symptoms of anxiety or schizotypy at 31 years of age. Preterm birth was associated with fewer symptoms of depression and higher levels of satisfaction in three of the eight HRQoL domains measured (bodily pain, general health perception, and social functioning). Adults who were born moderately preterm have SES, psychological functioning, and HRQoL consistent with those who were born at term. This good long-term outcome cannot be extrapolated to those with early childhood disability or very low birthweights. [source]

    Biological and environmental initial conditions shape the trajectories of cognitive and social-emotional development across the first years of life

    Ruth Feldman
    Human development is thought to evolve from the dynamic interchange of biological dispositions and environmental provisions; yet the effects of specific biological and environmental birth conditions on the trajectories of cognitive and social-emotional growth have rarely been studied. We observed 126 children at six time-points from birth to 5 years. Intelligence, maternal sensitivity, and child social engagement were repeatedly tested. Effects of neonatal vagal tone (VT) and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms on growth-rates were assessed. Cognitive development showed a substantial growth-spurt between 2 and 5 years and social engagement increased rapidly across the first year and more gradually thereafter. VT improved cognitive and social-emotional growth-rates across the first year, whereas maternal depressive symptoms interfered with growth from 2 to 5 years. Differences between infants with none, one, or two non-optimal birth conditions increased with age. Findings shed light on the dynamics of early development as it is shaped by biological and environmental initial conditions. [source]

    Monitoring dyslexics' intelligence and attainments: A follow-up study

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 1 2003
    Michael Thomson
    Abstract Intelligence (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children R and III, 1992) and written language attainment (BAS Word Reading, Neale Analysis of Reading, Vernon Graded Word Spelling) data for around 250 children attending a specialist school for dyslexics are presented. The Wechsler scales data show some evidence for ,ACID' and ,SCAD' profile effects on the subtests, with specifically weak Index scores on Freedom from Distractibility and Processing Speed. The relationship between intelligence and reading development is also examined, with evidence for significant correlations between intelligence and written language and a longitudinal study showing that there is no ,Matthew' or drop-off effect in intelligence. The attainments tests demonstrate that the widening gap between a dyslexic's chronological age and his/her attainments can be closed, and how attainments may be monitored within the context of ,growth curves'. The results are discussed in relation to recent reports (e.g. B.P.S. on Dyslexia, Literacy and Psychological Assessment) on the relationship between intelligence and attainments and it is concluded that this report could be seriously misleading for practising educational psychologists. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cognitive Skills in Children with Intractable Epilepsy: Comparison of Surgical and Nonsurgical Candidates

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2002
    Mary Lou Smith
    Summary: ,Purpose: To compare neuropsychological performance of two groups of children with intractable epilepsy: those who are surgical candidates, and those who are not. Methods: Intelligence, verbal memory, visual memory, academic skills, and sustained attention were measured in children aged 6,18 years. The effects of number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), seizure frequency, age at seizure onset, and duration of seizure disorder were examined. Results: Both groups had high rates of impairment. Group differences were found only on the verbal memory task. Children who experienced seizures in clusters had higher IQ, reading comprehension, and arithmetic scores. Age at seizure onset and proportion of life with seizures were related to IQ. Performance did not vary with AED monotherapy versus polytherapy. Conclusions: Few differences exist in cognitive performance between children with intractable seizures who are and those who are not surgical candidates. These findings suggest that children who are not surgical candidates can serve as good controls in studies on cognitive outcome of surgery. [source]

    Sex differences in school achievement: what are the roles of personality and achievement motivation?

    Ricarda Steinmayr
    Abstract It is consistently reported that despite equal cognitive ability, girls outperform boys in school. In several methodological steps, the present study examined sex differences in school achievement and some of the most important personality and motivational constructs in a sample of 204 females and 138 adolescent males (mean age M,=,16.94 years; SD,=,0.71). Grades in Math and German as well as grade point average (GPA) served as achievement criteria. Intelligence, the Big Five of personality and motivational variables (achievement motives, goal orientation, task values and ability self-concepts) served as predictors. After controlling for intelligence, girls' grades were significantly better than boys'. Mean sex differences were found for most variables. There were no gender-specific associations between predictors and grades. Agreeableness, work avoidance, ability self-concepts and values ascribed to German mediated the association between sex and grades in German. Controlling for ability self-concepts and values ascribed to Math enhanced the association between sex and math grades. We concluded that personality and motivation play important roles in explaining sex differences in school attainment. Results are discussed against the background of practical and methodological implications. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Is trait-Emotional Intelligence simply or more than just a trait?

    Karen van der Zee
    The present study examined the usefulness of trait-Emotional Intelligence (EI) among a sample of 1186 top managers who filled out questionnaires for Emotional Intelligence and the Big Five and were evaluated by a consultant on their competencies. Three higher-order factors were found to underlie the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On, 1997): sense of accomplishment, empathy, and planfulness. Trait-EI was found to be substantially related to Extraversion, Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Autonomy. Nevertheless, the EI-factors predicted additional variance over and above the Big Five in competency to support. On the whole, top managers scored higher on the EI dimensions compared with a general population sample. High EI scores were particularly found among managers from enterprising occupational environments, that is environments dominated by activities that entail persuading and leading others to attain organizational goals or economic gain. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Predicting Spray Processing Parameters from Required Coating Structural Attributes by Artificial Intelligence,

    A.-F. Kanta
    Predicting processing parameters to manufacture a coating with the required structural attributes is of prime interest to reduce the associate development costs. Such an approach permits, among other advantages, to select the most appropriate scheme among several possible to implement. This paper intends to present such an approach. The specific case of predicting plasma spray process parameters to manufacture a grey alumina (Al2O3 -TiO2, 13% by wt.) coating was considered. [source]

    Change the Analyst and Not the System: A Different Approach to Intelligence Reform

    Uri Bar-Joseph
    Recent intelligence failures, including first and foremost the mistaken estimate of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction (WMD) prior to the war, show that a prime source of such failures is the adherence by analysts to preconceptions (or mind-sets) which entail the rejection of new information that contradicts it. The source of this kind of problem lies in well known psychological mechanisms. Yet official investigations into intelligence blunders have typically ignored this problem or have not suggested an appropriate solution thus far. Our paper suggests an original approach based on the fact that certain types of personalities are more likely than others to fall victim to these biased judgments. Existing psychological tests can help determine individual susceptibility to such tendencies. Therefore we suggest that intelligence organizations should pay far more attention to these personality characteristics, especially an analyst's level of openness, in recruitment, training, and promotion. Such attention would help create more effective reforms in intelligence than organizational models which advocate "devil's advocate" kind of solutions. [source]

    Divalproex Sodium Extended-Release for the Prophylaxis of Migraine Headache in Adolescents: Results of a Stand-Alone, Long-Term Open-Label Safety Study

    HEADACHE, Issue 1 2009
    George Apostol MD
    Objective., The objective of this long-term open-label study in adolescents was to assess the safety and tolerability of divalproex sodium extended-release in the prophylaxis of migraine headaches. Background., Two formulations of divalproex sodium have demonstrated efficacy in the prevention of migraine headaches in adults. However, no medications are currently approved for this indication in adolescents, and long-term safety data on agents for migraine prevention are lacking for this younger population. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of divalproex extended-release in adolescents with migraine headaches. Methods., This was a 12-month, phase 3, open-label, multicenter study of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with migraine headaches diagnosed by International Headache Society criteria. Divalproex sodium extended-release was initiated at 500 mg/day for 15 days then increased to 1000 mg daily, with subsequent adjustments permitted within a dosing range of 250-1000 mg daily. Study visits were conducted at days 1 and 15 and months 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Safety was evaluated by adverse event collection, laboratory assessments, physical and neurological examinations, vital signs, electrocardiograms, the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersřgelser Side Effect Rating Scale, the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and the Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children. Efficacy was evaluated by following the number of migraine headache days reported in subjects' headache diaries over sequential 4-week intervals for the duration of the trial. Results., A total of 241 subjects were enrolled and treated. The most frequently reported adverse events were nausea (19%), vomiting (18%), weight gain (12%), nasopharyngitis (11%), migraine (10%), and upper respiratory tract infection (10%). Ten (4%) subjects experienced serious adverse events, and 40 (17%) subjects discontinued because of an adverse event. Increases in ammonia levels were observed. No other clinically significant changes were observed in laboratory values, vital signs, rating scales, or electrocardiograms. Median 4-week migraine headache days decreased 75% between the first and the fourth months of the study (from 4.0 to 1.0) and remained at or below this level for the remainder of the study. Conclusions., In this long-term open-label study of adolescents with migraine, the safety and tolerability profile of divalproex sodium extended-release was consistent with findings from previous trials in adults, as well as 2 studies recently completed in adolescents. In general, divalproex sodium extended-release was well-tolerated in adolescents with migraine. [source]

    Spies in Uniform: British Military and Naval Intelligence on the Eve of the First World War By Matthew S. Seligmann

    HISTORY, Issue 304 2006
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Good Campers: The History of Australian War Reporting

    Fay Anderson
    When the Chief of British Intelligence told Australia's First Official War Correspondent, C.E.W Bean in October 1914 that war reporters were a ,dying profession', Bean recorded in his diary that on the contrary, he thought it was the beginning of a new era. Bean proved prescient. Since 1863 Australia has had over 750 journalists, photographers and cinematographers covering international conflicts. Despite this tradition, the history of Australian conflict reporting has been neglected by historians. This article will provide an overview of the Australian historiography and the corresponding scholarship in the US and UK. It will also consider seminal issues such as censorship, the mythology and self-mythology surrounding war reporting, media power and the Anzac legend. [source]

    Emotional Intelligence: Toward Clarification of a Concept

    There has been much confusion and controversy concerning the concept of emotional intelligence (EI). Three issues have been particularly bothersome. The first concerns the many conflicting definitions and models of EI. To address this issue, I propose that we distinguish between definitions and models and then adopt a single definition on which the major theorists already seem to agree. I further propose that we more clearly distinguish between EI and the related concept of emotional and social competence (ESC). The second issue that has generated concern is the question of how valid existing measures are. After reviewing the research on the psychometric properties of several popular tests, I conclude that although there is some support for many of them, they all have inherent limitations. We need to rely more on alternative measurement strategies that have been available for some time and also develop new measures that are more sensitive to context. The third area of contention concerns the significance of EI for outcomes such as job performance or leadership effectiveness. Recent research, not available to earlier critics, suggests that EI is positively associated with performance. However, certain ESCs are likely to be stronger predictors of performance than EI in many situations. Also, EI is likely to be more important in certain kinds of situations, such as those involving social interaction or significant levels of stress. Context makes a difference. [source]

    Before Emotional Intelligence: Research on Nonverbal, Emotional, and Social Competences

    First page of article [source]

    Organizing and personalizing intelligence gathering from the web

    Hwee-Leng Ong
    In this paper, we describe how an integrated web-based application, code-named FOCI (Flexible Organizer for Competitive Intelligence), can help the knowledge worker in the gathering, organizing, tracking and dissemination of competitive intelligence (CI). It combines the use of a novel user-configurable clustering, trend analysis and visualization techniques to manage information gathered from the web. FOCI allows its users to define and personalize the organization of the information clusters according to their needs and preferences into portfolios. These personalized portfolios created are saved and can be subsequently tracked and shared with other users. The paper runs through an example to show how the use of a predefined domain template coupled with personalization can greatly enhance an organization and tracking of CI gathered from the web. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Maximum entropy inference for mixed continuous-discrete variables

    Hermann Singer
    We represent knowledge by probability distributions of mixed continuous and discrete variables. From the joint distribution of all items, one can compute arbitrary conditional distributions, which may be used for prediction. However, in many cases only some marginal distributions, inverse probabilities, or moments are known. Under these conditions, a principle is needed to determine the full joint distribution of all variables. The principle of maximum entropy (Jaynes, Phys Rev 1957;106:620,630 and 1957;108:171,190; Jaynes, Probability Theory,The Logic of Science, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003; Haken, Synergetics, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1977; Guiasu and Shenitzer, Math Intell 1985;117:83,106) ensures an unbiased estimation of the full multivariate relationships by using only known facts. For the case of discrete variables, the expert shell SPIRIT implements this approach (cf. Rödder, Artif Intell 2000;117:83,106; Rödder and Meyer, in Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, San Francisco, CA, 2006; Rödder et al., Logical J IGPL 2006;14(3):483,500). In this paper, the approach is generalized to continuous and mixed continuous-discrete distributions and applied to the problem of credit scoring. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Positive Presentation Management and Intelligence and the Personality Differentiation by Intelligence Hypothesis in Job Applicants

    Filip De Fruyt
    Both positive presentation management (PPM) and intelligence are considered as factors influencing the variability of personality self-descriptions. The relationship between PPM and intelligence and the personality differentiation by intelligence hypothesis were examined in a large sample (N=20,183) of job applicants administered the Standard Progressive Matrices and the NEO-PI-R. A composite of 10 NEO-PI-R items served as a PPM marker. Contrary to expectations, PPM and intelligence were not related. Only the variance in openness scores was slightly and linearly associated with IQ, and the variance for neuroticism and extraversion scores was somewhat higher in the IQ range beyond 115. However, congruence and Structural Equation Modelling analyses comparing personality structures for different IQ samples underscored the structural invariance of the NEO-PI-R. It is concluded that the NEO-PI-R keeps its structural properties for individuals across the IQ distribution in selection assessment. [source]

    The Situational Interview as a Predictor of Academic and Team Performance: A Study of the Mediating Effects of Cognitive Ability and Emotional Intelligence

    Sue-Chan Christina
    The criterion-related and construct validity of the situational interview (SI) was examined. Both the SI and cognitive ability had predictive validity for the academic performance of managers and professionals (n=75) in an executive MBA course. Only the SI predicted teamplaying behavior assessed by peers (r=.32, p<.05). The correlation between the SI and cognitive ability was not significant. Emotional intelligence completely mediated the relationship between the SI and teamplaying behavior. [source]

    The Role of Statistics in the Data Revolution?

    Jerome H. Friedman
    Summary The nature of data is rapidly changing. Data sets are becoming increasingly large and complex. Modern methodology for analyzing these new types of data are emerging from the fields of Data Base Managment, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Pattern Recognition, and Data Visualization. So far Statistics as a field has played a minor role. This paper explores some of the reasons for this, and why statisticians should have an interest in participating in the development of new methods for large and complex data sets. [source]