Intoxication

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Intoxication

  • acute alcohol intoxication
  • acute intoxication
  • alcohol intoxication
  • ccl4 intoxication
  • ethanol intoxication
  • ethylene glycol intoxication
  • glycol intoxication
  • moxidectin intoxication
  • subjective intoxication
  • water intoxication


  • Selected Abstracts


    A DELIRIOUS PATIENT WITH OPIOID INTOXICATION AFTER CHEWING A FENTANYL PATCH

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 8 2006
    Rein Van Rijswijk MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Alcohol drinking pattern and subjective health in a population-based study

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2006
    Saverio Stranges
    ABSTRACT Aims Some patterns of alcohol consumption (e.g. binge drinking, drinking outside of meals) have been associated with detrimental effects on health outcomes. Subjective health provides a global assessment of health status and is a strong predictor of total mortality; however, little is known about its relationship with alcohol drinking pattern. The association between several drinking patterns (i.e. drinking intensity and frequency, frequency of intoxication, drinking outside of meals, and beverage type) and subjective health was examined in a random sample of 3586 women and men. Design A population-based cross-sectional study. Methods Subjective health was assessed using the physical and mental health component summaries of the Short Form-36 health survey questionnaire. Alcohol consumption refers to the 30 days before the interview. Analysis of covariance compared gender-specific mean scores across alcohol drinking patterns. Findings Overall, non-current drinkers reported poorer physical and mental health than life-time abstainers and current drinkers, while no consistent differences were found between life-time abstainers and current drinkers. In female current drinkers, daily drinking, beer and mixed beverage consumption were associated with better mental health. In male current drinkers, moderate alcohol consumption (2,2.9 drinks per day), wine and mixed beverage consumption were associated with better physical health. Intoxication and liquor consumption were associated with poorer mental health in women and poorer physical health in men. No consistent associations were found for drinking outside meals. Conclusions Aspects of drinking pattern may affect subjective health differentially in women and men. Overall, intoxication and liquor drinking are associated with poorer self-perceived health status than regular, moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages. [source]


    Lead toxicosis in the horse: A review

    EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, Issue 10 2010
    B. Puschner
    Summary Lead intoxication is rarely diagnosed in horses and can present a major challenge to the equine practitioner because of the variety of clinical signs. Horses with lead poisoning can develop gastrointestinal disturbances, neurological abnormalities, haematological changes, or nonspecific signs of weight loss, weakness and rough hair coat, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Fortunately, lead analysis of whole blood is routinely available and can confirm intoxication. Because of the well-described lead-induced peripheral neuropathies in horses, a thorough neurological examination is essential in the investigation of a suspect case. Once diagnosed, the source of lead has to be identified and further exposure prevented. Intoxication can be treated by administering chelating drugs and providing symptomatic and supportive care. [source]


    Effects of intravenous lidocaine overdose on cardiac electrical activity and blood pressure in the horse

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 5 2001
    G. A. MEYER
    Summary This study aimed to identify blood serum lidocaine concentrations in the horse which resulted in clinical signs of intoxication, and to document the effects of toxic levels on the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems. Nineteen clinically normal mature horses of mixed breed, age and sex were observed. Lidocaine administration was initiated in each subject with an i.v. loading dose of 1.5 mg/kg bwt and followed by continuous infusion of 0.3 mg/kg bwt/min until clinical signs of intoxication were observed. Intoxication was defined as the development of skeletal muscle tremors. Prior to administration of lidocaine, blood samples for lidocaine analysis, heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and electrocardiographic (ECG) data were collected. After recording baseline data, repeat data were collected at 5 min intervals until signs of intoxication were observed. The range of serum lidocaine concentrations at which the clinical signs of intoxication were observed was 1.85,4.53 ,g/ml (mean ± s.d. 3.24 ± 0.74 ,g/ml). Statistically significant changes in P wave duration, P-R interval, R-R interval and Q-T interval were observed in comparison to control values, as a result of lidocaine administration. These changes in ECG values did not fall outside published normal values and were not clinically significant. Heart rate, blood pressures and respiratory rates were unchanged from control values. This study establishes toxic serum lidocaine levels in the horse, and demonstrates that there were no clinically significant cardiovascular effects with serum lidocaine concentrations less than those required to produce signs of toxicity. [source]


    Twenty-three deaths with ,-hydroxybutyrate overdose in western Sweden between 2000 and 2007

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 8 2010
    K. KNUDSEN
    Background: ,-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a status as being safe. In spite of a reputation of low toxicity, a huge number of deaths associated with this drug have been recorded during recent years in Sweden. It is unclear whether coingestion with other drugs or ethanol causes death in GHB overdoses or whether GHB itself is the main cause of death. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the cause of death in GHB-related fatalities seen in our region. Methods: All cases of deaths with GHB during the year 2000,2007 in the region of western Sweden were studied retrospectively. The cases were classified as either GHB poisonings without any, with a minor or a major influence of other drugs on the cause of death. Results: Twenty-three cases were diagnosed as deaths due to GHB overdose. Ninety-one percent coingested other substances. Ninety-one percent of the decedents were male. Age varied between 16 and 46, with the median age at 25 years. Forty-three percent of the cases were classified as GHB poisonings without any or a minor influence of other drugs on the cause of death. Thirty percent also ingested ethanol. Two patients (9%) were only intoxicated with GHB. Conclusions: Intoxication with GHB carries some mortality. Combining GHB with ethanol does not explain the many deaths in our region, nor do extremely high plasma concentrations of GHB. The intake of opioids increases the toxicity of GHB. The drug itself has such biological activities that an overdose is dangerous and may lead to death. [source]


    Sexual Assault and Defendant/Victim Intoxication: Jurors' Perceptions of Guilt,

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    ANNE-MARIE WALL
    The present research investigates how defendant and claimant intoxication operates in sexual-assault trials. Participants (N= 323) were provided with a description of a sexualassault trial in which the intoxication level (sober, moderate, extreme) of both parties was systematically varied. While the introduction of alcohol altered participants' perceptions of the case and of the parties involved, a complex interplay between the defendant's and complainant's level of intoxication was apparent. When the complainant was sober, harsher judgments were rendered when the defendant was intoxicated, particularly at the extreme level. In contrast, when the complainant was moderately intoxicated, more guilty verdicts occurred when the defendant was similarly inebriated. Finally, when the complainant was extremely intoxicated, the defendant's beverage consumption did not exert any discemible impact. Evaluations of both parties' abilities to self-regulate their behavior and for the female target to become sexually disinhibited were also influenced by the intoxication manipulation. [source]


    Discovery and design of novel inhibitors of botulinus neurotoxin A: targeted ,hinge' peptide libraries

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    J. Hayden
    Abstract Intoxication by the zinc protease botulinus neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) results from cleavage of a single Q,R bond in the neuronal protein SNAP-25, which disables the docking mechanism required for neurotransmitter release. In the present study, potential inhibitors of BoNT-A were assessed from their effects on the BoNT-A cleavage of a synthetic 17-mer peptide (SNAP-25, residues 187,203) spanning the Q,R cleavage site. Compounds that inhibited BoNT-A included thiols (zinc chelators) such as dithiothreitol, dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid and captopril. In addition, compounds containing multiple acidic functions, such as the SNARE motif V2 (ELDDRADALQ), the tripeptide Glu-Glu-Glu and the steroid glycoside glycyrrhizic acid, were effective inhibitors. ,Hinge' peptide mini-libraries (PMLs) having the structure acetyl-X1 -X2 -linker-X3 -X4 -NH2 or X1 -X2 -linker-X3, where X1,X4 were mixtures of selected amino acids and the flexible linker was 4-aminobutyric acid, also provided effective inhibition. Targeted PMLs containing the acidic amino acids Asp and Glu, the scissile-bond amino acids Gln and Arg and the zinc chelators His and Cys produced pronounced inhibition of BoNT-A. Deconvolution of these libraries will provide novel ligands with improved inhibitory potency as leads in the design of peptide mimetics to treat BoNT poisoning. Copyright ? 2003 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Pralidoxime and l -lactate effects in vitro on the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by paraoxon: pralidoxime does not confer superior protection

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    Georg Petroianu
    Abstract Intoxication with the organophosphorus compound paraoxon (POX), an inhibitor of serine hydrolases, is frequent. Although oximes are the only enzyme reactivators presently available, clinical experience with their use was rather disappointing. Recent work has shown that under certain conditions l -lactate is also able to reduce in vitro the POX inhibition of butyrylcholine- and acetylcholineesterase (BChE and AChE). To assess the practical relevance, if any, of these findings, the protective effects of pralidoxime (PRX) and those of lactate had to be compared in the same in vitro model. Effects of PRX on the inhibition of AChE by POX were assessed in vitro in plasma of 12 (six male and six female) healthy human volunteers. The determinations were repeated using different oxime and different POX concentrations. The AChE activity determinations were performed using the following sampler: sample BL,baseline (or untreated plasma); sample a,after addition of POX to plasma (pl + POX); sample b,after POX and plasma were incubated and then oxime was added (pl + POX/PRX); sample c,after addition of oxime to plasma (pl + PRX); sample d,after oxime and plasma were incubated and then POX was added (pl + PRX/POX); sample e,after oxime and POX were incubated and then added to plasma (PRX + POX/pl). Results were corrected for spurious enzyme ,pseudo-activity' due to interaction between PRX and substrate (acetylthiocholine) in the absence of enzyme. In the micro- and millimolar ranges, PRX is able to protect in vitro AChE from inhibition by POX when added to human plasma prior to POX or when incubated with POX prior to addition to plasma. Adding PRX to plasma after POX has no protective effect. The PRX results were compared statistically with historical lactate data (obtained under identical conditions) using the Wilcoxon matched pairs test, with significance assumed for p = 0.01. No difference between PRX and lactate's protective effect on the AChE inhibition by POX was found in the in vitro model used. We therefore conclude that in vivo testing of lactate as a POX protective agent is warranted. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Combined Dextromethorphan and Chlorpheniramine Intoxication in Impaired Drivers

    JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 5 2009
    Barry K. Logan Ph.D., D-ABFT
    Abstract:, Dextromethorphan is a nonprescription antitussive which has been gaining in popularity as an abused drug, because of the hallucinogenic, dissociative, and intoxicating effects it produces at high doses. This report describes a series of eight drivers arrested for driving under the influence of the combined effects of dextromethorphan and chlorpheniramine, and a further four drivers under the influence of dextromethorphan alone. In the combined dextromethorphan/chlorpheniramine cases, blood dextromethorphan concentrations ranged from 150 to 1220 ng/mL (n = 8; mean 676 ng/mL, median 670 ng/mL), and chlorpheniramine concentrations ranged from 70 to 270 ng/mL (n = 8; mean 200 ng/mL, median 180 ng/mL). The four cases without chlorpheniramine present had blood dextromethorphan concentrations between 190 and 1000 ng/mL (mean 570 ng/mL, median 545 ng/mL). Some drivers had therapeutic concentrations of other drugs present. Drivers generally displayed symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depressant intoxication, and there was gross evidence of impairment in their driving, including weaving, leaving the lane of travel, failing to obey traffic signals, and involvement in collisions. Drug Recognition Expert opinions confirmed that the subjects were under the influence of a drug in the CNS-depressant category. [source]


    Blood Cyanide Determination in Two Cases of Fatal Intoxication: Comparison Between Headspace Gas Chromatography and a Spectrophotometric Method*

    JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 6 2007
    Veniero Gambaro M.Sc.
    Abstract:, Blood samples of two cases were analyzed preliminarily by a classical spectrophotometric method (VIS) and by an automated headspace gas chromatographic method with nitrogen-phosphorus detector (HS-GC/NPD). In the former, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was quantitatively determined by measuring the absorbance of chromophores forming as a result of interaction with chloramine T. In the automated HS-GC/NPD method, blood was placed in a headspace vial, internal standard (acetonitrile) and acetic acid were then added. This resulted in cyanide being liberated as HCN. The spectrophotometric (VIS) and HS-GC/NPD methods were validated on postmortem blood samples fortified with potassium cyanide in the ranges 0.5,10 and 0.05,5 ,g/mL, respectively. Detection limits were 0.2 ,g/mL for VIS and 0.05 ,g/mL for HS-GC/NPD. This work shows that results obtained by means of the two procedures were insignificantly different and that they compared favorably. They are suitable for rapid diagnosis of cyanide in postmortem cases. [source]


    Intoxication With Bourbon Versus Vodka: Effects on Hangover, Sleep, and Next-Day Neurocognitive Performance in Young Adults

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2010
    Damaris J. Rohsenow
    Background:, This study assessed the effects of heavy drinking with high or low congener beverages on next-day neurocognitive performance, and the extent to which these effects were mediated by alcohol-related sleep disturbance or alcoholic beverage congeners, and correlated with the intensity of hangover. Methods:, Healthy heavy drinkers age 21 to 33 (n = 95) participated in 2 drinking nights after an acclimatization night. They drank to a mean of 0.11 g% breath alcohol concentration on vodka or bourbon one night with matched placebo the other night, randomized for type and order. Polysomnography recordings were made overnight; self-report and neurocognitive measures were assessed the next morning. Results:, After alcohol, people had more hangover and more decrements in tests requiring both sustained attention and speed. Hangover correlated with poorer performance on these measures. Alcohol decreased sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep, and increased wake time and next-day sleepiness. Alcohol effects on sleep correlated with hangover but did not mediate the effects on performance. No effect of beverage congeners was found except on hangover severity, with people feeling worse after bourbon. Virtually no sex differences appeared. Conclusions:, As drinking to this level affects complex cognitive abilities, safety could be affected, with implications for driving and for safety-sensitive occupations. Congener content affects only how people feel the next day so does not increase risk. The sleep disrupting effects of alcohol did not account for the impaired performance so other mechanisms of effect need to be sought. As hangover symptoms correlate with impaired performance, these might be contributing to the impairment. [source]


    Alcohol Price and Intoxication in College Bars

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2009
    Ryan J. O'Mara
    Background:, Many population studies find that alcohol prices are inversely related to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, including among college students and young adults. Yet, little is known about the "micro-level" effects of alcohol price on the behavior of individual consumers in natural drinking settings such as college bars. Therefore, we assessed patron's cost per gram of ethanol consumed at on-premise drinking establishments and its association with intoxication upon leaving an establishment. Methods:, On 4 consecutive nights during April 2008, data were collected from 804 patrons exiting 7 on-premise establishments in a bar district located adjacent to a large university campus in the southeastern United States. Anonymous interview and survey data were collected as well as breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) readings. We calculated each patron's expenditures per unit of ethanol consumed based on self-reported information regarding the type, size, number, and cost of consumed drinks. Results:, A multivariable model revealed that a 10-cent increase in cost per gram of ethanol at on-premise establishments was associated with a 30% reduction in the risk of exiting an establishment intoxicated (i.e., BrAC , 0.08 g/210 l). Conclusions:, The results are consistent with economic theory and population-level research regarding the price elasticity of alcoholic beverages, which show that increases in alcohol prices are accompanied by less alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that stricter regulation of the drink discounting practices of on-premise drinking establishments would be an effective strategy for reducing the intoxication levels of exiting patrons. [source]


    Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Paroxetine on Aggression in Men

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2009
    Michael S. McCloskey
    Background:, The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the serotonin (5-HT) system in alcohol-related aggression. Methods:, Specifically, we experimentally examined the effects of 5-HT augmentation on alcohol-related aggression in men (n = 56). After consuming either alcohol (mean blood alcohol concentration of 0.10%) or a placebo (no alcohol) drink, and taking either 20 mg of paroxetine (Paxil®) or a placebo pill, participants were provided the opportunity to administer electric shock to a (faux) opponent during a task disguised as a reaction-time game. Aggression was defined as the intensity of shock chosen and the frequency with which an extreme (clearly painful) shock was chosen. We predicted that 5-HT augmentation would be associated with lower aggressive behavior overall, and also reduce the aggression facilitating effects of acute alcohol intoxication. Results:, The results indicated that alcohol intoxication increased aggression, particularly under low provocation. Paroxetine decreased aggression, particularly during high provocation. These effects, however, occurred independently of each other. Conclusions:, The effect of alcohol on extreme aggression was moderated by previous aggression history, with more aggressive individuals showing greater alcohol-related increases in extreme aggression. [source]


    The Language of Intoxication: Preliminary Investigations

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2009
    Ash Levitt
    Background:, The extensive vocabulary individuals use to describe alcohol's subjective effects has largely gone unexamined in contemporary alcohol research. The present study examined the language drinkers use to describe their own intoxication. It is argued that this language can provide a more complete characterization of alcohol's subjective effects than is available from existing objective and subjective measures of alcohol use and can inform future self-report research. Method:, Toward this goal, a preliminary, cross-sectional, web-based study of the familiarity and usage of current intoxication-related words was conducted in 2 different samples (n = 290 and 146, respectively) of university undergraduates. Results:, Exploratory factor analyses using data from the first sample and confirmatory factor analyses using data from the second sample similarly showed that commonly used terms loaded onto 2 factors, which directly reflected the number of drinks required to be considered moderately or heavily intoxicated, respectively. Gender differences were also found in the familiarity and self-use of some terms across both samples. Conclusions:, The findings suggest that alcohol researchers include multiple intoxication-related terms in future self-report research, and to periodically assess current intoxication-related vocabulary considering demographic, generational, and socio-cultural differences. [source]


    Ethanol Exposure Impairs LPS-Induced Pulmonary LIX Expression: Alveolar Epithelial Cell Dysfunction as a Consequence of Acute Intoxication

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2009
    James E. Walker Jr
    Background:, Alcohol intoxication impairs innate immune responses to bacterial pneumonia, including neutrophil influx. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chemokine (LIX or CXCL5) is a recently described chemokine produced by type-II alveolar epithelial (AE2) cells which facilitates neutrophil recruitment. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on AE2 cell expression of LIX is unknown. Methods:, C57BL/6 mice were given an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of ethanol (4 g/kg) or saline 30 minutes prior to intratracheal (i.t.) injection with 10 ,g Escherichia coli LPS. In vitro stimulation of primary AE2 cells or murine AE2 cell line MLE-12 was performed with LPS and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-,). Results:, LIX protein is readily detectable in the lung but not in plasma following LPS administration, demonstrating "compartmentalization" of this chemokine during pulmonary challenge. In contrast to the CXC chemokines keratinocyte-derived chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, which are abundantly expressed in both lung tissue and alveolar macrophages, LIX expression is largely confined to the lung parenchyma. Compared to controls, intoxicated animals show a decrease in LIX and neutrophil number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid following LPS challenge. Ethanol inhibits LIX at the transcriptional level. In vitro studies show that LPS and TNF-, are synergistic in inducing LIX by either primary AE2 or MLE-12 cells. Acute ethanol exposure potently and dose-dependently inhibits LIX expression by AE2 cells. Activation of nuclear factor-,B is critical to LIX expression in MLE-12 cells, and acute ethanol treatment interferes with early activation of this pathway as evidenced by impairing phosphorylation of p65 (RelA). Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, but not ERK1/2 activity, in MLE-12 cells by acute alcohol is likely an important cause of decreased LIX expression during challenge. Conclusions:, These data demonstrate direct suppression of AE2 cell innate immune function by ethanol and add to our understanding of the mechanisms by which acute intoxication impairs the lung's response to microbial challenge. [source]


    Glutamate Export at the Choroid Plexus in Health, Thiamin Deficiency, and Ethanol Intoxication: Review and Hypothesis

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2008
    Peter F. Nixon
    Introduction:, The earliest observed effect in the pathogenesis of experimental Wernicke's encephalopathy and of ethanol intoxication in rats is impairment of the blood cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier at the choroid plexus (CP). For an explanation, these observations direct attention to the role of the CP in maintaining glutamate homeostasis in the CSF. Methods:, Characteristics of the CP epithelium (CPE) are reviewed, focusing on its role in removal of glutamate from the CSF and its potential for impairment by ethanol oxidation or by thiamin-deficient glucose oxidation. Results:, The export of glutamate from CSF to blood at the CP is energy dependent, saturable, and stereospecific. However, the incapacity of the CP to convert glutamate to other metabolites makes it vulnerable to glutamate accumulation should ,-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity be decreased. Elsewhere ethanol metabolism and thiamin-deficiency independently decrease the activity of this mitochondrial enzyme. We argue that they have the same effect within the mitochondria-rich CPE, thereby decreasing energy production necessary for export of glutamate from CSF to blood; diverting its energy metabolism to further glutamate production; and impairing its blood CSF barrier function. This impairment appears to be mediated by glutamate and is attenuated by MK801 but whether it involves one of the CPE glutamate receptors is yet uncertain. This impairment exposes the CSF and hence the paraventricular brain extracellular fluid to neuroactive substances from the blood, including further glutamate, explaining the paraventricular location of neuropathology in Wernicke's encephalopathy. Other organs normally protected from blood by a barrier are affected also by ethanol abuse and by thiamin deficiency, namely the eye, peripheral nerves, and the testis. Much less is known regarding the function of these barriers. Conclusions:, Impairment of the CP by ethanol intoxication and by thiamin-deficient carbohydrate metabolism has a common, rational explanation that can guide future research. [source]


    The Effect of Acute Ethanol Intoxication on Salivary Proteins of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2008
    Napoleon Waszkiewicz
    Background:, Human salivary proteins: peroxidase, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and IgA, participate in the protection of oral tissues, as well as upper digestive and respiratory tracts, against a number of microbial pathogens. In the current study, we investigated the effect of acute consumption of a large dose of ethanol on representative human salivary proteins of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Methods:, Eight healthy male volunteers drank an average of 2.0 g (1.4 to 2.5 g/kg) body weight of ethanol, in the form of vodka, in the 6-hour period. Samples of resting whole saliva were collected 12 hours before, then 36 and 108 hours after, the alcohol consumption. The levels of total protein, immunoglobulin A, lysozyme and lactoferrin as well as peroxidase activity were determined in saliva. Results:, At 36 hours after alcohol consumption, salivary protein and lysozyme concentrations as well as peroxidase activity were significantly decreased (p = 0.002, p = 0.043, and p = 0.003, respectively), in comparison to the values obtained at 12 hours before drinking. Between 36 and 108 hours after alcohol consumption, the salivary protein and lysozyme concentrations, as well as peroxidase activity showed a tendency to increase, although at 108 hours after the drinking session, the concentration of protein and peroxidase activity were still significantly lower than before drinking. There was no significant change in the level of lactoferrin, after the drinking session. The salivary concentration of IgA tended to increase at 36 hours after alcohol consumption, and at 108 hours it was significantly higher (p = 0.028), when compared to IgA concentration in the saliva collected before drinking (from 8% to 26% and 32% of total protein content, respectively). Conclusion:, Our report is the first to show that acute ingestion of relatively large, yet tolerable dose of alcohol, significantly disturbs salivary antimicrobial defense system. Reduced lysozyme level and decreased peroxidase activity may contribute to increased susceptibility to infections, when acute alcohol intake coincides with exposure to pathogens. [source]


    Acute Alcohol Intoxication During Hemorrhagic Shock: Impact on Host Defense From Infection

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2004
    K. L. Zambell
    Abstract: Background: Acute alcohol intoxication is a frequent underlying condition associated with traumatic injury. Our studies have demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication significantly impairs the immediate hemodynamic, metabolic, and inflammatory responses to hemorrhagic shock. This study investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication during hemorrhagic shock would alter the outcome from an infectious challenge during the initial 24 hr recovery period. Methods: Chronically catheterized male Sprague Dawley® rats were randomized to acute alcohol intoxication (EtOH; 1.75 g/kg bolus followed by a constant 15 hr infusion at 250,300 mg/kg/hr) or isocaloric isovolemic dextrose infusion (dex; 3 ml + 0.375 ml/hr). EtOH and dex were assigned to either fixed-volume (50%) hemorrhagic shock followed by fluid resuscitation with Ringer's lactate (EtOH/hem, dex/hem) or sham hemorrhagic shock (EtOH/sham, dex/sham). Indexes of circulating neutrophil function (apoptosis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst) were obtained at baseline, at completion of hemorrhagic shock, and at the end of fluid resuscitation. Bacterial clearance, lung cytokine expression, and myeloperoxidase activity were determined at 6 and 18 hr after an intratracheal challenge with Klebsiella pneumoniae (107 colony-forming units). Results: Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly lower in acute alcohol intoxication-hemorrhagic shock animals throughout the hemorrhagic shock. In sham animals, acute alcohol intoxication alone did not produce significant changes in neutrophil apoptosis or phagocytic activity but significantly suppressed phorbol myristic acid (PMA)-stimulated oxidative burst. Hemorrhagic shock produced a modest increase in neutrophil apoptosis and suppression of neutrophil phagocytic capacity but significantly suppressed PMA-stimulated oxidative burst. Acute alcohol intoxication exacerbated the hemorrhagic shock-induced neutrophil apoptosis and the hemorrhagic shock-induced suppression of phagocytosis without further affecting PMA-stimulated oxidative burst. Fluid resuscitation did not restore neutrophil phagocytosis or oxidative burst. Acute alcohol intoxication decreased (,40%) 3-day survival from K. pneumoniae in hemorrhagic shock animals, impaired bacterial clearance during the first 18 hr postinfection, and prolonged lung proinflammatory cytokine expression. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the early alterations in metabolic and inflammatory responses to hemorrhagic shock produced by acute alcohol intoxication are associated with neutrophil dysfunction and impaired host response to a secondary infectious challenge leading to increased morbidity and mortality. [source]


    Fast, but Error-Prone, Responses During Acute Alcohol Intoxication: Effects of Stimulus-Response Mapping Complexity

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2004
    Tom A. Schweizer
    Abstract: Background: Although moderate doses of alcohol can impair performance on tasks that require information processing, little is known about the locus of the alcohol effects within the processing stream. This study used a psychological refractory period paradigm to investigate the effect of alcohol on the central, cognitive stage of information processing when task complexity is manipulated by altering stimulus-response compatibility. Methods: Thirty-four healthy male social drinkers were assigned to one of two groups (n= 17) that performed two tasks. Each trial consisted of a task 1 stimulus (tone) followed by a task 2 stimulus (letter) that was presented after one of four stimulus onset asynchronies (50, 200, 500, or 1100 msec). A baseline test of performance was obtained before the groups received a beverage containing either 0.0 g/kg (placebo) or 0.65 g/kg alcohol. Both groups were retested when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was increasing and was decreasing. Results: The alcohol group made significantly more errors in task 1 compared with their drug-free baseline measure during the ascending phase of the BAC curve, and error rates increased to a greater extent for the more complex arbitrary stimulus-response mapping condition. Moreover, this increase in errors continued unabated during the descending phase of the BAC curve. Increasing BACs also slowed performance (longer reaction time), but unlike errors, reaction time returned to drug-free baseline levels when BAC was decreasing. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that an acute dose of alcohol can impair one aspect of the central, cognitive stages of information processing. The possibility that errors in information processing remain during decreasing BACs even after processing speed has returned to drug-free levels has important practical implications relating to the detrimental consequences of acute alcohol intoxication. [source]


    Disruption of Maternal Behavior by Alcohol Intoxication in the Lactating Rat: A Behavioral and Metabolic Analysis

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2002
    Marta Yanina Pepino
    Background Preweanling rats exhibit clear behavioral signs of distress after interacting with an alcohol-intoxicated dam. Interestingly, behavioral reactivity of infants to the experience of alcohol in the nursing context decreases as a function of repeated alcohol administrations to the mother. In this study, maternal activities were examined when dams were exposed to repeated administrations of a subnarcoleptic alcohol dose. Maternal changes in alcohol metabolism were also analyzed as a function of repeated exposures to the drug. Methods During postpartum days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13, nursing dams received an intragastric administration of either 2.5 g/kg of alcohol or water. Maternal behaviors were evaluated (experiment 1). Blood alcohol levels (BALs) of the dams were determined on postpartum day 16 after all mothers received either an intragastric (experiment 2) or an intraperitoneal (experiment 3) dose of alcohol. The doses used (2.5 g/kg intragastrically and 1.5 g/kg intraperitoneally) were chosen because they promote similar peak BALs in dams naive to alcohol. Results Maternal behaviors were strongly affected by the state of intoxication. Nevertheless, these disruptions clearly subsided with progression of alcohol-related experiences (experiment 1). Chromatographic analysis of alcohol metabolism indicated the development of tolerance in dams that had prior experience with alcohol (experiment 2). Changes in BALs as a function of prior experience with alcohol seemed related to first-pass alcohol metabolism rather than hepatic oxidative processes of the drug (experiments 2 and 3). Conclusions When the dam first experiences a moderate state of alcohol intoxication, maternal behaviors are uniformly disrupted. Subsequent exposures to alcohol lead to maternal metabolic tolerance. In conjunction with previous studies, these data indicate that infantile reactivity to alcohol is dependent on how the members of the dam/pup dyad express or perceive ethanol's postabsorptive effects. [source]


    Early Responsiveness to Stimuli Paired With Different Stages Within the State of Alcohol Intoxication

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2002
    Ricardo M. Pautassi
    Background: Infant rats quickly learn to avoid a sensory cue paired with alcohol as an unconditioned stimulus, particularly when the drug reaches peak blood concentrations. In this study, a tactile cue paired with the onset of alcohol intoxication preceded subsequent presentations of a gustatory conditioned stimulus (CS). The goal was to address the possibility of differential conditioning depending on when stimuli were introduced during the course of the toxic state. Methods: In experiment 1, rat pups received sequential presentations of a salient texture (sandpaper) and a gustatory cue (saccharin) while intoxicated with a 2.5 g/kg alcohol dose or after receiving saline. Texture location tests and saccharin intake assessments were then performed. A third modality of assessment was defined by a saccharin intake test while pups simultaneously experienced sandpaper. In experiment 2, alcohol-mediated conditioning was followed by tests similar to those of experiment 1, but after pups were re-exposed to either the tactile CS or the alcohol-unconditioned stimulus. Results: Conditioned taste aversions, due to pairing saccharin and the later stage of alcohol intoxication, were reliably established in both experiments. Also in both experiments, this excitatory aversive response was dramatically inhibited when the association between the texture CS and the earlier stage of alcohol intoxication was activated. There were no indications of conditioned motor responses to the tactile CS that might compete with intake behavior of saccharin or distort measurement of an appetitive memory derived from pairing the texture and the earlier stage of intoxication. Conclusions: Rat pups' expression of an association between a taste signaling aversive consequences of alcohol was eliminated by the presence of a tactile stimulus that originally had signaled the absence of aversive consequences of alcohol intoxication. The results suggest the interaction of inhibitory and excitatory conditioning involving the aversive properties of alcohol. [source]


    The Identification of Alcohol Intoxication by Police

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2001
    John Brick
    Background: The identification of alcohol intoxication by police, bartenders, social hosts, and potential passengers is an important issue in the prevention of alcohol-related driving accidents. This study examines the ability of police officers to correctly identify and make ratings of the sobriety of target drinkers presented on video. Methods: Raters were asked to determine (1) whether the target drinker had been drinking alcohol, (2) whether it was "okay" to serve the target another drink, and (3) whether the target drinker was "okay" to drive. A rater confidence score for each target evaluated, as well as demographic characteristics about the raters, was obtained. Results: Drinkers were accurately targeted to low (0.08,0.09%), medium (0.11,0.13%), and high (0.15,0.16%) blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) by using a method previously described. At lower BACs, most police officers were unable to identify whether or not targets had been drinking. Raters were "pretty sure" that targets in the 0.15,0.16% range had been drinking and "not sure" whether or not they should be served another drink or drive a car. Conclusions: The ability of raters to reliably identify target drinkers who were too intoxicated to drive safely was not obtained until the BACs were relatively high. These results suggest that prevention measures must focus on improving behavioral observations made of potential drunk drivers. Implications for bartenders and social hosts are discussed. [source]


    The Use of Sarmazenil in the Treatment of a Moxidectin Intoxication in a Foal

    JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, Issue 3 2005
    Jessika-M.V. Müller
    A13-day-old Arabian Thoroughbred filly weighing 40 kg (88 1b) was presented to the University of Zurich Equine Clinic with a history of depression after deworming with moxidectin at a dose of 2 mg/kg (recommended dose 0.4 mg/kg body weight)a the day before admission. The foal was found recumbent 12 hours after drug administration and was in an unconscious state 6 hours later [source]


    Adaptation of Mesenteric Collecting Lymphatic Pump Function Following Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 7 2010
    FLAVIA M. SOUZA-SMITH
    Please cite this paper as: Souza-Smith, Kurtz, Molina and Breslin (2010). Adaptation of Mesenteric Collecting Lymphatic Pump Function Following Acute Alcohol Intoxication. Microcirculation17(7), 514,524. Abstract Objective:, Acute alcohol intoxication increases intestinal lymph flow by unknown mechanisms, potentially impacting mucosal immunity. We tested the hypothesis that enhanced intrinsic pump function of mesenteric lymphatics contributes to increased intestinal lymph flow during alcohol intoxication. Methods:, Acute alcohol intoxication was produced by intragastric administration of 30% alcohol to conscious, unrestrained rats through surgically implanted catheters. Time-matched controls received either no bolus, vehicle, or isocaloric dextrose. Thirty minutes after alcohol administration, rats were anesthetized and mesenteric collecting lymphatics were isolated and cannulated to study intrinsic pumping parameters. In separate experiments, mesenteric lymphatics were isolated to examine direct effects of alcohol on intrinsic pump activity. Results:, Lymphatics isolated from alcohol-intoxicated animals displayed significantly decreased CF compared to the dextrose group, elevated SVI versus all other groups, and decreased myogenic responsiveness compared to sham. Elevating pressure from 2 to 4 cm H2O increased the volume flow index 2.4-fold in the alcohol group versus 1.4-fold for shams. Isolated lymphatics exposed to 20 mM alcohol had reduced myogenic tone, without changes in CF or SVI. Conclusions:, Alcohol intoxication enhances intrinsic pumping by mesenteric collecting lymphatics. Alcohol directly decreases lymphatic myogenic tone, but effects on phasic contractions occur by an unidentified mechanism. [source]


    Severe intoxication after an intentional overdose of amlodipine

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 8 2003
    L. Rasmussen
    Intoxication with 280 mg of amlodipine caused severe hypotension, third-degree heart block and hyperkalaemia in a 36-year-old female patient. The patient was initially treated with fluids, dopamine, calcium chloride, and epinephrine without effect. The patient was then given a bolus injection of insulin and glucose as a temporary mean to treat the hyperkalaemia. We observed a rise in blood pressure (BP) after insulin was given and the BP was subsequently responsive to epinephrine. A possible positive inotropic effect of insulin therapy in patients with calcium channel blocker intoxication is in accordance with previous findings. In conclusion, it is suggested that hyperinsulinaemia-euglycaemia therapy may be considered as a first-line therapy in calcium channel blocker intoxication. [source]


    Holy Intoxication to Drunken Dissipation: Alcohol among Quichua Speakers in Otavalo, Ecuador

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 4 2006
    MAXIMILIAN VIATORI
    Holy Intoxication to Drunken Dissipation: Alcohol among Quichua Speakers in Otavalo, Ecuador. Barbara Y. Butler. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico press, 2006. 452 pp. [source]


    Moonflower Intoxication in Kansas

    THE AMERICAN JOURNAL ON ADDICTIONS, Issue 4 2005
    Mohamed Ramadan M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Foodborne Infections and Intoxications: Need of a Multidisciplinary Approach for Control

    MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue 7 2004
    Helge KarchArticle first published online: 19 NOV 200
    [source]


    Seizures associated with poisoning in children: tricyclic antidepressant intoxication

    PEDIATRICS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 6 2006
    AGOP ÇITAK
    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of seizure due to poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis, throughout 4 years of hospital admissions for poisoning. Data of patients with seizures due to poisoning were evaluated with respect to the causes, frequencies and complications of seizures. Results: Among the 1561 admissions due to intoxication during the review period, seizures developed in 26 cases (1.6%). Tricyclic antidepressant overdose (n = 11, 42%) was the leading cause of seizure due to poisoning. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were observed in 24 patients. Status epilepticus developed in six patients (23%). Mechanical ventilation was applied in 12 (46%) patients. Cardiac complications were observed in 11 (42%) patients with seizures. Two patients who had cardiac arrest due to acepromazin maleat and imipramine intoxication died. Conclusion: One of the causes of seizures in pediatric age group is intoxication. Seizures due to intoxications may cause serious clinical conditions. Intoxications should be thought when a patient is admitted with the diagnosis of afebrile seizure even if there is no history of drug intake. [source]


    Prognostic impact of psychoactive substances use during hospitalization for intentional drug overdose

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2 2005
    M. Tournier
    Objective:, To assess whether current use of psychoactive substance(s) is a prognostic factor during hospitalization for intentional drug overdose (IDO). Method:, Current intoxication with psychoactive substance(s) [cannabis, opiate, buprenorphine, amphetamine/ecstasy, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)] was identified using toxicological urinalysis in 671 patients with IDO. An IDO was a priori defined as serious if associated with one of the following events: death, hospitalization in intensive care unit longer than 48 h, respiratory support, use of vasopressive drugs, cardiac massage or dialysis. Results:, Subjects positive for toxicological assays were twice as likely to present with serious IDO (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3,2.8, P = 0.001), independently from a large range of confounding factors. The risk of serious IDO was especially marked in subjects using LSD, buprenorphine or opiates. Conclusion:, Systematic investigation of substance use could be important to adapt medical management of subjects with IDO in general hospital, but also in primary care and psychiatric settings. [source]