Intolerant Species (intolerant + species)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Trade-offs in low-light CO2 exchange: a component of variation in shade tolerance among cold temperate tree seedlings

M. B. Walters
Abstract 1.,Does enhanced whole-plant CO2 exchange in moderately low to high light occur at the cost of greater CO2 loss rates at very-low light levels? We examined this question for first-year seedlings of intolerant Populus tremuloides and Betula papyrifera, intermediate Betula alleghaniensis, and tolerant Ostrya virginiana and Acer saccharum grown in moderately low (7·3% of open-sky) and low (2·8%) light. We predicted that, compared with shade-tolerant species, intolerant species would have characteristics leading to greater whole-plant CO2 exchange rates in moderately low to high light levels, and to higher CO2 loss rates at very-low light levels. 2.,Compared with shade-tolerant A. saccharum, less-tolerant species grown in both light treatments had greater mass-based photosynthetic rates, leaf, stem and root respiration rates, leaf mass:plant mass ratios and leaf area:leaf mass ratios, and similar whole-plant light compensation points and leaf-based quantum yields. 3.,Whole-plant CO2 exchange responses to light (0·3,600 µmol quanta m,2 s,1) indicated that intolerant species had more positive CO2 exchange rates at all but very-low light (< 15 µmol quanta m,2 s,1). In contrast, although tolerant A. saccharum had a net CO2 exchange disadvantage at light > 15 µmol quanta m,2 s,1, its lower respiration resulted in lower CO2 losses than other species at light < 15 µmol quanta m,2 s,1. 4.,Growth scaled closely with whole-plant CO2 exchange characteristics and especially with integrated whole-plant photosynthesis (i.e. leaf mass ratio × in situ leaf photosynthesis). In contrast, growth scaled poorly with leaf-level quantum yield, light compensation point, and light-saturated photosynthetic rate. 5.,Collectively these patterns indicated that: (a) no species was able to both minimize CO2 loss at very-low light (i.e. < 15 µmol quanta m,2 s,1) and maximize CO2 gain at higher light (i.e. > 15 µmol quanta m,2 s,1), because whole-plant respiration rates were positively associated with whole-plant photosynthesis at higher light; (b) shade-intolerant species possess traits that maximize whole-plant CO2 exchange (and thus growth) in moderately low to high light levels, but these traits may lead to long-term growth and survival disadvantages in very-low light (< 2·8%) owing, in part, to high respiration. In contrast, shade-tolerant species may minimize CO2 losses in very-low light at the expense of maximizing CO2 gain potential at higher light levels, but to the possible benefit of long-term survival in low light. [source]

Influence of herbivory, competition and soil fertility on the abundance of Cirsium arvense in acid grassland

G.R. Edwards
Summary 1. ,The extent to which the weed Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle) may be controlled by manipulating interspecific competition and herbivory was examined in two factorial experiments in order to identify non-chemical herbicide-based control methods for the weed. 2. ,In the first experiment, a single spring cultivation of grassland intensively grazed by rabbits led to a 25-fold increase in C. arvense cover within 3 months, the effects of which were still present the following summer. As well as destroying the competing perennial vegetation, cultivation created and dispersed small root fragments (3,5 cm in length) from which almost all shoot recruitment occurred. 3. ,Fencing the cultivated plots against rabbits decreased the cover of C. arvense because ungrazed regrowth from palatable/grazing intolerant species reduced recruitment of C. arvense seedlings and shoots. Seedling competition, in the form of a wildflower seed mix sown soon after cultivation, reduced C. arvense cover on fenced plots to pre-cultivation levels. 4. ,In the second experiment, conducted in a permanent grassland, C. arvense shoot densities on plots fenced against rabbits and treated as a hay meadow were about one-eighth of those found on rabbit-grazed plots where competing vegetation was kept short. Adventitious shoot recruitment was greater on soil disturbances such as molehills and rabbit scrapes than in intact vegetation. Seedling recruitment occurred only on soil disturbances such as molehills. 5. ,Lime and nitrogen fertilizer application to the fenced grassland increased the standing biomass of competing species, which reduced C. arvense shoot density. Outside the fences, rabbit grazing was so concentrated on the competing species of the nitrogen-fertilized and limed areas that C. arvense benefited from competitive release, exhibiting increased shoot density. Cirsium arvense showed pronounced competitive release from grasses, with greater shoot densities where grasses were removed with selective herbicides than where no plant species were removed. 6. ,Exclusion of insects and molluscs with chemical pesticides had no effect on shoot or seedling recruitment or overall shoot density on cultivated soil or in permanent grassland. 7. ,It is concluded that combinations of management procedures that encourage interspecific competition, such as sowing crops soon after cultivation and delaying grazing of them, and nitrogen fertilizer application and non- or reduced grazing of intact grasslands, will help reduce C. arvense abundance. [source]

Leaf dry matter content and lateral spread predict response to land use change for six subalpine grassland species

Nicolas Gross
Abstract Question: Land-use change has a major impact on terrestrial plant communities by affecting fertility and disturbance. We test how particular combinations of plant functional traits can predict species responses to these factors and their abundance in the field by examining whether trade-offs at the trait level (fundamental trade-offs) are linked to trade-offs at the response level (secondary trade-offs). Location: Central French Alps. Methods: We conducted a pot experiment in which we characterized plant trait syndromes by measuring whole plant and leaf traits for six dominant species, originating from contrasting subalpine grassland types. We characterized their response to nutrient availability, shading and clipping. We quantified factors linked with different land usage in the field to test the relevance of our experimental treatments. Results: We showed that land management affected nutrient concentration in soil, light availability and disturbance intensity. We identified particular suites of traits linked to plant stature and leaf structure which were associated with species responses to these environmental factors. Leaf dry matter content separates fast and slow growing species. Height and lateral spread separated tolerant and intolerant species to shade and clipping. Discussion and Conclusion: Two fundamental trade-offs based on stature traits and leaf traits were linked to two secondary trade-offs based on response to fertilization shade and mowing. Based on these trade-offs, we discuss four different species strategies which could explain and predict species distributions and traits syndrome at community scale under different land-uses in subalpine grasslands. [source]

Use of Cell-Specific PAM-Fluorometry to Characterize Host Shading in the Epiphytic Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus

MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
Tracy A. Villareal
Abstract. Cell-specific fluorescence characteristics were used to characterize the light tolerance of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. The fluorescence parameter Fv : Fm was measured using pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometry on individual cells collected from foliose red algae growing in the sub-tidal margin of South Water Cay, Belize. Samples were collected over several days during sunny and cloudy conditions and compared to samples incubated in situ. The data from individual cells were used to generate both Fv : Fm frequency histograms and averages. Maximum individual cell values of Fv : Fm reached 0.81 in pre-dawn samples, a value near the theoretical maximum for PAM fluorometry. In field samples from macroalgal hosts, average Fv : Fm values declined only slightly during the day, but cells incubated in bottles under 47 % incident sunlight showed a significant mid-day depression. In freshly collected samples, near-maximum Fv : Fm values could be found in individual cells during the entire day; however, the frequency histograms indicated a greater range in Fv : Fm values during the afternoon than in the morning. In contrast, cultures of G. toxicus showed a tight distribution around a mean. Field samples showed a rapid recovery to near-maximum Fv : Fm within 2 min when assayed using a standardized actinic light series. Similar results were obtained in laboratory cultures of G. toxicus grown at 73 µmol photons · m -2 · s -1, but not at 383 µmol photons · m -2 · s -1. These data provide empirical support for suggestions that G. toxicus exploits the three-dimensional structure of the algal host thallus to minimize light exposure. This strategy permits G. toxicus, a high-light intolerant species in culture, to thrive in shallow, well-lit tropical seas. It may also partially explain the observed preference of G. toxicus for complex, foliose macroalgae as hosts. [source]

Submergence-induced leaf acclimation in terrestrial species varying in flooding tolerance

Liesje Mommer
Summary ,,Earlier work on the submergence-tolerant species Rumex palustris revealed that leaf anatomical and morphological changes induced by submergence enhance underwater gas exchange considerably. Here, the hypothesis is tested that these plastic responses are typical properties of submergence-tolerant species. ,,Submergence-induced plasticity in leaf mass area (LMA) and leaf, cell wall and cuticle thickness was investigated in nine plant species differing considerably in tolerance to complete submergence. The functionality of the responses for underwater gas exchange was evaluated by recording oxygen partial pressures inside the petioles when plants were submerged. ,,Acclimation to submergence resulted in a decrease in all leaf parameters, including cuticle thickness, in all species irrespective of flooding tolerance. Consequently, internal oxygen partial pressures (pO2) increased significantly in all species until values were close to air saturation. Only in nonacclimated leaves in darkness did intolerant species have a significantly lower pO2 than tolerant species. ,,These results suggest that submergence-induced leaf plasticity, albeit a prerequisite for underwater survival, does not discriminate tolerant from intolerant species. It is hypothesized that these plastic leaf responses may be induced in all species by several signals present during submergence; for example, low LMA may be a response to low photosynthate concentrations and a thin cuticle may be a response to high relative humidity. [source]