Intimate Partner Violence (intimate + partner_violence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


REDUCING INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE: MOVING BEYOND CRIMINAL JUSTICE INTERVENTIONS

CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 4 2008
RICHARD R. PETERSON
First page of article [source]


INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN THE MILITARY: SECURING OUR COUNTRY, STARTING WITH THE HOME1

FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2009
Simeon StammArticle first published online: 13 MAR 200
This Note discusses domestic violence in the military. Currently, in cases of domestic violence in the military, the Case Review Committee uses the Incident Severity Index for Spouse Abuse to determine the severity of abuse. The Case Review Committee uses this index when determining treatment options for the perpetrator of domestic violence. However, this index is extremely inconsistent with the current views and emerging research of domestic violence. This Note identifies the problems with the current system and gives recommendations for ways to improve the system. The Note concludes that a new system would enhance the military's ability to combat domestic violence. [source]


Characteristics of Household Addresses That Repeatedly Contact 911 to Report Intimate Partner Violence

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 6 2004
Debra Houry MD
Abstract Objectives: To determine whether households that generate several 911 calls differ in important ways from those that make a single call and to determine whether households that generate repeat 911 calls for intimate partner violence (IPV) experience more severe violence than those that do not. Methods: All cases of police-documented IPV were reviewed and linked with their respective 911 calls. Each incident report was reviewed to determine the relationship between the offender and victim, demographic characteristics of the offender and victim, weapon and substance involvement, prior incidents of IPV, and violence severity. Results: Of the 1,505 IPV addresses identified during the 12-month study interval, 1,010 (67.1%) placed more than one phone call to report IPV. Sixty-nine percent of African American victims, 50.6% of white victims, and 36.8% of Hispanic victims were repeat callers (p < 0.001). There were no differences between addresses that generated repeat calls versus single calls with respect to offender alcohol or drug involvement, presence of children, victim age, or offender age. Sixty-seven percent of households with severe violence and 66.9% of households with minor violence generated repeat 911 calls (p = 0.98). Conclusions: Ethnic differences in 911 use for IPV exist between African Americans, whites, and Hispanics. However, unknown societal, economic, or cultural issues could have influenced this finding. Households that repeatedly contacted 911 during the study interval to report IPV were not more likely to experience severe violence than those that placed a single 911 call. [source]


When intimate partner violence against women and HIV collide:Challenges for healthcare assessment and intervention

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC NURSING, Issue 2 2010
FAAN, Kimberly Adams Tufts DNP, WHNP-BC
Abstract Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) both constitute major public health issues that impact the overall health of women. IPV, including sexual assault, remains a persistent public health concern that has proven to be both difficult and significantly dangerous to prevent and treat. Based on data from UNAIDS more than 14.5 million women were living with HIV by the end of 2005. IPV and HIV are often interrelated. Exposure to IPV has been associated with an increased risk for contracting HIV and women who are living with HIV may be more likely to become victims of IPV. Implications: comprehensive care and services have to be offered in the context of where women seek health care. Screening and effective intervention for IPV are essential components of HIV-related services including prevention programming, voluntary counseling and testing, and treatment. Including IPV-related services into the context of HIV-related services delivers the message that violence is not a taboo topic in the health-care setting. [source]


Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adult Dating, Cohabitating, and Married Drinking Partnerships

JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 2 2010
Jacquelyn D. Wiersma
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined intimate partner violence (IPV) and drinking partnerships in 741 young adults in male-female dating, cohabitating, and married relationships. Cluster analyses revealed four similar kinds of drinking partnerships: (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b) discrepant male heavy and frequent, (c) discrepant female heavy and infrequent, and (d) congruent moderate/heavy-frequent drinkers. Overall, there were no significant main effect differences across relationship type and clusters. The type of relationship and the type of drinking partnership interacted with contexts examined (i.e., type of violence severity, gender, and whether the violence was perpetration or victimization). Given the severity of IPV in couple relationships, additional empirical attention to drinking partnerships is warranted. [source]


Views of Intimate Partner Violence in Same- and Opposite-Sex Relationships

JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 2 2009
Susan B. Sorenson
Attitudes toward same-sex intimate relationships and intimate partner violence (IPV) are changing. Little research, however, has examined norms about IPV in same-sex relationships. Using a fractional factorial (experimental vignette) design, we conducted random-digit-dialed interviews in four languages with 3,679 community-residing adults. Multivariate analyses of responses to 14,734 vignettes suggest that IPV against gay male, lesbian, and heterosexual women is more likely than that against heterosexual men to be considered illegal and that it should be illegal, police called, and a stay-away order issued. Regardless of gender and sexual orientation, the type of abuse and whether a weapon was displayed are the strongest predictors of respondents' judgments about whether a behavior is illegal and merits a range of societal interventions. [source]


Male Versus Female Intimate Partner Violence: Putting Controversial Findings Into Context

JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 5 2005
Amy Holtzworth-Munroe
First page of article [source]


Services and Intimate Partner Violence in the United States: A County-Level Analysis

JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 3 2005
Jill Tiefenthaler
Despite the prevalence of intimate partner violence and its social costs, we show that many counties lack services to help victims and that community resources play a significant role in determining the likelihood of service provision. Because resources are often generated at the local level and state and federal funding usually require a grant proposal, services for victims of intimate partner violence are more likely to be available in well-resourced areas with a major college or university in the county. Analysis of the changes in the provision of services since the Violence Against Women Act was introduced suggests that funding needs to be specifically targeted to underserved areas. [source]


Does Alcohol Involvement Increase the Severity of Intimate Partner Violence?

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2010
Christy M. McKinney
Background:, Most studies that have examined alcohol use immediately prior to intimate partner violence (IPV) have been limited to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and are subject to a number of methodological limitations. We add new information concerning the relationship between alcohol involvement and severity of IPV, MFPV, and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV). Methods:, We analyzed data from a 1995 U.S. national population-based survey of couples ,18 years old. We examined 436 couples who reported IPV and had information on alcohol involvement with IPV. We measured IPV using a revised Conflict Tactics Scale, Form R that asked respondents about 11 violent behaviors in the past year. Respondents were classified into mutually exclusive categories as having experienced mild only or mild + severe ("severe") IPV, MFPV or FMPV. Respondents were also asked if they or their partner were drinking at the time the violent behavior occurred and were classified as exposed to IPV with or without alcohol involvement. We estimated proportions, odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p -values of the proposed associations, accounting for the complex survey design. Results:, Overall, 30.2% of couples who reported IPV reported alcohol involved IPV; 69.8% reported no alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild only) IPV were more than twice as likely to report alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild) MFPV or FMPV were more likely to report female but not male alcohol involvement. Though estimates were positive and strong, most confidence intervals were compatible with a wide range of estimates including no association. Conclusions:, Our findings suggest alcohol involvement of either or both in the couple increases the risk of severe IPV. Our findings also suggest female alcohol use may play an important role in determining the severity of IPV, MFPV or FMPV. [source]


Intimate Partner Violence: Development of a Brief Risk Assessment for the Emergency Department

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 11 2009
Carolyn Snider MD
Abstract Objectives:, Women assaulted by intimate partners are frequently patients in emergency departments (EDs). Many victims and health care providers fail to take into account the potential risks of repeat partner violence. The objective of this study was to use data from a larger study of domestic violence risk assessment methods to develop a brief assessment for acute care settings to identify victims at highest risk for suffering severe injury or potentially lethal assault by an intimate partner or former partner. Methods:, Victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were interviewed twice between 2002 and 2004. The baseline interview included the 20 items of Campbell's Danger Assessment (DA; predictor). The follow-up interview, conducted 9 months later on average, assessed abuse inflicted since the baseline interview (outcome). Multiple logistic regression was used to identify questions on the DA most predictive of severe abuse and potentially lethal assaults. Female IPV victims were recruited from New York City family courts, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department 9-1-1 calls, New York City and Los Angeles shelters, and New York City hospitals; 666 women responded to the DA at baseline, and 60% participated in follow-up interviews. Results:, Severe injuries or potentially lethal assaults were experience by 14.9% of retained study participants between the baseline and follow-up interviews. The best brief prediction instrument has five questions. A positive answer to any three questions has a sensitivity of 83% (95% confidence interval = 70.6% to 91.4%). Conclusions:, This instrument can help predict which victims may be at increased risk for severe injury or potentially lethal assault and can aid clinicians in differentiating which patients require comprehensive safety interventions. [source]


Reports of Police Calls for Service as a Risk Indicator for Intimate Partner Violence

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 1 2009
Melissa E. Dichter MSW
Abstract Objectives:, The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of asking female emergency department (ED) patients about police calls for service as a possible indicator of intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods:, Trained research assistants screened female, adult, English-speaking patients presenting to an urban university ED 7am to midnight, 7 days per week during the 2006,2007 academic year. Patients were asked two commonly used IPV screening questions regarding past-year experience with physical violence or threat by an intimate partner and whether or not the police had been called due to a fight between themselves and a male partner. Results:, Of the 4,984 patients screened, 3.9% screened positive for an IPV-related police call in the past 12 months; more than one-third (37.8%) of those screened negative for IPV on the traditional screening questions. The question about an IPV-related police call for service identified an additional 74 cases of possible IPV, representing 1.5% of the overall sample or a 30.8% increase over those identified with the traditional IPV screening questions. Conclusions:, Adding an additional question regarding police calls to standard IPV screening could alert healthcare providers to possible IPV risk. [source]


Witnessing Intimate Partner Violence as a Child Does Not Increase the Likelihood of Becoming an Adult Intimate Partner Violence Victim

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 5 2007
Amy A. Ernst MD
ObjectivesTo determine whether adults who witnessed intimate partner violence (IPV) as children would have an increased rate of being victims of ongoing IPV, as measured by the Ongoing Violence Assessment Tool (OVAT), compared with adult controls who did not witness IPV as children. The authors also sought to determine whether there were differences in demographics in these two groups. MethodsThis was a cross sectional cohort study of patients presenting to a high-volume academic emergency department. Emergency department patients presenting from November 16, 2005, to January 5, 2006, during 46 randomized four-hour shifts were included. A confidential computer touch-screen data entry program was used for collecting demographic data, including witnessing IPV as a child and the OVAT. Main outcome measures were witnessing IPV as a child, ongoing IPV, and associated demographics. Assuming a prevalence of IPV of 20% and a clinically significant difference of 20% between adults who witnessed IPV as children and adult controls who did not witness IPV as children, the study was powered at 80%, with 215 subjects included. ResultsA total of 280 subjects were entered; 256 had complete data sets. Forty-nine percent of subjects were male, 45% were Hispanic, 72 (28%) were adults who witnessed IPV as children, and 184 (72%) were adult controls who did not witness IPV as children. Sixty-three (23.5%) were positive for ongoing IPV. There was no correlation of adults who witnessed IPV as children with the presence of ongoing IPV, as determined by univariate and bivariate analysis. Twenty-three of 72 (32%) of the adults who witnessed IPV as children, and 39 of 184 (21%) of the adult controls who did not witness IPV as children, were positive for IPV (difference, 11%; 95% confidence interval [CI] =,2% to 23%). Significant correlations with having witnessed IPV as a child included age younger than 40 years (odds ratio [OR], 4.2; 95% CI = 1.7 to 9.1), income less than 20,000/year (OR, 5.1; 95% CI = 1.6 to 12.5), and abuse as a child (OR, 9.1; 95% CI = 4.2 to 19.6). Other demographics were not significantly correlated with having witnessed IPV as a child. ConclusionsAdults who witnessed IPV as children were more likely to have a lower income, be younger, and have been abused as a child, but not more likely to be positive for ongoing IPV, when compared with patients who had not witnessed IPV. [source]


Intimate partner violence and cardiovascular risk: is there a link?

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 10 2009
Kelly Scott-Storey
Abstract Title.,Intimate partner violence and cardiovascular risk: is there a link? Aim., This paper is a report of a study of the relationship between stress associated with intimate partner violence and smoking and cardiovascular risk. Background., Stress related to intimate partner violence persists after a woman leaves an abusive relationship. Persistent stress is associated with cardiovascular disease, the leading single cause of death among women. Smoking, an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is a coping mechanism commonly used to decrease the anxiety and stress of intimate partner violence. However, cardiovascular health is poorly understood in abused women. Method., Secondary analysis of data collected between 2004 and 2005 with a community sample of 309 women who had separated from an abusive partner 3 months to 3 years previously was conducted to create a descriptive profile of cardiovascular risk. Bivariate tests of association and logistic regression analysis were used to test relationships among variables. Results., Of the women, 441% were smokers; 532% had body mass indices classified as overweight or obese; 547% had blood pressures above normal range; and 508% reported cardiovascular symptoms. Neither severity of intimate partner violence nor smoking behaviours were statistically significant in explaining the presence of cardiovascular symptoms. Conclusion., The prevalence of hypertension, obesity and smoking suggests that survivors of intimate partner violence may be at heightened risk for cardiovascular disease and warrant clinical attention. Because cardiac symptoms develop as women get older, the mean age of 39 years in this sample may explain why intimate partner violence severity and smoking did not sufficiently explain the presence of cardiac symptoms. [source]


Survival of intimate partner violence as experienced by women

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 3 2005
Aune Flinck MNSc
Aims and objectives., The study set out to describe women's experiences of intimate partner violence, the consequences of such violence, the help they received and women's experiences of their survival. Background., Social and health professionals do not have sufficient ability to identify and help families who suffer from intimate partner violence. Methods for identifying and treating partner violence not have been developed adequately. Method., The study was conducted in Finland by loosely formulated open-ended interviews with seven battered women. The data were analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Findings., Women had past experience of maltreatment and a distressing climate at their parental home. Women experienced both themselves and their spouse as having weak identities; their ideals, patterns of marriage and sexuality were different. Violence occurred in situations of disagreement. Women tried to strike a balance between independence and dependence in the relationship. The different forms of couple violence were interlinked. The women sought help when their health and social relationships got worse. An awareness of the problem, taking action, counselling and social relationships helped them survive. Religiousness was a factor that involved commitment to the couple relationship, made religious demands on women and promoted the recovery of integrity. Conclusions., Intimate partner violence was associated with the family model, childhood experience of maltreatment, the partners' weak identity and conflicts between individualism and familism. Social and healthcare professionals need competence in early intervention and skills to discuss moral principles, sexuality, and violence in a way that is free of prejudice and condemning attitudes. Spiritual approaches in the context of interventions should be taken into consideration. Relevance to clinical practice., In a clinical context, nurses should be aware of the symptoms of violence, and they should have skills in dealing with intimate moral and spiritual issues. [source]


The informal social control of intimate partner violence against women: Exploring personal attitudes and perceived neighborhood social cohesion

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 8 2007
Victoria Frye
Intimate partner violence against women is a major public health and social problem. However, our understanding of how the geographic community or neighborhood influences its distribution is underdeveloped. In contrast, there is accumulating evidence that neighborhood characteristics, such as social cohesion and related neighborhood factors, are associated with general violence both at the neighborhood and individual levels. Drawing insights from social disorganization, feminist, and bystander intervention research and theory, this cross-sectional, exploratory study examines influences on the predicted likelihood of intervening in general and intimate partner violence situations, termed enacting informal social control. Specificially, perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion and related neighborhood factors, and personal attitudes toward intimate partner violence are assessed using data from a community sample of 119 New York City residents. Results indicate that perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion were not positively related to predicted likelihood of enacting informal social control of either general violence or intimate partner violence. Personal attitudes towards intimate partner violence were positively associated with predicted informal social control of intimate partner, but not general violence. The need for further research in this area and theoretical and practical implications of the findings for intimate partner violence against women prevention are discussed. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 35: 1001,1018, 2007. [source]


Intimate partner violence and child abuse: a child-centred perspective

CHILD ABUSE REVIEW, Issue 1 2010
Chris Goddard
Abstract A substantial body of literature assessing the impact of intimate partner violence on children and associations between intimate partner violence and child abuse now exists. Central to knowledge about these areas of practice and research is a robust, child-centred consideration of some of the more challenging conceptual issues they give rise to. In this paper, we aim to stimulate debate by presenting a critical, child-centred perspective on the intersection between intimate partner violence and child abuse. Initially, we provide the context for the review by presenting a brief overview of the literature. We then consider three central issues from a child-centred perspective. We discuss the language used to describe children forced to live with intimate partner violence, and the importance of hearing children's perspectives on their experiences of such conflict. Finally, we consider similarities and differences between the intimate partner violence and child abuse fields from a child-centred viewpoint. We conclude that increasing conceptual clarity around these issues will enhance research in the field, and ultimately improve interventions designed to protect children forced to live with intimate partner violence. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


THE SOCIAL ECOLOGY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN,

CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
JANET L. LAURITSEN
Despite more than three decades of research on the topic of violence against women, the relative contribution of individual, family and community factors to victimization risk remains unknown. We use self-report data from the Area-Identified National Crime Victimization Survey to study the correlates of stranger, nonstranger and intimate,partner violence against women. Regardless of victim-offender relationship, we find that the risk for victimization is highest among young, single women with children, particularly those who have lived in the current home for relatively shorter periods. Area family and age composition appear to have stronger direct relationships with women's violence than poverty or racial composition measures. We also find there to be more similarities than differences in the individual, family, and community correlates of stranger, nonstranger and intimate partner violence. We discuss these findings as part of the growing body of multilevel literature on violence and on violence against women. [source]


Characteristics of Household Addresses That Repeatedly Contact 911 to Report Intimate Partner Violence

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 6 2004
Debra Houry MD
Abstract Objectives: To determine whether households that generate several 911 calls differ in important ways from those that make a single call and to determine whether households that generate repeat 911 calls for intimate partner violence (IPV) experience more severe violence than those that do not. Methods: All cases of police-documented IPV were reviewed and linked with their respective 911 calls. Each incident report was reviewed to determine the relationship between the offender and victim, demographic characteristics of the offender and victim, weapon and substance involvement, prior incidents of IPV, and violence severity. Results: Of the 1,505 IPV addresses identified during the 12-month study interval, 1,010 (67.1%) placed more than one phone call to report IPV. Sixty-nine percent of African American victims, 50.6% of white victims, and 36.8% of Hispanic victims were repeat callers (p < 0.001). There were no differences between addresses that generated repeat calls versus single calls with respect to offender alcohol or drug involvement, presence of children, victim age, or offender age. Sixty-seven percent of households with severe violence and 66.9% of households with minor violence generated repeat 911 calls (p = 0.98). Conclusions: Ethnic differences in 911 use for IPV exist between African Americans, whites, and Hispanics. However, unknown societal, economic, or cultural issues could have influenced this finding. Households that repeatedly contacted 911 during the study interval to report IPV were not more likely to experience severe violence than those that placed a single 911 call. [source]


Intimate partner violence and cardiovascular risk: is there a link?

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 10 2009
Kelly Scott-Storey
Abstract Title.,Intimate partner violence and cardiovascular risk: is there a link? Aim., This paper is a report of a study of the relationship between stress associated with intimate partner violence and smoking and cardiovascular risk. Background., Stress related to intimate partner violence persists after a woman leaves an abusive relationship. Persistent stress is associated with cardiovascular disease, the leading single cause of death among women. Smoking, an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is a coping mechanism commonly used to decrease the anxiety and stress of intimate partner violence. However, cardiovascular health is poorly understood in abused women. Method., Secondary analysis of data collected between 2004 and 2005 with a community sample of 309 women who had separated from an abusive partner 3 months to 3 years previously was conducted to create a descriptive profile of cardiovascular risk. Bivariate tests of association and logistic regression analysis were used to test relationships among variables. Results., Of the women, 441% were smokers; 532% had body mass indices classified as overweight or obese; 547% had blood pressures above normal range; and 508% reported cardiovascular symptoms. Neither severity of intimate partner violence nor smoking behaviours were statistically significant in explaining the presence of cardiovascular symptoms. Conclusion., The prevalence of hypertension, obesity and smoking suggests that survivors of intimate partner violence may be at heightened risk for cardiovascular disease and warrant clinical attention. Because cardiac symptoms develop as women get older, the mean age of 39 years in this sample may explain why intimate partner violence severity and smoking did not sufficiently explain the presence of cardiac symptoms. [source]


Survival of intimate partner violence as experienced by women

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 3 2005
Aune Flinck MNSc
Aims and objectives., The study set out to describe women's experiences of intimate partner violence, the consequences of such violence, the help they received and women's experiences of their survival. Background., Social and health professionals do not have sufficient ability to identify and help families who suffer from intimate partner violence. Methods for identifying and treating partner violence not have been developed adequately. Method., The study was conducted in Finland by loosely formulated open-ended interviews with seven battered women. The data were analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Findings., Women had past experience of maltreatment and a distressing climate at their parental home. Women experienced both themselves and their spouse as having weak identities; their ideals, patterns of marriage and sexuality were different. Violence occurred in situations of disagreement. Women tried to strike a balance between independence and dependence in the relationship. The different forms of couple violence were interlinked. The women sought help when their health and social relationships got worse. An awareness of the problem, taking action, counselling and social relationships helped them survive. Religiousness was a factor that involved commitment to the couple relationship, made religious demands on women and promoted the recovery of integrity. Conclusions., Intimate partner violence was associated with the family model, childhood experience of maltreatment, the partners' weak identity and conflicts between individualism and familism. Social and healthcare professionals need competence in early intervention and skills to discuss moral principles, sexuality, and violence in a way that is free of prejudice and condemning attitudes. Spiritual approaches in the context of interventions should be taken into consideration. Relevance to clinical practice., In a clinical context, nurses should be aware of the symptoms of violence, and they should have skills in dealing with intimate moral and spiritual issues. [source]


Enhancing spiritual well-being among suicidal African American female survivors of intimate partner violence

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 10 2007
Natalie C. Arnette
Spirituality has been identified as one component of a culturally competent therapeutic intervention for African American women. The present study was designed to investigate the ability of factors, such as level of hopelessness and the use of positive religious coping strategies, to predict spiritual well-being over time. Seventy-four low-income African American women were administered self-report questionnaires measuring hopelessness, use of religious coping strategies, and two domains of spiritual well-being. Path analysis indicated that hopelessness, existential well-being, religious well-being, and positive religious coping are correlated with one another. Further, lower levels of hopelessness predict increases in existential well-being over time; higher levels of positive religious coping predict increases in religious well-being over time. Results were consistent with the study hypotheses and highlight the need to attend to predictors of spiritual well-being when implementing culturally relevant interventions with abused, suicidal African American women. Therapeutic strategies for reducing hopelessness and enhancing positive religious coping to improve spiritual and existential well-being are presented; such strategies will ensure the interventions are more culturally competent. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 63: 909,924, 2007. [source]


Longitudinal relations between employment and depressive symptoms in low-income, suicidal African American women

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
Nathan Mascaro
Unemployment and depression are problematic at both individual and societal levels, and research suggests that the two phenomena are related. More thorough and longitudinal analyses, particularly ones within low-income minority populations, are needed to guide the development of programs to increase employment in persons with mental health problems. The current study aimed to specify the relations over time between depressive symptoms and employment status within a sample of 46 low-income African American women participating in an intervention study for intimate partner violence and suicidal behavior. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis indicated that baseline levels of depressive symptoms predicted employment status at the end of a 10-week intervention period, controlling for baseline employment status. Chi-square analysis and qualitative analyses of trends in depression scores showed that changes in employment status during the 10-week intervention period predicted 6-month and one-year follow-up levels of depressive symptoms. Results imply that, for women in the currently sampled population, depressive symptoms create vulnerability for job loss, but the ability to gain employment despite high levels of depressive symptoms is linked to lowered depression levels over the long term. Community programs assisting such women could therefore not just lower the vulnerability to job loss by treating depressive symptoms, but they could potentially lower long-term depression levels through interventions that enhance employability and motivation to pursue work. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol. [source]


Coping variables that mediate the relation between intimate partner violence and mental health outcomes among low-income, African American women

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 12 2006
Michelle D. Mitchell
Coping variables that mediate the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health outcomes among African American women were investigated. The study sample included 143 economically disadvantaged African American women ranging in age from 21 to 64 years old who were receiving services at an urban public health system. Sixty-five had experienced IPV within the past year and 78 had never experienced IPV. Results indicated that (a) the IPV status,depressive symptoms link was mediated by multiple ways of coping, spiritual well-being, and social support; (b) the IPV status,anxiety symptoms link was mediated by multiple ways of coping, social support, and ability to access resources; and (c) the IPV status,parenting stress link was mediated by multiple ways of coping, spiritual well-being, and social support. Implications of these findings for clinical practice with abused women are discussed. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 62: 1503,1520, 2006. [source]


Adaptive and maladaptive personality traits as predictors of violent and nonviolent offending behavior in men and women

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 3 2010
Abigail J. Varley Thornton
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess both violent and nonviolent offending behavior in a single, mixed-sex population. The rationale for this is that the two types of offending are usually researched separately, despite evidence that they overlap. A comprehensive measure of general violence, intimate partner violence (IPV), and nonviolent offending behavior was administered to 116 men and 181 women, together with measures of personality and personality disorder (PD) traits, to investigate whether predictors of violent and nonviolent offending were similar or different for men and women. Men were found to perpetrate higher levels of general violence and nonviolent offenses than women, but women perpetrated significantly more IPV than men. Cluster B PD traits predicted all three offense types for women and also men's general violence and nonviolent offending. Women's general violence and men's non-violence also had one unique risk factor each, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness, respectively. The main difference was for IPV, where men's IPV was predicted by cluster A PD traits, indicating that men's and women's risk factors for IPV may be different, although their risk factors for the other offense types were fairly consistent. Aggr. Behav. 36:177,186, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Intimate partner violence relationship dissolution among couples with children: the counterintuitive role of "Law and Order" neighborhoods

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Clifton R. Emery
This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) relationship dissolution and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity, residential instability, collective efficacy, and legal cynicism. Data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Longitudinal survey were used to identify 658 cases of IPV in Wave 1. A generalized boosting model (GBM) was used to determine the best proximal predictors of relationship dissolution from the longitudinal data. Controlling for these predictors, logistic regression of neighborhood characteristics from the PHDCN community survey was used to predict IPV relationship dissolution in Wave 2. Counterintuitively, the authors find that neighborhoods high in legal cynicism have a greater likelihood of IPV relationship dissolution, controlling for other variables in the logistic regression model. However, analyses did not find that IPV relationship dissolution was related to neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity, residential instability, and collective efficacy. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Patterns of partners' abusive behaviors as reported by Latina and non-Latina survivors

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Nancy Glass
This study builds on the existing knowledge of risk factors for lethal intimate partner violence (IPV) and typologies of IPV abusers by exploring patterns of abusive partners' behaviors among known risk factors for intimate partner femicide (i.e., murder of women) and determines if groups of survivors with similar patterns of abusive behaviors exist. The common patterns are then examined for differences among Latina and non-Latina survivors. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with adult English- and Spanish-speaking survivors of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV using a validated risk assessment instrument, the Danger Assessment (DA) Questionnaire. Two-hundred nine IPV survivors participated, 55% Latina. Unique patterns of abusive behaviors perpetrated by an intimate partner or ex-partner across known risk factors for lethal violence were reported. The patterns clustered into five distinct groups: extreme abuser, physical and sexual violence/controlling abuser, forced sex/controlling abuser, threat/controlling abuser, and low-level tactics abuser. Latina and non-Latina survivors reported mean DA scores (13.0 vs. 18.5, respectively) that place them within the "increased danger" and "extreme danger" level, respectively, for lethal violence by an abusive partner. Although both groups were in extreme danger on average, the patterns of abusive behaviors differed. Latina women were more likely to characterize their partner as using forced sex to control the relationship, whereas non-Latina women were more likely to characterize the use of all types of abusive behaviors (i.e., extreme abuser) or threats to kill them (i.e., threat/controlling abuser) to control the relationship. The findings of this study can be used to develop effective individualized safety plans that include culturally and linguistically competent strategies to reduce violence-related morbidity and mortality. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


The informal social control of intimate partner violence against women: Exploring personal attitudes and perceived neighborhood social cohesion

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 8 2007
Victoria Frye
Intimate partner violence against women is a major public health and social problem. However, our understanding of how the geographic community or neighborhood influences its distribution is underdeveloped. In contrast, there is accumulating evidence that neighborhood characteristics, such as social cohesion and related neighborhood factors, are associated with general violence both at the neighborhood and individual levels. Drawing insights from social disorganization, feminist, and bystander intervention research and theory, this cross-sectional, exploratory study examines influences on the predicted likelihood of intervening in general and intimate partner violence situations, termed enacting informal social control. Specificially, perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion and related neighborhood factors, and personal attitudes toward intimate partner violence are assessed using data from a community sample of 119 New York City residents. Results indicate that perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion were not positively related to predicted likelihood of enacting informal social control of either general violence or intimate partner violence. Personal attitudes towards intimate partner violence were positively associated with predicted informal social control of intimate partner, but not general violence. The need for further research in this area and theoretical and practical implications of the findings for intimate partner violence against women prevention are discussed. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 35: 1001,1018, 2007. [source]


When intimate partner violence against women and HIV collide:Challenges for healthcare assessment and intervention

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC NURSING, Issue 2 2010
FAAN, Kimberly Adams Tufts DNP, WHNP-BC
Abstract Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) both constitute major public health issues that impact the overall health of women. IPV, including sexual assault, remains a persistent public health concern that has proven to be both difficult and significantly dangerous to prevent and treat. Based on data from UNAIDS more than 14.5 million women were living with HIV by the end of 2005. IPV and HIV are often interrelated. Exposure to IPV has been associated with an increased risk for contracting HIV and women who are living with HIV may be more likely to become victims of IPV. Implications: comprehensive care and services have to be offered in the context of where women seek health care. Screening and effective intervention for IPV are essential components of HIV-related services including prevention programming, voluntary counseling and testing, and treatment. Including IPV-related services into the context of HIV-related services delivers the message that violence is not a taboo topic in the health-care setting. [source]


How does economic empowerment affect women's risk of intimate partner violence in low and middle income countries?

JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2009
A systematic review of published evidence
Abstract Objectives To identify whether individual and household economic empowerment is associated with lower intimate partner violence in low and middle income country settings. Methods Systematic PubMed and internet searches. Results Published data from 41 sites were reviewed. Household assets and women's higher education were generally protective. Evidence about women's involvement in income generation and experience of past year violence was mixed, with five finding a protective association and six documenting a risk association. Conclusion At an individual and household level, economic development and poverty reduction may have protective impacts on IPV. Context specific factors influence whether financial autonomy is protective or associated with increased risk. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article was published online on 6 October 2008. Errors were subsequently identified. This notice is included in the online and print versions to indicate that both have been corrected [17 April 2009]. [source]


A Qualitative Study of Intimate Partner Violence Universal Screening by Family Therapy Interns: Implications for Practice, Research, Training, and Supervision

JOURNAL OF MARITAL AND FAMILY THERAPY, Issue 1 2008
Jeffrey L. Todahl
Although a few family therapy researchers and clinicians have urged universal screening for intimate partner violence (IPV), how screening is implemented,and, in particular, client and therapist response to screening,is vaguely defined and largely untested. This qualitative study examined the dilemmas experienced by couples and family therapy interns when implementing universal screening for IPV in an outpatient clinic setting. Twenty-two graduate students in a COAMFTE-accredited program were interviewed using qualitative research methods grounded in phenomenology. Three domains, 7 main themes, and 26 subthemes were identified. The three domains that emerged in this study include (a) therapist practice of universal screening, (b) client response to universal screening, and (c) therapist response to universal screening. Implications for practice, research, training, and supervision are discussed. [source]