Intimate Association (intimate + association)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

M cells and associated lymphoid tissue of the equine nasopharyngeal tonsil

Summary The aim of this study was to characterise the morphological and histochemical features of equine nasopharyngeal tonsillar tissue. Nasal and oropharyngeal tonsillar tissue has been described as the gatekeeper to mucosal immunity because of its strategic location at the entrance to the respiratory and alimentary tracts. A combination of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy has revealed the presence of follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying lymphoid tissue of the equine nasopharyngeal tonsil caudal to the pharyngeal opening of the guttural pouch. Membranous microvillus (M) cells were identified in the FAE on the basis of short microvilli, an intimate association with lymphocytes, cytoplasmic vimentin filaments and epitopes on the apical surface reactive with lectin GS I-B4 specific for ,-linked galactose. CD4-positive lymphocytes were scattered throughout the lamina propria mucosae as well as forming dense aggregates in the subepithelial part. The central follicular area was heavily populated with B lymphocytes and the dome and parafollicular areas contained both CD4- and CD8-positive lymphocytes. CD8-positive lymphocytes were also present in the epithelium and, together with B lymphocytes, in small numbers in the lamina propria mucosae. These observations indicate that the nasopharyngeal tonsil is potentially an important mucosal immune induction site in the horse and an appropriate target forintranasally administered vaccines. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2010
Parris T. Humphrey
Vector-borne microbes necessarily co-occur with their hosts and vectors, but the degree to which they share common evolutionary or biogeographic histories remains unexplored. We examine the congruity of the evolutionary and biogeographic histories of the bacterium and vector of the Lyme disease system, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America. In the eastern and midwestern US, Ixodes scapularis ticks are the primary vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Our phylogeographic and demographic analyses of the 16S mitochondrial rDNA suggest that northern I. scapularis populations originated from very few migrants from the southeastern US that expanded rapidly in the Northeast and subsequently in the Midwest after the recession of the Pleistocene ice sheets. Despite this historical gene flow, current tick migration is restricted even between proximal sites within regions. In contrast, B. burgdorferi suffers no barriers to gene flow within the northeastern and midwestern regions but shows clear interregional migration barriers. Despite the intimate association of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis, the population structure, evolutionary history, and historical biogeography of the pathogen are all contrary to its arthropod vector. In the case of Lyme disease, movements of infected vertebrate hosts may play a larger role in the contemporary expansion and homogenization of the pathogen than the movement of tick vectors whose populations continue to bear the historical signature of climate-induced range shifts. [source]

Role for glia in synaptogenesis

GLIA, Issue 3 2004
Erik M. Ullian
Abstract Nearly one-half of the cells in a human brain are astrocytes, but the function of these little cells remains a great mystery. Astrocytes form an intimate association with synapses throughout the adult CNS, where they help regulate ion and neurotransmitter concentrations. Recent in vitro studies, however, have found that astrocytes also exert powerful control over the number of CNS synapses that form, are essential for postsynaptic function, and are required for synaptic stability and maintenance. Moreover, recent studies increasingly implicate astrocytes in vivo as participants in activity-dependent structural and functional synaptic changes throughout the nervous system. Taken together, these data force us to rethink the role of glia. We propose that astrocytes should not be viewed primarily as support cells, but rather as cells that actively control the structural and functional plasticity of synapses in developing and adult organisms. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Clinical and biochemical implications of low thyroid hormone levels (total and free forms) in euthyroid patients with chronic kidney disease

J. J. Carrero
Abstract., Carrero JJ, Qureshi AR, Axelsson J, Yilmaz MI, Rehnmark S, Witt MR, Bárány P, Heimbürger O, Suliman ME, Alvestrand A, Lindholm B, Stenvinkel P (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; and Karo Bio AB, Novum, Huddinge; Sweden). Clinical and biochemical implications of low thyroid hormone levels (total and free forms) in euthyroid patients with chronic kidney disease. J Intern Med 2007; 262: 690,701. Objectives., In this study, we explore the associations of decreased thyroid hormone levels with inflammation, wasting and survival in biochemically euthyroid patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Design., After exclusion of 23 patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values outside the normal range (0.1,4.5 mIU L,1), 187 clinically and biochemically euthyroid incident ESRD stage 5 patients starting dialysis were followed for a median of 20 (range 1,60) months. Measurements of total and free forms of thyroid hormones, s-albumin, hs-CRP, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were performed at baseline. Results., In this population, 17 out of 210 patients (8%) were defined as subclinically hypothyroid. Multivariate analysis, according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, showed that mortality was best predicted by total triiodothyronine (T3). When using the cut-off levels derived from ROC, low T3 levels were associated with increased inflammation (higher hs-CRP, IL-6 and VCAM-1) and lower concentration of both s-albumin and IGF-1. Finally, low T3 but not low free triiodothyronine was associated with worse all-cause (Likelihood ratio = 45.4; P < 0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (Likelihood ratio = 47.8; P < 0.0001) after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusion., This study showed that low T3 levels are independent predictors of all-cause and also cardiovascular disease mortality in biochemically euthyroid patients, perhaps due to an intimate association with inflammation. Based on these results, the use of T3 levels in studies assessing the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and mortality risk is recommended. [source]

Glial-guided neuronal migration in P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cell aggregates

Marcelo F. Santiago
Abstract During development of the nervous system, neuronal precursors that originated in proliferative regions migrate along radial glial fibers to reach their final destination. P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) stem cells exposed to retinoic acid (RA) differentiate into neurons, glia, and fibroblast-like cells. In this work, we induced P19 aggregates for 4 days with RA and plated them onto tissue culture dishes coated with poly-L-lysine. Several cells migrated out of and/or extended processes from the aggregates after 24 hr. Some cell processes were morphologically similar to radial glial fibers and stained for glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) and nestin. Large numbers of migrating cells showed characteristics similar to those of bipolar migrating neurons and expressed the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein 2. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed an intimate association between the radial fibers and the migrating cells. Therefore, the migration of neuron-like cells on radial glia fibers in differentiated P19 aggregates resembled some of the migration models used thus far to study gliophilic neuronal migration. In addition, HPTLC analysis in this system showed the expression of 9-O-acetyl GD3, a ganglioside that has been associated with neuronal migration. Antibody perturbation assays showed that immunoblockage of 9-O-acetyl GD3 arrested neuronal migration in a reversible manner. In summary, we have characterized a new cell culture model for investigation of glial-guided neuronal migration and have shown that 9-O-acetyl GD3 ganglioside has an important role in this phenomenon. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Invertebrate immune systems , not homogeneous, not simple, not well understood

Eric S Loker
Summary:, The approximate 30 extant invertebrate phyla have diversified along separate evolutionary trajectories for hundreds of millions of years. Although recent work understandably has emphasized the commonalities of innate defenses, there is also ample evidence, as from completed genome studies, to suggest that even members of the same invertebrate order have taken significantly different approaches to internal defense. These data suggest that novel immune capabilities will be found among the different phyla. Many invertebrates have intimate associations with symbionts that may play more of a role in internal defense than generally appreciated. Some invertebrates that are either long lived or have colonial body plans may diversify components of their defense systems via somatic mutation. Somatic diversification following pathogen exposure, as seen in plants, has been investigated little in invertebrates. Recent molecular studies of sponges, cnidarians, shrimp, mollusks, sea urchins, tunicates, and lancelets have found surprisingly diversified immune molecules, and a model is presented that supports the adaptive value of diversified non-self recognition molecules in invertebrates. Interactions between invertebrates and viruses also remain poorly understood. As we are in the midst of alarming losses of coral reefs, increased pathogen challenge to invertebrate aquaculture, and rampant invertebrate-transmitted parasites of humans and domestic animals, we need a better understanding of invertebrate immunology. [source]

Morphological Substrate of the Catecholaminergic Input of the Vasopressin Neuronal System in Humans

B. Dudás
It has been postulated that the stress response is associated with water balance via regulating vasopressin release. Nausea, surgical stress and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia were shown to stimulate vasopressin secretion in humans. Increased vasopressin release in turn induces water resorption through the kidneys. Although the mechanism of the stress-mediated vasopressin release is not entirely understood, it is generally accepted that catecholamines play a crucial role in influencing water balance by modulating the secretion of vasopressin. However, the morphological substrate of this modulation has not yet been established. The present study utilised double-label immunohistochemistry to reveal putative juxtapositions between tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (IR) catecholaminergic system and the vasopressin systems in the human hypothalamus. In the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, numerous vasopressin-IR neurones received TH-IR axon varicosities. Analysis of these juxtapositions with high magnification combined with oil immersion did not reveal any gaps between the contacted elements. In conclusion, the intimate associations between the TH-IR and vasopressin-IR elements may be functional synapses and may represent the morphological basis of vasopressin release modulated by stressors. Because certain vasopressin-IR perikarya receive no detectable TH innervations, it is possible that additional mechanisms may participate in the stress-influenced vasopressin release. [source]

Rice root colonisation by mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi in aerobic soil

M. Vallino
Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous root symbionts that form intimate associations with the majority of plants growing in aerobic soil; fungal endophytes live internally, either intercellularly or intracellularly, and asymptomatically within plant tissues. Their presence is correlated with an increased response to biotic and abiotic stress. The populations of AM and of endophytic fungi were studied in the roots of different rice varieties grown in aerobic condition, in experimental fields in Vercelli, North Italy. All the rice varieties resulted colonised by AM fungi with a percentage of arbuscularisation ranging between 4% and 28%. Preliminary molecular analyses on some rice varieties showed that the AM population was composed of fungi identified as Glomus intraradices, on the basis of 18S ribosomal gene. All the varieties analysed but one resulted in colonisation by endophytic fungi. About 300 fungal isolates were obtained, belonging mainly to the genera Neotyphodium, Stagonospora and Penicillium. [source]