Intima-media Thickness (intima-media + thickness)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Intima-media Thickness

  • artery intima-media thickness
  • carotid artery intima-media thickness
  • carotid intima-media thickness


  • Selected Abstracts


    Relationship Between Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Thoracic Aortic Intima-Media Thickness

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2006
    Recep Demirbag M.D.
    It is known that antioxidants have an important role in the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). Low total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease. However, no data are available concerning the relationship between TAC and severity of thoracic aortic atherosclerosis. This study using multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examined the relationship between atherosclerotic thoracic aortic intima-media thickness (TAIMT) and TAC. Twenty-nine patients (17 male, 12 female; mean age 36 8 years) without a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease referred for TEE were included. The patients with obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and CAD were excluded. The TAC was measured for each patient using a more recently developed method. TAIMT and grade of thoracic aortic atherosclerosis were evaluated in each patient by using TEE. Mean TAC level was 1.91 0.53 mmol Trolox equiv/l. There was a negative and significant correlation between the TAC levels and TAIMT and grade of thoracic aortic atherosclerosis (r =,0.799, P < 0.001 versus r =,0.827, P < 0.001, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TAIMT was independently associated with TAC (,=,0.734, P < 0.001). The mean values of TAC in grade I, II, and III were 2.23 0.31, 1.58 0.31, and 1.04 0.27 mmol Trolox equiv/l, respectively (ANOVA P < 0.001). This study indicates that the TAC is an independent variable for TAIMT and it has a potential for an independent variable for atherosclerotic lesions in the major arterial locations. [source]


    Subclinical Atherosclerosis: Evolving Role of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

    PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    FRCPC, Farouk Mookadam MD
    Cardiovascular risk factors have utility in risk prediction but have limitations in predicting individual risk. Identifying an individual's risk remains a challenge. Emerging technologies such as carotid artery ultrasonography and measures of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) may be useful in identifying the susceptible patient who may benefit from more aggressive preventive therapy. This screening test is noninvasive, reproducible, inexpensive, and radiation-free. Recent data have improved our understanding of the application of CIMT as a screening tool for cardiovascular disease. CIMT measurement may place an individual into a higher- or lower-risk category, allowing for appropriate institution of preventive strategies. Prev Cardiol. 2010;13:186,197.2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    The "Null Effect" of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering on a Modest Baseline Intima-Media Thickness: Lessons Learned From the ENHANCE Trial

    PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Barry A. Franklin PhD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plaques in Hemodialysis Patients

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 9 2000
    Radovan Hojs
    Abstract: Atherosclerosis is accelerated in hemodialysis patients. Using B-mode ultrasonography, we compared intima-media thickness (IMT) and the prevalence of plaques in the common carotid and internal carotid arteries in 28 randomly selected hemodialysis patients with that in 28 age- and sex-matched normal controls. The IMT values of the common carotid and internal carotid arteries were higher in hemodialysis patients than in controls with more hemodialysis patients having plaques. In hemodialysis patients, there was a relationship between age and IMT in the common carotid arteries, in the area of bifurcation, and in the internal carotid arteries. We found no relationship between IMT and atherosclerotic risk factors or duration of hemodialysis treatment. IMT at all sites correlated with the number of plaques. Age was the only significant determinant for number of plaques. The results indicate that hemodialysis patients showed advanced atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries compared with age- and sex-matched normal subjects. [source]


    Association between alcohol consumption and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentration in men with Type 2 diabetes: a link to decreased cardiovascular risk

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2005
    M. Fukui
    Abstract Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Both light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and higher serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are associated with reduced CVD mortality, raising the possibility of DHEA as a causal intermediate in CVD and alcohol consumption. Methods Relationships between alcohol consumption and serum DHEA sulphate (DHEA-S) concentration, carotid atherosclerosis as evaluated by carotid ultrasonography and major cardiovascular risk factors were investigated in 404 consecutive men with Type 2 diabetes. Patients were divided into three groups according to mean ethanol consumption per week: non-drinkers, light-to-moderate drinkers (< 210 g per week) or heavy drinkers (, 210 g per week). Results Plasma HDL-cholesterol was positively associated with the degree of alcohol consumption. Intima-media thickness (0.92 0.21 vs. 1.09 0.35 mm, P < 0.0001) and plaque score (3.0 3.3 vs. 5.2 4.9, P = 0.008) were lower in light-to-moderate drinkers than in non-drinkers. Serum DHEA-S concentrations were higher in light-to-moderate drinkers (1264.2 592.2 ng/ml, P < 0.0001) and heavy drinkers (1176.2 607.6 ng/ml, P = 0.0100) than in non-drinkers (956.8 538.6 ng/ml). In a subgroup aged 60,75-year-old patients (n = 277), serum DHEA-S concentrations were higher in light-to-moderate drinkers (1126.8 502.5 ng/ml, P = 0.0121) than in non-drinkers (937.9 505.1 ng/ml). Also, in a subgroup without CVD (n = 339), serum DHEA-S concentrations were higher in light-to-moderate drinkers (1328.5 593.7 ng/ml, P < 0.0001) than in non-drinkers (970.1 540.7 ng/ml). Conclusions Higher serum DHEA-S concentrations in light-to-moderate drinkers may represent part of the link between light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and lower CVD mortality. [source]


    Intima-media thickness of radial artery is associated with early access failure in hemodialysis patients

    HEMODIALYSIS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2005
    Y.O. Kim
    Objective:,We have reported that intimal hyperplasia, which is the pathologic change of the radial artery, is associated with early failure of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in hemodialysis (HD) patients (Am J Kidney Dis, 41:422,428, 2003). Intima-media thickness (IMT), which represents the whole thickness of arterial wall, can be easily measured by ultrasonography, unlike intima thickness. This study was performed to investigate the impact of IMT of radial artery on early failure of AVF in HD patients. Methods:,Ninety HD patients undergoing radiocephalic AVF operation were included in this study. The AVF was constructed in an end vein,to,side artery fashion at the wrist by one vascular surgeon. During the operation, 10-mm long partial arterial walls were removed with elliptical form for microscopic analysis. Specimens were stained with trichrome and examined by a pathologist blinded to the clinical data. AVF patency was prospectively followed up for 1 year after the operation. Results:,Mean age of the patients was 56 13 years and the number of females was 44 (48.9%). Mean IMT was 430 132 ,m (133,760 ,m). Of the total 90 patients, 31 patients (34.4%) had AVF failure within 1 year after the operation. Mean IMT was higher in the failed group (n = 31) than in patent group (n = 59)(486 130 ,m vs. 330 178 ,m, p = 0.004). Using a threshold of 500 ,m of IMT, AVF patency rate was compared between these two groups using Kaplan-Meier method with log rank test. The AVF patency rate within 1 year after the operation was higher in patients with IMT , 500 ,m (n = 26) than in patients with IMT < 500 ,m (n = 64)(p < 0.001). The patients with IMT , 500 ,m were older and had higher incidence of diabetes mellitus, compared to the patients with IMT < 500 ,m. There was no difference in sex, smoking, hypertension, total cholesterol and albumin levels between the two groups. Conclusion:,Our data suggest that increased intima-media thickness of radial artery is associated with early failure of radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula in hemodialysis patients. [source]


    Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery in highway toll collectors

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ULTRASOUND, Issue 9 2006
    Besir Erdogmus
    Abstract Purpose. To assess the effects of exposure to exhaust particles on intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery in highway toll collectors. Methods. Sixty-one highway toll collectors (HTCs) between 24 and 56 years of age (mean, 36.2 7.3) and 48 controls between 24 and 64 years of age (mean, 42.6 10.6) were evaluated with gray-scale sonography to measure intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA). Subgroups were categorized according to duration of exhaust exposure and further divided according to tobacco use. Results. CCA IMT was higher (0.8 0.2 mm) in HTCs than in the control group (0.6 0.1 mm; p < 0.001) and remained higher when subgroups with similar smoking habits were compared. In HTCs, IMT was greater when the number of years working in tollbooths was greater (p = 0.023). IMT was lower in HTCs with an exposure duration of <10 years compared with a duration of 10,20 years (p = 0.017) or >20 years (p value not significant). Conclusion. Air pollution has a widely acknowledged negative effect on humans. This study confirms that exposure to exhaust particles might cause wall thickening of carotid arteries. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2006 [source]


    Decrease in carotid intima-media thickness in hypothyroid patients after normalization of thyroid function

    CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
    Toshiki Nagasaki
    Summary objective, This case,control study was carried out to assess whether levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement might cause regression of the enhanced atherosclerosis seen in hypothyroid patients. patients and methods, Intima-media thickness (IMT) in the common carotid artery (CCA) was measured from digitalized still images taken during scanning by high-resolution ultrasonography as an indicator of early atherosclerosis. Thirty-five hypothyroid patients were examined for their CCA IMT before and 1 year after normalization of thyroid function by L-T4 replacement. As control, 35 healthy subjects were enrolled from among the participants in a local health-check programme conducted at the Osaka City University Hospital. results, Basal CCA IMT was significantly higher in hypothyroid patients [0635 0018 (mean SE) mm] than in control subjects (0559 0021 mm, P < 0005). After 1 year of euthyroidism, 34 out of 35 patients showed a significant decrease of CCA IMT, to 0552 0015 mm (P < 00001), a level comparable to normal controls. CCA IMT change was closely associated with basal levels of total cholesterol (r = ,0472, P= 00031), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r = ,0441, P= 00076) and the total/HDL cholesterol ratio (r =,0435, P= 00057), but not with any of the other variables measured except for age (r = ,0353, P= 00296). conclusions, This study demonstrated that L-T4 treatment might have the potential to reverse the progression of atherosclerosis in hypothyroid patients. Furthermore, it suggests that increased levels of LDL cholesterol and the total/HDL cholesterol ratio have an important role in the increased common carotid intima-media thickness in hypothyroid patients. [source]


    Atherosclerosis measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography and carotid artery ultrasound is related to arterial compliance, but not to endothelium-dependent vasodilation , the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study

    CLINICAL PHYSIOLOGY AND FUNCTIONAL IMAGING, Issue 5 2009
    Lars Lind
    Summary Background:, Arterial compliance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation are two characteristics of the vessel wall. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, we studied the relationships between arterial compliance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation versus atherosclerosis as measured with two imaging modalities. Methods:, In the population-based PIVUS study (1016 subjects aged 70), arterial compliance was determined by ultrasound in the carotid artery and the stroke volume to pulse pressure ratio by echocardiography, while endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed by the invasive forearm technique with acetylcholine and brachial artery ultrasound. Intima-media thickness was evaluated by ultrasound in the carotid artery (n = 954). Stenosis in the carotid, aorta, renal, upper and lower leg arteries were determined by magnetic resonance angiography in a random subsample of 306 subjects. Results:, After adjustments for gender, Framingham risk score, obesity, myocardial infarction and stroke, distensibility in the carotid artery and the stroke volume to pulse pressure ratio were both significantly related to a weighted index of stenosis in the five arterial territories evaluated by magnetic resonance angiography (p<002 for both). Distensibility in the carotid artery (P = 0021), but not the stroke volume to pulse pressure ratio (P = 008), was also significantly related to intima-media thickness. Conclusion:, In the elderly population, atherosclerosis is mainly related to arterial compliance, but not to endothelium-dependent vasodilation in peripheral conduit or resistance vessels. [source]


    Thiazolidinediones: effects on the development and progression of type 2 diabetes and associated vascular complications

    DIABETES/METABOLISM: RESEARCH AND REVIEWS, Issue 2 2009
    Andrew Krentz
    Abstract In addition to reducing hyperglycaemia, the metabolic actions of TZDs (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) in theory might improve the prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes. However, it appears from recent data that pioglitazone and rosiglitazone have different cardiovascular risk profiles. The scope of this paper is to examine the benefits and risks of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. Three large clinical studies (DREAM, and ADOPT with rosiglitazone; PROactive with pioglitazone) have recently been reported. A lower annual rate of decline of -cell function observed with rosiglitazone in the ADOPT study, compared with metformin and glyburide (glibenclamide), along with a reduced progression to insulin use seen with pioglitazone in the PROactive study, provides evidence that TZDs are effective in treating progressive hyperglycaemia. In PROactive, although the primary endpoint was not met, pioglitazone was associated with a reduction in a secondary composite endpoint of clinical cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with existing macrovascular disease who were already receiving other glycaemic and cardiovascular medications. Further evidence supporting an anti-atherogenic effect of pioglitazone was gained from the PERISCOPE study of carotid intima-media thickness. Recent controversy concerning a possible increased risk of myocardial infarction associated with rosiglitazone has fuelled uncertainty about the risk,benefit profile of this agent. In 2008, an update of an American Diabetes Association,European Association for the Study of Diabetes consensus statement on initiation and adjustment of therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes advised clinicians against using rosiglitazone. Skeletal fractures have recently emerged as a side effect of both TZDs. Available data suggest that cardiovascular benefits observed with pioglitazone might not be a class effect of TZDs. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the metabolic syndrome and the risk of cardiovascular disease: the plot thickens

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 1 2007
    G. Targher
    Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a substantial proportion of the general population and is frequently associated with many features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Currently, the importance of NAFLD and its relationship with the MetS is being increasingly recognized, and this has stimulated an interest in the possible role of NAFLD in the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies have reported the association of NAFLD with multiple classical and non-classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, there is a strong association between the severity of liver histopathology in NAFLD patients and greater carotid artery intima-media thickness and plaque, and lower endothelial flow-mediated vasodilation (as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis) independent of obesity and other MetS components. Finally, it has recently been demonstrated that NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of all-cause death and predicts future CVD events independently of other prognostic factors, including MetS components. Overall, therefore, the evidence from these recent studies strongly emphasizes the importance of assessing the global CVD risk in patients with NAFLD. Moreover, these novel findings suggest a more complex picture and raise the possibility that NAFLD, as a component of the MetS, might not only be a marker but also an early mediator of CVD. [source]


    Association analysis of genes in the renin-angiotensin system with subclinical cardiovascular disease in families with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Diabetes Heart Study

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 3 2006
    K. P. Burdon
    Abstract Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and nitric oxide production are both important regulators of vascular function and blood pressure. Genes encoding proteins involved in these pathways are candidates for a contribution to CVD in diabetic patients. We have investigated variants of the angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) genes for association with subclinical measures of CVD in families with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods Atherosclerosis was measured by carotid intima-media thickness and calcification of the carotid and coronary arteries in 620 European Americans and 117 African Americans in the Diabetes Heart Study. Because of the role of these systems in blood pressure regulation, blood pressure was also investigated. Results Compelling evidence of association was not detected with any of the SNPs with any outcome measures after adjustments for covariates despite sufficient power to detect relatively small differences in traits for specific genotype combinations. Conclusions Genetic variation of the RAS and NOS3 genes do not appear to strongly influence subclinical cardiovascular disease or blood pressure in this diabetic population. [source]


    Insulin, insulin propeptides and intima-media thickness in the carotid artery in 58-year-old clinically healthy men.

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2002
    Insulin Resistance study (AIR), The Atherosclerosis
    Abstract Aims To examine the relationship between specific (intact) insulin, insulin propeptides and subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods A cross-sectional study based on a stratified sampling of randomly selected, clinically healthy 58-year-old men (n = 391). Ultrasound examinations of the carotid arteries were performed with measurement of intima-media thickness (IMT) in the common carotid artery and in the carotid artery bulb. Fasting, cross-reacting plasma insulin (RIA), specific (intact) insulin, proinsulin, 32,33 split proinsulin and C-peptide were measured. Results Plasma concentrations of cross-reacting plasma insulin, specific insulin, proinsulin, 32,33 split proinsulin and C-peptide were univariately associated with common carotid artery IMT. Established risk factors such as blood pressure, smoking, apoB, triglycerides, body mass index (BMI), and waist,hip ratio were also related to IMT. After adjustment for smoking, apoB, blood pressure and triglycerides, cross-reacting plasma insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide but not specific insulin and split 32,33 proinsulin remained associated with carotid artery IMT. No associations remained after adjustment for BMI. Conclusions Fasting plasma proinsulin, C-peptide, and insulin by cross-reacting RIA was associated with common carotid artery IMT independent of several conventional risk factors for atherosclerosis. The multicollinearity between the insulin peptides and propeptides makes it difficult to clarify the exact role of each peptide. [source]


    The Relation between the Color M-Mode Propagation Velocity of the Descending Aorta and Coronary and Carotid Atherosclerosis and Flow-Mediated Dilatation

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2010
    Yilmaz Gunes M.D.
    Background: To improve clinical outcomes, noninvasive imaging modalities have been proposed to measure and monitor atherosclerosis. Common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) have correlated with coronary atherosclerosis. Recently, the color M-mode-derived propagation velocity of descending thoracic aorta (AVP) was shown to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: CIMT, FMD, and AVP were measured in 92 patients with CAD and 70 patients having normal coronary arteries (NCA) detected by coronary angiography. Patients with acute myocardial infarction, renal failure or hepatic failure, aneurysm of aorta, severe valvular heart disease, left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, atrial fibrillation, frequent premature beats, left bundle branch block, and inadequate echocardiographic image quality were excluded. Results: Compared to patients with normal coronary arteries, patients having CAD had significantly lower AVP (29.9 8.1 vs. 47.5 16.8 cm/sec, P < 0.001) and FMD (5.3 1.9 vs. 11.4 5.8%, P < 0.001) and higher CIMT (0.94 0.05 vs. 0.83 0.14 mm, P < 0.001) measurements. There were significant correlations between AVP and CIMT (r =,0.691, P < 0.001), AVP and FMD (r = 0.514, P < 0.001) and FMD and CIMT (r =,0.530, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The transthoracic echocardiographic determination of the color M-mode propagation velocity of the descending aorta is a simple practical method and correlates well with the presence of carotid and coronary atherosclerosis and brachial endothelial function. (Echocardiography 2010;27:300-305) [source]


    Assessment of Carotid Compliance Using Real Time Vascular Ultrasound Image Analysis in Marfan Syndrome

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2009
    Anatoli Kiotsekoglou M.D.
    Background: Fibrillin-1 deficiency, dysregulated cytokine transforming growth factor-,, and increased collagen deposition related to fibrillin-1 gene mutations could predispose to impaired carotid compliance (CC) in Marfan syndrome (MFS). We sought to detect any alterations in CC using the vascular image analysis system (VIA). Methods and Results: Thirty-two MFS patients, 20 men and 12 women (mean age 34.2 12.05 years), and 29 controls matched for age, sex, and body surface area (BSA) were recruited. The entire length of each carotid system was initially scanned longitudinally using a 14 MHz linear transducer. Then, a stereotactic clamp held the transducer in contact with the carotid artery. Arterial diameter changes during the cardiac cycle were recorded for 1 minute from both right (RCCA) and left common carotid arteries (LCCA) separately using the VIA system. RCCA and LCCA compliance and distensibility measurements were significantly reduced in MFS patients when compared to controls, P < 0.05. RCCA and LCCA intima-media thickness did not differ between patients and controls, P > 0.05. MFS diagnosis and age were associated with reduced CC in both carotid arteries after adjusting for variables such as, sex, BSA, heart rate, beta-blockade, intima-media thickness, and aortic root size. Conclusions: Our findings showed a reduction in CC in adult patients with MFS. This could be attributed to fibrillin-1 deficiency resulting in structural abnormalities in the carotid arterial wall. [source]


    Relationship Between Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Thoracic Aortic Intima-Media Thickness

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2006
    Recep Demirbag M.D.
    It is known that antioxidants have an important role in the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). Low total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease. However, no data are available concerning the relationship between TAC and severity of thoracic aortic atherosclerosis. This study using multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examined the relationship between atherosclerotic thoracic aortic intima-media thickness (TAIMT) and TAC. Twenty-nine patients (17 male, 12 female; mean age 36 8 years) without a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease referred for TEE were included. The patients with obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and CAD were excluded. The TAC was measured for each patient using a more recently developed method. TAIMT and grade of thoracic aortic atherosclerosis were evaluated in each patient by using TEE. Mean TAC level was 1.91 0.53 mmol Trolox equiv/l. There was a negative and significant correlation between the TAC levels and TAIMT and grade of thoracic aortic atherosclerosis (r =,0.799, P < 0.001 versus r =,0.827, P < 0.001, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TAIMT was independently associated with TAC (,=,0.734, P < 0.001). The mean values of TAC in grade I, II, and III were 2.23 0.31, 1.58 0.31, and 1.04 0.27 mmol Trolox equiv/l, respectively (ANOVA P < 0.001). This study indicates that the TAC is an independent variable for TAIMT and it has a potential for an independent variable for atherosclerotic lesions in the major arterial locations. [source]


    Abnormal vascular reactivity at rest and exercise in obese boys

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 2 2009
    L. Karpoff
    Abstract Background, Obese children exhibit vascular disorders at rest depending on their pubertal status, degree of obesity, and level of insulin resistance. However, data regarding their vascular function during exercise remain scarce. The aims of the present study were to evaluate vascular morphology and function at rest, and lower limb blood flow during exercise, in prepubertal boys with mild-to-moderate obesity and in lean controls. Materials and methods, Twelve moderately obese prepubertal boys [Body Mass Index (BMI: 239 26 kg m,2)] and thirteen controls (BMI:174 18 kg m,2), matched for age (mean age: 116 06 years) were recruited. We measured carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and wall compliance and incremental elastic modulus, resting brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and nitrate-dependent dilation (NDD), lower limb blood flow during local knee-extensor incremental and maximal exercise, body fat content (DEXA), blood pressure, blood lipids, insulin and glucose. Results, Compared to lean controls, obese boys had greater IMT (047 006 vs. 042 003 mm, P < 005) but lower FMD (46 28 vs. 88 32%, P < 001) in spite of similar maximal shear rate, without NDD differences. Lower limb blood flow (mL min,1100 g,1) increased significantly from rest to maximal exercise in both groups, although obese children reached lower values than lean counterparts whatever the exercise intensity. Conclusions, Mild-to-moderate obesity in prepubertal boys without insulin resistance is associated with impaired endothelial function and blunted muscle perfusion response to local dynamic exercise without alteration of vascular smooth muscle reactivity. [source]


    Arterial stiffness in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 1 2009
    A. Wykretowicz
    ABSTRACT Background, Increased arterial stiffness or arteriosclerosis, represents a physiological part of ageing. Atherosclerosis is a process that does not affect the arterial bed uniformly but has a variable local distribution and is frequently superimposed on stiffened vessels. We therefore addressed the question of whether any correlation exists between the general characteristics of arterial stiffness or wave reflection and subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in a sample of healthy subjects. Methods, A total of 116 healthy subjects (mean age 55 years, 43 female) were evaluated. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection was assessed with the use of digital volume pulse analysis (DVP) and pulse wave analysis (PWA). Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by measurement of IMT. Results, Stiffness Index (SIDVP), the measure of general arterial stiffness correlated significantly with IMT (r = 037, P < 001). IMT correlated significantly with age (r = 05, P < 00001), waist to hip ratio (WHR) (r = 039, P < 00001) and mean blood pressure (BPmean) (r = 04, P < 00001). IMT did not correlate with measures of wave reflection. SIDVP correlated significantly with age (r = 032, P < 0005), WHR (r = 036, P < 00001), BPmean (r = 036, P < 00001) and measurements of wave reflection. However analysis of a model which included variables that significantly influenced SIDVP and IMT, such as age, WHR and mean BP showed that arterial stiffness is not independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusions, The indices of subclinical atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness and wave reflection, indicate different aspects of vascular status in otherwise healthy subjects [source]


    Endothelial dysfunction in Buerger's disease and its relation to markers of inflammation

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 6 2006
    M. Joras
    Abstract Background, Buerger's disease (BD) is a segmental occlusive vascular disease. The aim of this study was to detect functional changes in brachial artery and asymptomatic morphological changes in extra-cranial carotid arteries not affected by the disease process and to assess markers of inflammation and endothelial damage. Materials and methods, Fourteen patients in the remission phase of BD and the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The capability of endothelium-dependent (flow-mediated) and endothelium-independent dilation of the brachial artery and intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries were measured using high-resolution ultrasound. Laboratory parameters of endogenous fibrinolytic activity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were also measured. Results, Patients with BD had a diminished capability of endothelium-dependent vasodilation and higher levels of some circulating markers of inflammation, such as leukocytes, C-reactive protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels were related to some of the inflammatory markers (sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, ,2-globulins and fibrinogen), while E-selectin was correlated with decreased endogenous blood fibrinolytic activity. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was in negative correlation with the relative share of neutrophil granulocytes. There were no significant differences in intima-media thickness between patients with BD and controls. Conclusions, Our study has expressed generalized functional arterial disorder in patients with BD not accompanied by any measurable morphological changes of the carotid arterial wall. Functional deterioration of brachial artery could be related to increased levels of various inflammatory markers , the process which is most probably the basic pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. [source]


    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity as a risk factor for atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure patients

    HEMODIALYSIS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 4 2008
    Saeed Abdelwhab SAEED
    Abstract Paraoxonase is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme and has been shown to reduce the susceptibility to low-density lipoprotein peroxidation. This study aimed to investigate the activity of serum paraoxonase in uremic patients on hemodialysis (HD) and in the predialysis period, and to evaluate the correlations of vascular disease with paraoxonase activity. Thirty patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing HD (group 1), 30 patients with CRF under conservative treatment (group 2), and 30 healthy controls (group 3) were included. Basal, salt-stimulated, and arylesterase activity were tested by UV spectrophotometry. Serum lipid parameters were determined. B-Mode Doppler ultrasound was used to assess common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Basal paraoxonase, salt-stimulated, and arylesterase activity showed no significant difference between group 1 and group 2. However, it was significantly lower in group 1 and in group 2 than controls. Carotid IMT was significantly higher in group 1 than group 2 and both were significantly higher than controls. Basal paraoxonase-1 (PON1), salt-stimulated PON1, and arylesterase activity correlate with BUN, but only basal PON1 and salt-stimulated PON1 correlate with serum albumin. Linear regression showed that the most significant determinant of carotid IMT was PON1 arylesterase activity in group 1 and arylesterase activity and basal PON1 activity in group 2. Patients with CRF, whether under HD or conservative treatment, have reduced basal and stimulated paraoxonase activities, and this could be an important factor causing increased vascular disease in those patients. Modifying this factor can be of great value to protect against this common complication. [source]


    Uremic hyperhomocysteinemia: A randomized trial of folate treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular events

    HEMODIALYSIS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2007
    Areuza C. A. VIANNA
    Abstract Homocysteine is a risk factor for atherosclerosis in the general population, and serum homocysteine levels are almost universally elevated in chronic renal failure patients. When such patients are treated with dialysis, cardiovascular disease accounts for more than 50% of their mortality, which, in some proportion, may be pathophysiologically related to the elevated serum homocysteine levels. From April 2003 to March 2005, we conducted a 2-year, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 186 patients with end-stage kidney disease due to any cause, who were older than 18 years and stable on hemodialysis. Patients were assigned to receive either oral folic acid 10 mg 3 times a week immediately after every dialysis session under nurse supervision or an identical-appearing placebo for the entire study. On admission, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels were above 13.9 ,mol/L in 96.7% of patients (median 25.0 ,mol/L, range 9.3,104.0 ,mol/L). In the placebo group, tHcy levels remained elevated at 6, 12, and 24 months, while oral folate significantly decreased tHcy to a median value of 10.5 (2.8,20.3) ,mol/L, (p<0.01). During the study, 38 patients (folic acid group 17 vs. placebo group 21; p=0.47) died from cardiovascular disease. Kaplan,Meier life table analysis dealing with the incidence of cardiovascular events, both fatal and nonfatal (myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, angina, heart failure, cerebrovascular accident), showed that 2 years of folic acid treatment and the lowering of the homocysteine blood levels had no effect on cardiovascular events (p=0.41; hazard ratio 1.24, 95% CI 0.74,2.10). However, the carotid artery intima-media wall thickness measured in a blinded fashion decreased from 1.94 0.59 mm to 1.67 0.38 mm (p<0.01) after 2 years of folate therapy. In this short-term study of uremic patients, 2 years of folic acid supplementation normalized the tHcy blood levels in 92.3% of patients but did not change the incidence of cardiovascular events compared with the control group. However, ultrasonography of the common carotid arteries performed at entry and 24 months later showed a significant decrease in intima-media thickness with folate supplementation. This suggests that early folate supplementation may benefit patients with chronic renal failure by preventing cardiovascular deterioration. [source]


    Intima-media thickness of radial artery is associated with early access failure in hemodialysis patients

    HEMODIALYSIS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2005
    Y.O. Kim
    Objective:,We have reported that intimal hyperplasia, which is the pathologic change of the radial artery, is associated with early failure of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in hemodialysis (HD) patients (Am J Kidney Dis, 41:422,428, 2003). Intima-media thickness (IMT), which represents the whole thickness of arterial wall, can be easily measured by ultrasonography, unlike intima thickness. This study was performed to investigate the impact of IMT of radial artery on early failure of AVF in HD patients. Methods:,Ninety HD patients undergoing radiocephalic AVF operation were included in this study. The AVF was constructed in an end vein,to,side artery fashion at the wrist by one vascular surgeon. During the operation, 10-mm long partial arterial walls were removed with elliptical form for microscopic analysis. Specimens were stained with trichrome and examined by a pathologist blinded to the clinical data. AVF patency was prospectively followed up for 1 year after the operation. Results:,Mean age of the patients was 56 13 years and the number of females was 44 (48.9%). Mean IMT was 430 132 ,m (133,760 ,m). Of the total 90 patients, 31 patients (34.4%) had AVF failure within 1 year after the operation. Mean IMT was higher in the failed group (n = 31) than in patent group (n = 59)(486 130 ,m vs. 330 178 ,m, p = 0.004). Using a threshold of 500 ,m of IMT, AVF patency rate was compared between these two groups using Kaplan-Meier method with log rank test. The AVF patency rate within 1 year after the operation was higher in patients with IMT , 500 ,m (n = 26) than in patients with IMT < 500 ,m (n = 64)(p < 0.001). The patients with IMT , 500 ,m were older and had higher incidence of diabetes mellitus, compared to the patients with IMT < 500 ,m. There was no difference in sex, smoking, hypertension, total cholesterol and albumin levels between the two groups. Conclusion:,Our data suggest that increased intima-media thickness of radial artery is associated with early failure of radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula in hemodialysis patients. [source]


    Nonconcordance between subclinical atherosclerosis and the calculated Framingham risk score in HIV-infected patients: relationships with serum markers of oxidation and inflammation

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 4 2010
    S Parra
    Objectives HIV-infected patients show an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk resulting, essentially, from metabolic disturbances related to chronic infection and antiretroviral treatments. The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate the agreement between the CVD risk estimated using the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the observed presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients; (2) to investigate the relationships between CVD and plasma biomarkers of oxidation and inflammation. Methods Atherosclerosis was evaluated in 187 HIV-infected patients by measuring the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). CVD risk was estimated using the FRS. We also measured the circulating levels of interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and paraoxonase-1 activity and concentration. Results There was a weak, albeit statistically significant, agreement between FRS and CIMT (,=0.229, P<0.001). A high proportion of patients with an estimated low risk had subclinical atherosclerosis (n=66; 56.4%). In a multivariate analysis, the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in this subgroup of patients was associated with age [odds ratio (OR) 1.285; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.084,1.524; P=0.004], body mass index (OR 0.799; 95% CI 0.642,0.994; P=0.044), MCP-1 (OR 1.027; 95% CI 1.004,1.050; P=0.020) and oxidized LDL (OR 1.026; 95% CI 1.001,1.051; P=0.041). Conclusion FRS underestimated the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients. The increased CVD risk was related, in part, to the chronic oxidative stress and inflammatory status associated with this patient population. [source]


    Gingival health status in renal transplant recipients: relationship between systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 4 2007
    G. Genctoy
    Summary Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Systemic and periodontal inflammation has been suggested to have a possible role in the development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between gingival health status, inflammation and atherosclerosis in RTRs. Eighty-three RTR (50 male, 33 female) were enrolled in the study. Routine biochemical analyses, serum lipoproteins, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homocystein, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and cyclosporin A (CsA) trough levels were studied. All patients had 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and B-mode ultrasound of the common carotid arteries. Gingival status was evaluated by the Le and Silness gingival index (GI). Mean GI value was 2.3 0.5. Fifty patients (60.3%) had GI value , 2.1 (severe gingivitis; group A). Thirty-three patients (39.7%) had GI value < 2.1 (no or moderate gingivitis; group B). Age, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and mean time on dialysis before transplantation were significantly higher in group A than in B. Systemic inflammation markers were not different between group A and group B. Mean CIMT was positively correlated with GI (r = 0.425; p = 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = ,0.256; p = 0.023). After the correction for confounding variables, mean CIMT was still significantly correlated with GI (r = 0.376, p = 0.02). In RTR, gingival inflammation seems to be associated with CIMT in the absence of systemic inflammation. Thus, gingivitis may, in part, play a role in the development of systemic atherosclerosis without causing any aggravation in systemic inflammatory response. [source]


    Carotid intima-media thickness in late-onset major depressive disorder

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 1 2006
    Cheng-Sheng Chen
    Abstract Background This study explored whether patients with late-onset major depressive disorder showed higher carotid artery intima-medium thickness (IMT) and investigated the relationship between the IMT and white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among patients. Methods Fourteen elderly patients with late-onset major depressive disorder from a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 11 non-depressed controls received a comprehensive psychiatric assessment, ultrasound IMT measurements of the carotid arteries, and cerebral MRI. Results The carotid IMT was higher in the patient group vs the control group (1.26,,0.30 vs 1.00,,0.20,mm; t,=,2.40, p,<,0.03). The difference was more apparent in the common carotid artery (1.20,,0.32 vs 0.97,,0.13,mm; t,=,2.31, p,<,0.04). There was a high correlation (r,=,0.55, p,<,0.05) between the carotid IMT and white matter hyperintensities among patients with late-onset major depressive disorder. Conclusion Results of this study suggest that atherosclerosis represented by the carotid IMT contributes to the development of late-onset major depressive disorder. The findings support the vascular depression hypothesis. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Association of atherosclerotic risk factors with carotid adventitial thickness assessed by ultrasonography

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ULTRASOUND, Issue 6 2009
    Radoslaw Kazmierski MD
    Abstract Purpose. There is increasing evidence that adventitial inflammation may participate in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to investigate which atherosclerotic risk factors correlated with carotid adventitial thickness (AT) and to compare them with those associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We also set out to test the hypothesis that there is a significant correlation between IMT and AT in the carotid arteries. Methods. The far carotid artery wall IMT and AT were measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound in 128 persons (mean, 65 8 years). A number of conventional and novel, clinically and laboratory-derived risk factors were assessed. Results. Significant correlation (r = 0.35, p < 0.0001) was demonstrated between the IMT and AT. The stepwise forward multiple regression analysis revealed correlations between IMT and leukocyte count, C-reactive protein level, and hypertension, whereas the Chlamydia (C.) pneumoniae IgA antibodies and fibrinogen levels, gender, and smoking correlated merely with AT. The homocysteine/methionine ratio correlated with both IMT and AT. Conclusion. The association between IMT and AT may reflect an interaction between intimal, medial, and adventitial pathology. Different risk factors are associated with the increased AT or IMT. It is possible that inflammation and some chronic infections, such as those induced by C.pneumoniae, could have a marked influence on adventitial cell proliferation. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2009 [source]


    Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery in highway toll collectors

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ULTRASOUND, Issue 9 2006
    Besir Erdogmus
    Abstract Purpose. To assess the effects of exposure to exhaust particles on intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery in highway toll collectors. Methods. Sixty-one highway toll collectors (HTCs) between 24 and 56 years of age (mean, 36.2 7.3) and 48 controls between 24 and 64 years of age (mean, 42.6 10.6) were evaluated with gray-scale sonography to measure intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA). Subgroups were categorized according to duration of exhaust exposure and further divided according to tobacco use. Results. CCA IMT was higher (0.8 0.2 mm) in HTCs than in the control group (0.6 0.1 mm; p < 0.001) and remained higher when subgroups with similar smoking habits were compared. In HTCs, IMT was greater when the number of years working in tollbooths was greater (p = 0.023). IMT was lower in HTCs with an exposure duration of <10 years compared with a duration of 10,20 years (p = 0.017) or >20 years (p value not significant). Conclusion. Air pollution has a widely acknowledged negative effect on humans. This study confirms that exposure to exhaust particles might cause wall thickening of carotid arteries. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2006 [source]


    Circulating matrix metalloproteinase 9 levels in relation to sampling methods, femoral and carotid atherosclerosis

    JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, Issue 6 2008
    F. J. Olson
    Abstract. Objectives., To examine whether circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) were associated with ultrasound-assessed intima-media thickness (IMT) and echolucent plaques in the carotid and femoral arteries. To examine preanalytical sources of variability in MMP-9 concentrations related to sampling procedures. Subjects and design., Plasma and serum MMP-9 levels were compared with ultrasound assessed measures of femoral and carotid atherosclerosis, in a cross-sectional study of 61-year-old men (n = 473). Preanalytical sources of variability in MMP-9 levels were examined in 10 healthy subjects. Main outcome measures were circulating levels of MMP-9 in serum and plasma, IMT of the carotid and femoral arteries, and plaque status based on size and echolucency. Setting., Research unit at university hospital. Results., Plasma concentrations of total and active MMP-9 were associated with femoral artery IMT independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and were higher in subjects with moderate to large femoral plaques. Plasma MMP-9 concentration was higher in men with echolucent femoral plaques (P = 0.006) compared with subjects without femoral plaques. No similar associations were found for carotid plaques. MMP-9 concentrations were higher in serum than in plasma, and higher when sampling was performed with Vacutainer than with syringe. MMP-9 levels in serum were more strongly associated with peripheral neutrophil count compared with MMP-9 levels in plasma. Conclusions., Plasma MMP-9 levels were associated with atherosclerosis in the femoral artery, and total MMP-9 concentration was higher in men with echolucent femoral plaques. The choice of sample material and sampling method affect the measurements of circulating MMP-9 levels. [source]


    Comparison between three-dimensional volume-selective turbo spin-echo imaging and two-dimensional ultrasound for assessing carotid artery structure and function

    JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, Issue 3 2005
    Lindsey A. Crowe PhD
    Abstract Purpose To compare a volume-selective three-dimensional turbo spin echo (TSE) technique with ultrasound (US) for assessing carotid artery wall structure and function. Materials and Methods A three-dimensional volume-selective TSE technique was used to image the carotid artery in 10 healthy subjects and five hypertensive subjects (each of whom were scanned three times while they received different hypertension treatments). Lumen and wall area were measured on MR images. Two-dimensional US measurements of the intima-media thickness (IMT) and lumen diameter were taken in three orientations through a single cross section. The lumen area change over the cardiac cycle was used to determine distension. For validation, a Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare the vessel wall and lumen areas measured by three-dimensional MRI volumes with those obtained by US scans. Results Agreement between the two methods was found. The mean difference in distension between US and MRI was 1.2% (5.1%). For the wall area measurements, good agreement was shown, but there was a systematic difference due to the visualization of the adventitia by MRI. Both techniques offer an easy way to objectively measure lumen indices. MRI can provide the complete circumference over the length of a vessel, while US is flexible and relatively inexpensive. The application of US is limited, however, when subjects are poorly echogenic. A difference between hypertensive and healthy subjects was found. Conclusion There was a good agreement between MRI and the clinically established two-dimensional US method. The MRI method has the advantage of providing increased vessel coverage, which permits one to assess localized abnormalities without assuming vessel uniformity. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2005;21:282,289. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and impaired endothelial function in psoriasis

    JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY & VENEREOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    DD Balci
    [source]