Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Institute

  • Brigg institute
  • all india institute
  • american institute
  • australian institute
  • blood institute
  • canadian institute
  • cancer institute
  • dental institute
  • eye institute
  • federal institute
  • health institute
  • heart institute
  • india institute
  • international institute
  • international rice research institute
  • joanna Brigg institute
  • karolinska institute
  • management institute
  • massachusetts institute
  • max planck institute
  • medical institute
  • meteorological institute
  • metropolitan institute
  • national cancer institute
  • national institute
  • neurological institute
  • norwegian institute
  • park cancer institute
  • planck institute
  • research institute
  • rice research institute
  • roswell park cancer institute
  • single institute
  • standards institute
  • tokyo metropolitan institute

  • Terms modified by Institute

  • institute common toxicity criterioN
  • institute surveillance
  • institute visual function questionnaire

  • Selected Abstracts


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2008
    Deborah Seltzer-Kelly
    Early in the twentieth century, John Dewey also advocated for a vision of education guided by science, and more recent scholarship has validated many of his ideas. However, as Deborah Seltzer-Kelly argues in this essay, Dewey's vision of a scientifically based system of education was very different from that envisioned by the IES, and also very different from that implied by the progenitor of contemporary evolutionary thought, Donald Campbell. Seltzer-Kelly proposes a Deweyan Darwinist model of educational method as a genuinely scientific alternative to the scientism that pervades current official efforts to imbue education with science. The implications of this model are profound, highlighting the difference between education as preparation for consent to authoritarian structures and education as preparation for genuinely democratic participation. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 2 2007
    M. BALLA
    The laboratory is part of a university institute with a nuclear reactor on the premises. NAA of archaeological materials started in the early 1980s, and has found continuous interest since then. Site-specific characteristics of the NAA procedure are the long irradiation and counting times, due to the relatively low neutron flux, the single comparator method of standardization and the use of reference materials for quality control. The main research interest focuses on provenance studies of potteries; 90% of the analysed samples are ceramic materials. Most of the projects concentrate on the investigation of pottery finds from Roman Pannonia, and from different archaeological sites in Israel. The Qumran pottery project is presented as a typical example. [source]

    New methodologies in teaching e-structural mechanics using WWW,

    Carmelo Maiorana
    Abstract A recently initiated phase of experimentation and research in the online Distance Learning (DL) is here described. The project has been developed by the Department of Construction and Transportation Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Padua along with the well-established e-learning experience of the SSIS Veneto (Institute for the Formation of Secondary School's Teachers) of Cà Foscari,University of Venice, in collaboration with the webmaster management of TCN-EnginSoft of Padua. The work deals with teaching methodologies supported by the net, computer communication and information technologies, finalized to give both widespread access to useful resources and to create a more flexible exchange due to net communication. The experimentation of using web-based technologies to support traditional teaching for working students is described; in fact, Internet-based innovations offer opportunities for a curriculum improvement to those categories of students who could be considered at a disadvantage, like worker students or students with ear or motion deafness. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 16: 189,210, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae20167 [source]

    Heart changes in 17-day-old fetuses of diabetic ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mothers: Improvement with maternal immune stimulation

    Juan Claudio Gutierrez
    ABSTRACT Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with increased fetal teratogenesis, including cardiovascular defects. Non-specific maternal immune stimulation with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) or interferon gamma (IFN,) has been associated with protection against birth malformations. Using a diabetic mouse model, late-gestation fetal heart and great vessel morphology were analyzed. Four groups of mice were used: non-diabetic females as a control group, hyperglycemic females induced by streptozotocin as a diabetic group, and diabetic females injected either with FCA or IFN,. At day 17 of gestation, females were euthanized and one fetus was arbitrarily selected per litter for fixation and sectioning. Treatment-induced changes in cardiac development were assessed from digital images of serial sections taken at standardized levels in the thorax. One-way parametric and non-parametric ANOVA and ordinal logistic regression were performed to compare the difference among groups (P < 0.05). Maternal hyperglycemia altered morphology of the late-gestation fetal mouse heart by causing ventricular chamber dilation, sectional myocardial reduction, and an increase in transversal aortic area. FCA protected the fetal heart from cavitary dilation in diabetic mothers. FCA and IFN, protected the fetal heart against reduction of myocardial area, and ascending thoracic aorta dilation. Consequences of late gestation heart chamber dilation and myocardial reduction are not yet known. Maternal immune stimulation partially protected against these developmental defects by mechanisms that remain unclear. [source]

    Maternal environment affects endogenous virus induction in the offspring of type 1 diabetes model non-obese diabetic mice

    Yukiko Kagohashi
    ABSTRACT Type 1 diabetes results from the destruction of pancreatic b-cells (insulitis). It is a multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors, including the maternal environment. Viruses have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of human type 1 diabetes as well as in its model non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice during the perinatal period, as endogenous viruses and/or as infectious agents vertically transmitted from mothers. However, the role of virus as genetic or environmental factor and its interaction with other maternal factors remain unclear. In a series of experiments, we transplanted preimplantation-stage NOD embryos into the uterus of recipient Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice, which are without diabetic genetic predisposition, and NOD mice, which did not exhibit overt diabetes during the experiment, and designated offspring as NOD/ICR and NOD/NOD, respectively. We previously observed that NOD/ICR offspring developed insulitis significantly earlier than NOD/NOD offspring. To assess the role of viruses in the development of insulitis, we examined the appearance of viral particles and expression of retroviruses between NOD/ICR and NOD/NOD. NOD/ICR showed earlier expression of env region of the xenotropic type C retrovirus by polymerase chain reaction analysis than NOD/NOD, while the retrovirus-like particles were observed in the islet b-cells similarly in both groups by electron microscopy. Serum corticosterone level, which is suggested to enhance retroviral induction, was significantly higher in the ICR than in the NOD surrogate mothers. These findings suggest that the observed virus is endogenous and that maternal environmental factors, including hormone levels, affect the induction of endogenous viruses and cause the earlier onset of insulitis. [source]

    The Effect of Administering Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Proteins in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: Results From a Retrospective Study

    Reynolds M. Delgado MD
    Anemia is prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure and is associated with worse symptoms and poor prognosis. The authors reviewed the charts of all patients (N=467) treated at Texas Heart Institute from January 2000 to October 2003, during which time a clinical protocol offered treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating proteins. Post-treatment, the authors observed a significant increase in mean ± SD hemoglobin, from 9.9±1.1 g/dL to 11.7±1.5 g/dL (P<.0001), improvement of renal function (a decrease in mean levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), and fewer hospital admissions (1.0±1.4 vs 1.8±1.6; P=.0003) without an increase in adverse clinical events, compared with pretreatment and compared with an untreated control group. These results suggest a potential benefit of anemia treatment with recombinant erythropoiesis-stimulating proteins in patients with chronic heart failure. [source]

    A 6-month follow-up study of 1048 patients diagnosed with an occupational skin disease

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 5 2009
    Tarja Mälkönen
    Background: Occupational skin diseases (OSDs) often have considerable medical and occupational consequences. Previous data on prognostic factors have been derived from studies with fairly small sample sizes. Objectives: To determine the medical and occupational outcome in 1048 patients diagnosed with OSD at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health and to identify the prognostic risk factors for the continuation of OSD. Methods: Patients examined in 1994,2001 filled out a follow-up questionnaire 6 months after the diagnosis. Data on atopy, contact allergies, and occupation were analysed. Results: Six months after the diagnosis the skin disease had healed in 27% of the patients. The OSD had cleared up in 17% of those with no changes at work, and in 34% of those who had changed their job/occupation. The best clearing had occurred in the patients with contact urticaria (35%), whereas the healing of allergic (27%) and irritant (23%) contact dermatitis was similar. The risk factors for continuing occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) were no changes in work, age > 45 years, food-related occupations, respiratory atopy, and male sex. Conclusions: The healing of OSD was associated with discontinuation of the causative exposure. A change in work and the presence of easily avoidable work-related allergies were associated with a good prognosis. [source]

    Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2009
    Kristiina Aalto-Korte
    Background: Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-acryloxypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (bis-GA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryl-oxyethoxy)phenyl] propane (bis-EMA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryloxy)phenyl]-propane (bis-MA), and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is often manifested together with contact allergy to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin. Objective: To analyse patterns of concomitant allergic reactions to the five epoxy (meth)acrylates in relation to exposure. Methods: We reviewed the 1994,2008 patch test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) for reactions to the five epoxy (meth)acrylates, and examined the patients' medical records for exposure. Results: Twenty-four patients had an allergic reaction to at least one of the studied epoxy (meth)acrylates, but specific exposure was found only in five patients: two bis-GMA allergies from dental products, two bis-GA allergies from UV-curable printing inks, and one bis-GA allergy from an anaerobic glue. Only 25% of the patients were negative to DGEBA epoxy resin. Conclusions: The great majority of allergic patch test reactions to bis-GMA, bis-GA, GMA and bis-EMA were not associated with specific exposure, and cross-allergy to DGEBA epoxy resin remained a probable explanation. However, independent reactions to bis-GA indicated specific exposure. Anaerobic sealants may induce sensitization not only to aliphatic (meth)acrylates but also to aromatic bis-GA. [source]

    Independence in Appearance and in Fact: An Experimental Investigation,

    Nicholas Dopuch
    Abstract In this study, we use experimental markets to assess the effect of the Security and Exchange Commission's (SEC's) new independence rule on investors' perceptions of independence, investors' payoff distributions, and market prices. The new rule requires client firms to disclose in their annual proxy statements the amount of nonaudit fees paid to their auditors. The new disclosure is intended to inform investors of auditors' incentives to compromise their independence. Our experimental design is a 2 3 between-subjects design, where we control the presence (unbiased reports) or absence of auditor independence in fact (biased reports). While independence in fact was not immediately observable to investors, we controlled for independence in appearance by varying the public disclosure of the extent of nonaudit services provided by the auditor to the client. In one market setting, investors were not given any information about whether the auditor provided such nonaudit services; in a second setting, investors were explicitly informed that the auditor did not provide any non-audit services; and in a third setting, investors were told that the auditor provided nonaudit services that could be perceived to have an adverse effect on independence in fact. We found that disclosures of nonaudit services reduced the accuracy of investors' beliefs of auditors' independence in fact when independence in appearance was inconsistent with independence in fact. This then caused prices of assets to deviate more from their economic predictions (lower market efficiency) in the inconsistent settings relative to the no-disclosure and consistent settings. Thus, disclosures of fees for nonaudit services could reduce the efficiency of capital markets if such disclosures result in investors forming inaccurate beliefs of auditor independence in fact - that is, auditors appear independent but they are not independent in fact, or vice versa. The latter is the maintained position of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), which argued against the new rule. Further research is needed to assess the degree of correspondence between independence in fact and independence in appearance. [source]

    Geriatric Emergency Medicine and the 2006 Institute of Medicine Reports from the Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the U.S. Health System

    Scott T. Wilber MD
    Abstract Three recently published Institute of Medicine reports, Hospital-Based Emergency Care: At the Breaking Point, Emergency Medical Services: At the Crossroads, and Emergency Care for Children: Growing Pains, examined the current state of emergency care in the United States. They concluded that the emergency medicine system as a whole is overburdened, underfunded, and highly fragmented. These reports did not specifically discuss the effect the aging population has on emergency care now and in the future and did not discuss special needs of older patients. This report focuses on the emergency care of older patients, with the intent to provide information that will help shape discussions on this issue. [source]

    What do you think you're looking at?

    Investigating social cognition in young offenders
    Aim,This small study was designed to assess the nature and severity of social-cognitive deficits in antisocial adolescents. Method,Thirty-seven boys aged 15,18 from a Young Offenders Institute and Community College participated. They were asked to complete a test of general intellectual ability and self-rating of social competence as well as tasks from the Skuse Schedules for the Assessment of Social Intelligence. Results,Young offenders were poor at recognizing the facial expression of anger, regardless of intellectual ability. They could not accurately identify the direction of another's eye gaze. Their performance on theory of mind tasks, however, was unimpaired. Conclusion,These preliminary findings imply selective impairment in the cognitive appraisal of threat, which may contribute to social maladjustment. Further such study of social cognition among young offenders is indicated. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Reinventing the Detroit Institute of Arts: The Reinstallation Project 2002,2007

    David W. Penney

    New Roles for Evaluation at the Detroit Institute of Arts

    Matt Sikora

    Routine immunophenotyping in acute leukemia: Role in lineage assignment and reassignment

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 5 2006
    Misbah Qadir
    Abstract Diagnostic evaluation of acute leukemia at Roswell Park Cancer Institute has routinely included immunophenotyping by multiparameter flow cytometry. In a retrospective analysis of 646 cases, morphology and cytochemistry established lineage in 612, but not in 34 (5%), of which 26, 5, and 3 were myeloid, undifferentiated, and lymphoid, respectively, based on immunophenotyping. In addition, immunophenotyping changed the lineage assigned based on morphology and cytochemistry in 11 cases (2%); 8 changed from lymphoid to myeloid, and 3 from myeloid to lymphoid. The data support routine inclusion of at least limited immunophenotyping in the diagnostic evaluation of acute leukemia. © 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology [source]

    The BSCC Code of Practice , exfoliative cytopathology (excluding gynaecological cytopathology)

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    A. Chandra
    Exfoliative cytopathology (often referred to as non-gynaecological cytology) is an important part of the workload of all diagnostic pathology departments. It clearly has a role in the diagnosis of neoplastic disease but its role in establishing non-neoplastic diagnoses should also be recognised. Ancillary tests may be required to establish a definitive diagnosis. Clinical and scientific teamwork is essential to establish an effective cytology service and staffing levels should be sufficient to support preparation, prescreening, on-site adequacy assessment and reporting of samples as appropriate. Routine clinical audit and histology/cytology correlation should be in place as quality control of a cytology service. Cytology staff should be involved in multidisciplinary meetings and appropriate professional networks. Laboratories should have an effective quality management system conforming to the requirements of a recognised accreditation scheme such as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (UK) Ltd. Consultant pathologists should sign out the majority of exfoliative cytology cases. Where specimens are reported by experienced biomedical scientists (BMS), referred to as cytotechnologists outside the UK, this must only be when adequate training has been given and be defined in agreed written local protocols. An educational basis for formalising the role of the BMS in exfoliative cytopathology is provided by the Diploma of Expert Practice in Non-gynaecological Cytology offered by the Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS). The reliability of cytological diagnoses is dependent on the quality of the specimen provided and the quality of the preparations produced. The laboratory should provide feedback and written guidance on specimen procurement. Specimen processing should be by appropriately trained, competent staff with appropriate quality control. Microscopic examination of preparations by BMS should be encouraged wherever possible. Specific guidance is provided on the clinical role, specimen procurement, preparation and suitable staining techniques for urine, sputum, semen, serous cavity effusion, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, cyst aspirates, endoscopic specimens, and skin and mucosal scrapes. [source]

    Liquid-based cytology for cervical screening

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
    N. Payne
    England and Wales' new National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) has completed the first of its appraisals and issued guidance on a diagnostic technique rather than a therapeutic intervention.1 It was directed to examine the use of liquid-based cytology (LBC) for cervical screening and took evidence from a wide variety of sources. LBC is a new method of preparing cervical samples for cytological examination. Unlike the conventional ,smear' preparation it involves making a suspension of cells from the sample and this is used to produce a thin layer of cells on a slide. [source]

    Spatial analysis of dental trauma in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Curitiba, Brazil

    Simone Tetu Moysés
    A geographic information system (GIS) was used, built by means of ArcView GIS 3.2 software and geographical databases of streets and districts defined within the boundaries of the city of Curitiba, provided by Curitiba's Institute of Research and Public Planning (IPPUC). The database used in the study was compiled based on an epidemiological survey undertaken in 1998 on a sample of 2126 schoolchildren 12 years old, residing in outlying urban suburbs distributed over 29 micro-areas in the city of Curitiba. The cases selected for this study were those with a history of dental trauma, thereby comprising a subsample of 327 schoolchildren. The spatial location of the schoolchildren's homes enabled the events to be visualized on a cartographic basis. The variables of gender, aetiology of the trauma and areas of substandard living conditions were included in the analysis and construction of thematic maps, thus making possible a descriptive analysis of the spatial distribution of dental trauma in the city. Intra-urban differentials were identified in the prevalence of dental trauma in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Curitiba. A greater concentration of occurrences was observed in the eastern region of the city, especially in areas of substandard living conditions. It was possible to conclude that socio-environmental and geophysical factors are associated with the determination of dental trauma in the city of Curitiba, pointing to the need for the development of public policies especially aimed at areas and populations at greater risk. [source]

    The association between incisor trauma and occlusal characteristics in individuals 8,50 years of age

    Jay D. Shulman
    Abstract,,, To explore the association between incisal trauma and occlusal characteristics using oral examination and health interview data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988,1994 (NHANES III). Incisal trauma examinations were performed on 15 364 individuals 6,50 years of age using an ordinal scale developed by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Occlusal examinations were performed on 13 057 individuals 8,50 years of age. We fitted separate multivariate logistic regression models for maxillary and mandibular incisor trauma adjusting for socio-demographic variables (age, gender, race-ethnicity) and occlusal characteristics (overbite, overjet, open bite). 23.45% of all individuals evidenced trauma on at least one incisor, with trauma more than four times more prevalent on maxillary (22.59%) than on mandibular incisors (4.78%). Males (OR = 1.67) had greater odds of trauma than females; Whites (OR = 1.37) and non-Hispanic Blacks (OR = 1.37) had greater odds of trauma than Mexican,Americans. The odds of trauma increased with age, peaked from age 21 to 30 (OR = 2.92), and declined. As overjet increased, so did the odds of trauma. Compared to individuals with ,0-mm overjet, odds of trauma increased from 1,3 mm (OR = 1.42) to 4,6 mm (OR = 2.42) to 7,8 mm (OR = 3.24) to >8 mm (OR = 12.47). Trauma to incisors is prevalent but mostly limited to enamel. Trauma to maxillary incisors is associated with overjet, gender, race-ethnicity, and age, while trauma to mandibular incisors is associated with gender, age, and overbite. [source]

    Healing of 208 intraalveolar root fractures in patients aged 7,17 years

    Miomir Cvek
    Abstract , This retrospective study consisted of 208 root-fractured, 168 splinted and 40 not splinted incisors in young individuals (aged 7,17 years) treated in the period 1959,1973 at the Pedodontic Department, Eastman Institute, Stockholm. Clinical and radiographic analyses showed that 69 teeth (33%) had developed hard tissue (fusion) healing of fragments. Interposition of periodontal ligament (PDL) and bone between the fragments was found in 17 teeth (8%). Interposition of PDL alone was found in 74 teeth (36%). Finally, non-healing with pulp necrosis and inflammatory changes between fragments was seen in 48 teeth (23%). Various clinical factors were analyzed for their relationship to the healing outcome with respect to healing/no healing and type of healing (hard tissue versus interposition of bone and/or PDL). Immature root and positive pulp sensitivity at time of injury was found to be significantly related to both pulp healing and hard tissue repair of the fracture. The same applied to concussion or subluxation of the coronal fragment compared to luxation with displacement (extrusive or lateral luxation). This relation was also represented by the variable millimeter diastasis between fragments before and after repositioning. Repositioning appeared to enhance the likelihood of both pulp healing and hard tissue repair. A positive effect of splinting, splinting methods (cap splints or orthodontic bands with an arch wire) or splinting periods could not be demonstrated on either pulp healing or type of healing (hard tissue versus interposition of bone and/or PDL). In conclusion, the findings from this retrospective study have cast doubts on the efficacy of long-term splinting and the types of splint used for root fracture healing. It is suggested that the role of splinting and splinting methods be examined in further studies. [source]

    Tumescent Liposuction Report Performance Measurement Initiative: National Survey Results

    William Hanke MD
    Background. This study was created by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care Institute for Quality Improvement to measure clinical performance and improvement opportunities for physicians and ambulatory health-care organizations. Data were collected prospectively between February 2001 and August 2002. Thirty-nine study centers participated, and 688 patients who had tumescent liposuction were surveyed and followed for 6 months. Objective. The objective was to determine patient satisfaction with tumescent liposuction and examine current liposuction practice and the safety of tumescent liposuction in a representative cohort of patients. Methods. The Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care Institute for Quality Improvement collected prospective data from February 2001 to August 2002 from 68 organizations registered for this study. Ultimately 39 organizations submitted 688 useable cases performed totally with local anesthesia, "tumescent technique." Results. The overall clinical complication rate found in the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care Institute for Quality Improvement study was 0.7% (5 of 702). There was a minor complication rate of 0.57%. The major complication rate was 0.14% with one patient requiring hospitalization. Seventy-five percent of the patients reported no discomfort during their procedures. Of the 59% of patients who responded to a 6-month postoperative survey, 91% were positive about their decision to have liposuction (rating of 4 or 5 on a scale of 1,5) and 84% had high levels (4 or 5 on a scale of 1,5) of overall satisfaction with the procedure. Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with others in that tumescent liposuction is a safe procedure with a low complication rate and high patient satisfaction. [source]

    Authors in Dermatologic Surgery

    Nathalie Q. Nguyen BS
    Authors of scientific papers have been evaluated in the past by how frequently the medical literature cites them. In this analysis, we specifically identify those individuals who have contributed to the field of cutaneous surgery through publications in Dermatologic Surgery. We further analyze those publications frequently cited in Dermatologic Surgery, allowing us to determine topics of utmost value and interest. Using a citation database provided by the Institute for Scientific Information, we first identify all publications and citations from 1981 to 1999 for Dermatologic Surgery and the Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology (the previous name for this journal). Of the original articles published during this time frame, 3099 authors published 2167 papers. We quantify the publications from each author, and identify 57 authors with at least 10 original articles. When expanding the database parameters to include original articles, reviews, notes, and proceedings (as defined by the Science Citation Index), we find that the eight authors with the greatest number of publications are the same individuals with the greatest number of original articles. This reflects significant contributions to the field of cutaneous surgery by these authors. This analysis further identifies source papers for authors in Dermatologic Surgery. Publications frequently cited include those papers discussing laser surgery, with Dermatologic Surgery serving as the most frequently cited journal. [source]

    Sexual dimorphism of g-protein subunit Gng13 expression in the cortical region of the developing mouse ovary

    Akihiro Fujino
    Abstract In our search for genes required for the development and function of mouse gonads, we identified Gng13 (guanine nucleotide binding protein 13, gamma), a gene with an embryonic expression pattern highly restricted to the ovary. Based on reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization, Gng13 is expressed in both XX and XY gonads at embryonic day (E) 11.5, but becomes up-regulated in the XX gonad by E12.5. Expression is retained after treatment with busulfan, a chemical known to eliminate germ cells, pointing to the soma as a site of Gng13 transcription. In situ hybridization of embryonic ovarian tissue sections further localized the expression to the cortex of the developing XX gonad. Gng13 expression in the adult is also highly restricted. Northern blot analyses and Genomic Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation expression profiling of adult tissues detected very high expression in the cerebrum and cerebellum, in addition to, a weaker signal in the ovary. Gng13 belongs to a well-known family of signal transduction molecules with functions in many aspects of development and organ physiology. Here, we report that, in the developing mouse embryo, expression of Gng13 mRNA is highly restricted to the cortex of the XX gonad during sexual differentiation, suggesting a role for this gene during ovarian development. Developmental Dynamics 236:1991,1996, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The 31st British Paediatric Neurology Association (BPNA) Annual Meeting, Institute of Child Health, London, UK, 19-21 January 2005

    Jean-Pierre Lin
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The destinies of the low- and middle-income country submissions

    J. Konradsen
    Objective:, To measure the number of submissions to Acta Pyschiatrica Scandinavica from low- and middle-income countries (LIC/MIC) compared with submissions from high income countries (HIC), to compare the way through the peer review process for the three groups respectively, as well as how they do as published articles eventually. Method:, By help of the Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica editorial office database all submissions of reviews of the literature, clinical overviews, original articles, brief communications, and case reports from 2002 through 2005 were analysed as to external/in-house review, acceptance/rejection, number of downloads from Blackwell-Synergy, and number of citations [Institute of Scientific Information (ISI)] in a comparison between HIC and LIC/MIC. Results:, About 14.6% of the total submissions in 2002/2003 came from LIC and MIC countries, 15.5% for the 2004/2005 period. In both periods, a larger portion of LIC/MIC manuscripts were reviewed exclusively in-house compared with HIC ones and among those papers reviewed by external experts a smaller proportion of the submissions from HIC countries were rejected than of those from LIC and MIC countries. From the first to the second period there is a significant increase of proportion of submitted LIC/MIC papers accepted for publication compared with HIC papers. Full text download and citation statistics did not differ significantly between HIC and LIC/MIC. Conclusion:, Low- and middle-income countries manuscripts do gradually better in the competition with HIC papers in Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. The major observation is that the total number of LIC/MIC submissions to the journal is still low. [source]

    Exploratory behavior in mice selectively bred for developmental differences in aggressive behavior

    Kathryn E. Hood
    Abstract The development and expression of exploratory behavior was assessed in the Cairns lines of Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice that were selectively bred for differences in aggressive behavior, with a high-aggressive 900 line, low-aggressive 100 line, and control 500 line. Four paradigms were employed. Developmental changes were evident in the complex novel arena, with older males faster to contact a novel object, and ambulating more than young males. Within the control 500 line, older males showed longer latency to emerge from the home cage, and shorter latency to contact novel objects. In the 900 line, younger males showed this same pattern. R. B. Cairns proposed that line differences in aggressive behavior arise through alterations in developmental timing [Cairns et al. [1983] Life-span developmental psychology (Vol. 5). New York: Academic Press; Gariépy et al. [2001] Animal Behaviour 61: 933,947]. The early appearance of mature patterns of exploratory behavior in 900 line males supports this interpretation. The 900 line males also appear to be behaviorally inhibited in novel settings such as the light,dark box and the neohypophagia paradigm, compared to the 500 and 100 lines (Experiments 1, 2, and 4). Moreover, in the most complex apparatus, the novel arena, 900 line males were slowest to exit the home cage, and fastest to contact a novel object. The apparent contrast in these parameters of exploratory behavior is discussed in relation to T. C. Schneirla's [1965 Advances in the study of behavior (Vol. 1). New York: PN Academic] approach,withdrawal theory. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 50: 32,47, 2008. [source]

    Evaluation of agreement between conventional and liquid-based cytology in cervical cancer early detection based on analysis of 2,091 smears: Experience at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute

    Vania Reis Girianelli M.Sc.
    Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate the agreement between conventional cytology (CC) and liquid-based cytology (LBC) in cervical cancer early detection. The results of CC and LBC (DNACitoliq®) in 2,059 women aged 25,59 years were compared. The percent agreement, kappa coefficient, prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa coefficient (PABAK), and Chamberlain's percent positive agreement (PPA) were calculated. The percent agreement between the two methods was very good (80% and 79%, respectively, for normal versus ASCUS+; and normal versus ASCUS, AGUS and LSIL+ vs. HSIL+). The kappa coefficient indicates slight agreement (0.26 and 0.23, respectively), but when PABAK was used the agreement was good (0.61 and 0.68, respectively). PPA was high for normal results (79.2%) and low for the remaining categories. To conclude, in this study, agreement between LBC and CC was only good for normal results, which involves the majority of cases and positively influences the overall agreement rate. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2007;35:545-549. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Discipleship Training Of Children and Youth

    DIALOG, Issue 3 2002
    Dean M. Hunneshagen
    Today, we all face an infinite number of faith choices, especially youth. This makes confirmation ministry as discipleship training most important in our churches. This article explores the confirmation ministry of Lord of Life Lutheran Church in Depew, NY, and critically analyzes the methodology,4 turnings, 6 disciplines, and 19 assets,behind the ministry. This methodology has been developed from researchers such as Jean Piaget, James Fowler, Duffy Robins, and researchers at the Search Institute. [source]

    The Declaration of Hawaii andClarence Blomquist

    J. O. Ottosson
    The international code of ethics of psychiatry, the Declaration of Hawaii was in the main the achievement of Clarence Blomquist. There were several prerequisites for the success of this work. 1. The unique profile of the education of Clarence Blomquist, combining training to be a specialist in psychiatry with a doctor's degree in practical philosophy. 2. An outstanding competence in analyzing complicated issues and in putting thoughts into words. 3. The courage to challenge the Hippocratic ethics and adapt the principles of ethics to modern health care. 4. A scholarship at the Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences, Hastings-on-Hudson, New York, where he could test his ideas in an intellectual interdisciplinary atmosphere. 5. Support from the late Professor Leo Eitinger, Norway and Professor Gerdt Wretmark, Sweden, who together with Clarence Blomquist constituted a task force on ethics of the World Psychiatric Association. 6. A continuous backing-up by Dr Denis Leigh, the then secretary general of the World Psychiatric Association. Denis Leigh was convinced that a code of ethics was the only means to reconcile the various member countries on issues of misuse of psychiatry and, in addition, would raise the quality of psychiatric care throughout the world. [source]

    Epidermoid cyst of the intrapancreatic accessory spleen producing CA19-9

    Hiroyuki Watanabe
    We report a rare case of an epidermoid cyst in an accessory spleen at the pancreatic tail with producing CA19-9. A 55-year-old female was admitted to our hospital, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, for close examination of a cystic lesion at the pancreatic tail and a high serum CA19-9-value (176 U/mL). There were almost no abdominal symptoms related to the cystic lesion. A cystic tumor approximately 3 cm in diameter and composed of multilocular cysts without a protruding portion of the inner surface was found at the pancreatic tail by ultrasound sonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography revealed that the main pancreatic duct shifted at the pancreatic tail and there was no communication between the main pancreatic duct and cystic lesion. Based on a preoperative diagnosis of mucinous cystic tumor, distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed. Histological ,ndings suggested an epidermoid cyst (3.5 × 3.0 cm) originating from an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Immunohistochemical analysis of CA19-9 in the epidermoid cyst showed clear staining of the inner epithelium of the cyst and amorphous or hyalinous cystic contents. The serum CA19-9 value was con,rmed to decline to normal 2 months after resection. Physicians should not forget this disease during differential diagnosis related to pancreatic cystic lesions with elevated levels of serum tumor markers, such as CA19-9 or carcinoembryonic antigen, although this disease is extremely rare. [source]

    Comparison of Outcomes of Two Skills-teaching Methods on Lay-rescuers' Acquisition of Infant Basic Life Support Skills

    Itai Shavit MD
    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:979,986 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to determine if lay-rescuers' acquisition of infant basic life support (BLS) skills would be better when skills teaching consisted of videotaping practice and providing feedback on performances, compared to conventional skills-teaching and feedback methods. Methods:, This pilot-exploratory, single-blind, prospective, controlled, randomized study was conducted on November 12, 2007, at the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion,Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. The population under study consisted of all first-year medical students enrolled in the 2007,2008 year. BLS training is part of their mandatory introductory course in emergency medicine. Twenty-three students with previous BLS training were excluded. The remaining 71 were randomized into four and then two groups, with final allocation to an intervention and control group of 18 and 16 students, respectively. All the students participated in infant BLS classroom teaching. Those in the intervention group practiced skills acquisition independently, and four were videotaped while practicing. Tapes were reviewed by the group and feedback was provided. Controls practiced using conventional teaching and feedback methods. After 3 hours, all subjects were videotaped performing an unassisted, lone-rescuer, infant BLS resuscitation scenario. A skills assessment tool was developed. It consisted of 25 checklist items, grouped into four sections: 6 points for "categories" (with specific actions in six categories), 14 points for "scoring" (of accuracy of performance of each action), 4 points for "sequence" (of actions within a category), and 1 point for "order" of resuscitation (complete and well-sequenced categories). Two blinded expert raters were given a workshop on the use of the scoring tool. They further refined it to increase scoring consistency. The main outcome of the study was defined as evidence of better skills acquisition in overall skills in the four sections and in the specific skills sets for actions in any individual category. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results:, Means and mean percentages were greater in the intervention group in all four sections compared to controls: categories (5.72 [95.33%] and 4.69 [92.66%]), scoring (10.57 [75.50%] and 7.41 [43.59%]), sequence (2.28 [57.00%] and 1.66 [41.50%]), and order of resuscitation (0.96 [96.00%] and 0.19 [19.00%]). The means and mean percentages of the actions (skill sets) in the intervention group were also larger than those of controls in five out of six categories: assessing responsiveness (1.69 [84.50%] and 1.13 [56.50%]), breathing technique (1.69 [93.00%] and 1.13 [47.20%]), chest compression technique (3.19 [77.50%] and 1.84 [46.00%]), activating emergency medical services (EMS) (3.00 [100.00%] and 2.81 [84.50%]), and resuming cardiopulmonary resuscitation (0.97 [97.00%] and 0.47 [47.00%]). These results demonstrate better performance in the intervention group. Conclusions:, The use of videotaped practice and feedback for the acquisition of overall infant BLS skills and of specific skill sets is effective. Observation and participation in the feedback and assessment of nonexperts attempting infant BLS skills appeared to improve the ability of this group of students to perform the task. [source]