Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Insects

  • adult insect
  • beneficial insect
  • control insect
  • dipteran insect
  • female insect
  • herbivorous insect
  • holometabolous insect
  • individual insect
  • infected insect
  • lepidopteran insect
  • many insect
  • native insect
  • other insect
  • pest insect
  • phytophagous insect
  • polyphagou insect
  • resistant insect
  • scale insect
  • social insect
  • stick insect
  • stream insect
  • terrestrial insect

  • Terms modified by Insects

  • insect abundance
  • insect activity
  • insect assemblage
  • insect attack
  • insect behaviour
  • insect bite
  • insect brain
  • insect cell
  • insect cell line
  • insect colony
  • insect community
  • insect cuticle
  • insect damage
  • insect density
  • insect development
  • insect diversity
  • insect feeding
  • insect flight
  • insect genome
  • insect groups
  • insect growth regulator
  • insect gut
  • insect herbivore
  • insect herbivory
  • insect host
  • insect hosts
  • insect immune system
  • insect infestation
  • insect innate immunity
  • insect interaction
  • insect larva
  • insect lineage
  • insect natural enemy
  • insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
  • insect order
  • insect outbreak
  • insect performance
  • insect pest
  • insect pest species
  • insect pollination
  • insect pollinator
  • insect population
  • insect population dynamics
  • insect predator
  • insect prey
  • insect protein
  • insect repellent
  • insect reproduction
  • insect resistance
  • insect response
  • insect seed predator
  • insect society
  • insect species
  • insect species richness
  • insect survival
  • insect taxa
  • insect technique
  • insect tissue
  • insect vector
  • insect visitor
  • insect wing

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2008
    Eric M. Janson
    Adaptive diversification is a process intrinsically tied to species interactions. Yet, the influence of most types of interspecific interactions on adaptive evolutionary diversification remains poorly understood. In particular, the role of mutualistic interactions in shaping adaptive radiations has been largely unexplored, despite the ubiquity of mutualisms and increasing evidence of their ecological and evolutionary importance. Our aim here is to encourage empirical inquiry into the relationship between mutualism and evolutionary diversification, using herbivorous insects and their microbial mutualists as exemplars. Phytophagous insects have long been used to test theories of evolutionary diversification; moreover, the diversification of a number of phytophagous insect lineages has been linked to mutualisms with microbes. In this perspective, we examine microbial mutualist mediation of ecological opportunity and ecologically based divergent natural selection for their insect hosts. We also explore the conditions and mechanisms by which microbial mutualists may either facilitate or impede adaptive evolutionary diversification. These include effects on the availability of novel host plants or adaptive zones, modifying host-associated fitness trade-offs during host shifts, creating or reducing enemy-free space, and, overall, shaping the evolution of ecological (host plant) specialization. Although the conceptual framework presented here is built on phytophagous insect,microbe mutualisms, many of the processes and predictions are broadly applicable to other mutualisms in which host ecology is altered by mutualistic interactions. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2007
    Nadir Alvarez
    The hypothesis of isolation by distance (IBD) predicts that genetic differentiation between populations increases with geographic distance. However, gene flow is governed by numerous factors and the correlation between genetic differentiation and geographic distance is never simply linear. In this study, we analyze the interaction between the effects of geographic distance and of wild or domesticated status of the host plant on genetic differentiation in the bean beetle Acanthoscelides obvelatus. Geographic distance explained most of the among-population genetic differentiation. However, IBD varied depending on the kind of population pairs for which the correlation between genetic differentiation and geographic distance was examined. Whereas pairs of beetle populations associated with wild beans showed significant IBD (P < 10,4), no IBD was found when pairs of beetle populations on domesticated beans were examined (P= 0.2992). This latter result can be explained by long-distance migrations of beetles on domesticated plants resulting from human exchanges of bean seeds. Beetle populations associated with wild beans were also significantly more likely than those on domesticated plants to contain rare alleles. However, at the population level, beetles on cultivated beans were similar in allelic richness to those on wild beans. This similarity in allelic richness combined with differences in other aspects of the genetic diversity (i.e., IBD, allelic diversity) is compatible with strongly contrasting effects of migration and drift. This novel indirect effect of human actions on gene flow of a serious pest of a domesticated plant has important implications for the spread of new adaptations such as resistance to pesticides. [source]


    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 3 2002
    WANG Ya-wei
    Abstract Biological activity of an extract of the root of Stellera chameajasme with ethanol by dip (SCEE) against 5 insect pests, Pieris rapae, Plutella xylostella, Spodoptera litura, Myzus persicae, and Ostrina fumalis as tested. The LD, of stomach poison of SCEE against the fifth instar larvae of P. rapae was 12. 32 ,arvae day 2 after treatment. With SCEE at concentration of 5, 2. 5 and 50 mg/mL, the fifth instar larvae of P. rapae, the third instar larvae of P. xylostella, and the third instar larvae of S. litura by disc leaf dipped method, had corrected mortalities of 100%, 31. 03 % and 16. 67 % 7 days after treatment respectively. The LC50 of SCEE against M. persicae was 0. 599 2 mg/mL after day 2 treatment by leaf dipped method. With SCEE at 10 mg/mL for the third instar larvae of O. furnucalis by mixture pesticide method, the corrected mortalities of 65. 52% and 85. 72% days 7 and day 14 after treatments respectively. The results showed that SCEE possessed strong biological activity to P. rapae, O. furnacalis, and M. persicae, while possessed weak biological activity to S. litura and P. xylostella. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2008
    Fred Gould
    Insect- and tick-vectored diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease cause human suffering, and current approaches for prevention are not adequate. Invasive plants and animals such as Scotch broom, zebra mussels, and gypsy moths continue to cause environmental damage and economic losses in agriculture and forestry. Rodents transmit diseases and cause major pre- and postharvest losses, especially in less affluent countries. Each of these problems might benefit from the developing field of Genetic Pest Management that is conceptually based on principles of evolutionary biology. This article briefly describes the history of this field, new molecular tools in this field, and potential applications of those tools. There will be a need for evolutionary biologists to interact with researchers and practitioners in a variety of other fields to determine the most appropriate targets for genetic pest management, the most appropriate methods for specific targets, and the potential of natural selection to diminish the effectiveness of genetic pest management. In addition to producing environmentally sustainable pest management solutions, research efforts in this area could lead to new insights about the evolution of selfish genetic elements in natural systems and will provide students with the opportunity to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the role of evolutionary biology in solving societal problems. [source]

    Insect and wind pollination of an alpine biennial Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae)

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Y. W. Duan
    Abstract Wind pollination can provide reproductive insurance for animal-pollinated dioecious plants in the absence of available pollinators, but combinations of insect and wind pollination (ambophily) have rarely been studied in hermaphrodite herbs. We examined the stable occurrence of insect pollination and wind pollination over 4 years in a population of a biennial Aconitum species (A. gymnandrum) with actinomorphic and degenerate sepals. The total frequency of visits of two bumblebee species showed no distinct fluctuations in the studied population among the 4 years. However, seed production of netted flowers after emasculation indicated wind pollination had occurred. The seed number of bagged flowers with one visit by bumblebees was significantly less than that of netted flowers after one visit, or in control flowers. Both seed number and fruit set of netted flowers were significantly lower than in control flowers. These results suggest that wind pollination provides supplementary pollen to unvisited and/or once-visited flowers, but accounts for only a small amount of seed production compared to bumblebee pollination in natural conditions. Such a combination of insect and wind pollination might play an important role in maintaining sexual reproduction of this biennial herb, allowing it to persist in arid habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, especially during Quaternary glacial periods when pollinator populations oscillated extensively. [source]

    Insect community organisation in estuaries: the role of the physical environment

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2002
    D. Dudley Williams
    Insects are reportedly uncommon in marine habitats and, from a spatial/temporal intercomparison perspective, estuaries are among the least studied. We examined the natural variability seen among insect community organisation in estuaries on both sides of the North Atlantic, and evaluated the role of their physical environments. Community composition was found to be strongly influenced by three physical factors: estuary size, the degree of inundation by incoming tides, and substrate size/stability. Insects formed a significant proportion (17,54%, by numbers) of the benthic community of coarse-grained-substratum estuaries, and species richness increased with estuary size. Nymphs/larvae of mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies, elmid beetles and chironomids dominated channel sites inundated by up to 25% of all incoming tides, but a gradual loss in species richness occurred downstream. However, even the most seaward sites supported high insect densities (up to 25,016 and 5433 m,2, supporting 26 and 4 species, at sites inundated by 75 and 100% of all incoming tides, respectively). Sites covered by tides for between 3 and 5 h twice daily were dominated by orthocladine chironomids, especially of the genus Orthocladius. Chironomid larvae contribute significantly to the diets of some coastal fish species, particularly juvenile flounder and sticklebacks. We present a schematic model summarising the relationships between estuary size, degree of inundation by salt water and insect community structure. [source]

    Egg maturation strategy and its associated trade-offs: a synthesis focusing on Lepidoptera

    Mark A. Jervis
    Abstract., 1.,Insects vary considerably between and within orders, and even within the same genus, in the degree to which the female's lifetime potential egg complement is mature when she emerges as an adult. 2.,The ,ovigeny index' (OI) , the number of eggs females have ready to lay divided by the lifetime potential fecundity , quantifies variation in the degree of early life concentration of egg production, and also variation in initial reproductive effort. 3.,Here, an integrated set of hypotheses is presented, based on a conceptual model of resource allocation and acquisition, concerning trade-offs at the interspecific level between initial investment in egg production (as measured by OI) and other life-history traits in holometabolous insects. 4.,The evidence supporting each of these hypotheses is reviewed, and particular attention is paid to the Lepidoptera, as relevant life-history data are rapidly accumulating for this ecologically and economically important group. 5.,There is evidence at the interspecific level supporting: (i) a link between OI and a trade-off between soma and non-soma in Trichoptera and Hymenoptera (the proportionate allocation to soma decreases with increasing OI); (ii) a negative correlation between OI and dependency on external nutrient inputs (via adult feeding) in Hymenoptera and in Lepidoptera; (iii) a negative correlation between OI and the degree of polyandry (and nuptial gift, i.e. spermatophore, use) in Lepidoptera; (iv) negative correlations between OI and resource re-allocation capabilities (egg and thoracic musculature resorption) in Hymenoptera and in Lepidoptera; (v) a negative correlation between lifespan and OI in Trichoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, indicating a cost of reproduction; (vi) a link between winglessness and an OI of one in Lepidoptera; (vii) a negative correlation between OI and the degree of female mobility in winged Lepidoptera; and (viii) a negative correlation between OI and larval diet breadth (as mediated by oviposition strategy) in Lepidoptera. [source]

    Male-biased size dimorphism in ichneumonine wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) , the role of sexual selection for large male size

    Tiit Teder
    Abstract., 1.,Sexual differences in body size are expected to evolve when selection on female and male sizes favours different optima. 2.,Insects have typically female-biased size dimorphism that is usually explained by the strong fecundity advantage of larger size in females. However, numerous exceptions to this general pattern have led to the search for selective pressures favouring larger size in males. 3.,In this study, the benefits of large size were investigated in males of four species of ichneumonine wasps, a species-rich group of parasitoids, many representatives of which exhibit male-biased size dimorphism. 4.,Mating behaviour of all ichneumonine wasps are characterised by pre-copulatory struggles, in the course of which males attempt to override female reluctance to mate. A series of laboratory trials was conducted to study the determinants of male mating success. 5.,A tendency was found for larger males as well as those in better condition to be more successful in achieving copulations. Size dimorphism of the species studied, mostly male-biased in hind tibia length but female-biased in body weight, indicates that sexual selection in males favours longer bodies and appendages rather than larger weight. 6.,The qualitative similarity of the mating patterns suggests that sexual selection cannot completely explain the considerable among-species differences in sexual size dimorphism. 7.,The present study cautions against using various size indices as equivalents for calculating sexual size dimorphism. 8.,It is suggested that female reluctance in ichneumonine wasps functions as a mechanism of female mate assessment. [source]

    Novel strategies targeting pathogen transmission reduction in insect vectors: Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis control

    Brian L. WEISS
    Abstract Insect vectors are essential for the transmission of important human diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas and sleeping sickness. Insects are also responsible for the transmission of agricultural diseases that affect livestock and crops. Traditionally, control of the vector populations has been an effective disease management strategy. Recently, vector control strategies have been fortified by research in insect biology and in insect,pathogen interactions as well as by the development of transgenic technologies. In addition to insect population reduction methods, disease control via selective elimination of pathogens in insects can now be explored. Here we explore the tsetse vectors of African trypanosomes and describe the application of recent knowledge gained in their symbiotic, reproductive and vectorial biology to develop novel disease control strategies. [source]

    Effect of photoperiod on development and growth in a pentatomid bug, Dolycoris baccarum

    Keiji Nakamura
    Abstract The effect of photoperiod on nymphal development, growth and adult size was examined in a pentatomid bug, Dolycoris baccarum, collected in Osaka (a warm temperate region) and Hokkaido (a subfrigid region), Japan. When insects were reared from eggs at 25C, the developmental period was long and adult size was large under photoperiods close to the critical photoperiod for the induction of adult diapause. Adults of the Hokkaido population were larger than those of the Osaka population. There was no significant correlation between developmental period and adult size. Insects also showed variation in their growth rate: growth rate was low under photoperiods a little longer than the critical photoperiod for the induction of diapause. The ecological significance of variation in development and growth is discussed. [source]

    Influence of isolation on the recovery of pond mesocosms from the application of an insecticide.


    Abstract The immediate response and recovery of the macrobenthic communities of nonisolated and isolated freshwater outdoor 9 m3 mesocosms following an acute stress caused by the addition of deltamethrin were studied over a 14-month period. To discriminate between internal and external recovery mechanisms, half of the treated ponds were covered by 1-mm mesh lids that restricted aerial recolonization. Both structural (abundance of the different taxonomic groups) and functional (litter breakdown) parameters were monitored. Insects were broadly reduced in numbers by deltamethrin addition. In general, noninsect groups were not affected or increased in abundance in deltamethrin-treated ponds, probably because of relative insensitivity to deltamethrin, reduced predation, and lower competition for food. No major change in litter breakdown rates were seen, probably because of functional redundancy among the macrobenthic community. Chironominae larvae recovered in open, treated mesocosms 62 d after deltamethrin addition and most insect groups recovered 84 d after the treatment date. However, the presence of lids significantly reduced insect recovery rate, suggesting that it largely depends on the immigration of winged forms (i.e., external recovery) from surrounding non- or less affected systems. These results indicate that the recovery time of macrobenthic communities in an affected natural pond would depend on spatial characteristics of the landscape and also the season that exposure occurs. Isolated ecosystems would display posttreatment insect recovery dynamics very different from highly connected ones, evolving toward alternate pseudoequilibrium states, possibly with lower biodiversity but with preserved functionality. Consequences for higher tier risk assessment of pesticides are discussed. [source]

    Decline in the quality of suspended fine particulate matter as a food resource for chironomids downstream of an urban area

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
    Emma J. Rosi-MarshallArticle first published online: 16 APR 200
    Summary 1. Urbanization and its associated contamination could degrade the quality of suspended fine particulate organic matter (SFPM) (20 ,m to 1 mm) as a food resource for aquatic insects. SFPM was collected at four sites along the main stem of the Chattahoochee River, which drains metropolitan Atlanta at base and high flow during four seasons. 2. Composition of SFPM was estimated using measures conventionally associated with food quality: bacteria, N/C ratio, caloric content, % inorganic, and % lipids, and metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentration. In SFPM collected during base flow, % inorganic matter, calories, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations increased with cumulative permitted wastewater treatment discharge (an indicator of extent of urbanization upstream). In SFPM samples collected during high flow, % diatoms, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations increased with urbanization. 3. A growth assay was used as an integrated and direct measure of SFPM quality as a food resource. The instantaneous growth rate (IGR) of chironomids fed SFPM collected during base flow declined downstream of the city. IGRs of chironomids fed SFPM collected at all sites during high flow were as low as the lowest IGR measured during base flow. 4. Insects fed SFPM collected from the Chattahoochee River had IGRs only 20% of those of chironomids fed SFPM collected from the Little Tennessee River, a relatively undisturbed river in North Carolina. The mortality rate of chironomids fed SFPM was not different among sites or rivers. While the decline in SFPM quality in the Chattahoochee River is probably attributable to some aspect of urbanization, the decline was not related to conventional measures of food quality or metal contamination. [source]

    Benthic secondary production and biomass of insects emerging from a northern German temperate stream

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    Rainer Poepperl
    Summary 1Secondary production and emergence of aquatic insects were examined in the outlet of Lake Belau, Northern Germany, by means of benthic samples and emergence traps. 2At three stream sections annual larval secondary production varied between 4.9 and 10.8 gDM (dry mass) m -2 year -1. Insects contributed with 3.4, 8.9, and 8.7% to the total macroinvertebrate production that varied between 56.5 and 215.1 gDM m -2 year -1. Emerged biomass was between 1.0 and 2.0 gDM m -2 year -1. At all three stream sections Diptera dominated with a larval production of 3.0,l6.1 gDM m -2 year -1, followed by Trichoptera with 1.0,2.1 and Ephemeroptera with up to 0.9 gDM m -2 year -1. 3Average larval production amounted to 9.0 gDM m -2 year -1 and emerged biomass to 1.7 gDM m -2 year -1. Larvae of insects amounted to 7.0% of total macroinvertebrate production. 4The ratio of annual emerged biomass to secondary production (E/P) varied among individual taxa. At the stream sections the ratio ranged from 15.9% to 20.1% with an average of 18.3% for the stream. 5Relative constancy of the E/P ratio suggests that the determination of emerged biomass can be used as a method for estimating the secondary production of aquatic insects. The composition of functional feeding groups clearly differs between emerged biomass and total macroinvertebrate production. Therefore, the method does not allow conclusions on the level of production of the whole benthic community. However, composition of functional feeding groups at emergence roughly reflects composition of these groups in the benthic insect community. [source]

    Elevated air temperature alters an old-field insect community in a multifactor climate change experiment

    Abstract To address how multiple, interacting climate drivers may affect plant,insect community associations, we sampled insects that naturally colonized a constructed old-field plant community grown for over 2 years under simultaneous CO2, temperature, and water manipulation. Insects were sampled using a combination of sticky traps and vacuum sampling, identified to morphospecies and the insect community with respect to abundance, richness, and evenness quantified. Individuals were assigned to four broad feeding guilds in order to examine potential trophic level effects. Although there were occasional effects of CO2 and water treatment, the effects of warming on the insect community were large and consistent. Warming significantly increased Order Thysanoptera abundance and reduced overall morphospecies richness and evenness. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling found that only temperature affected insect community composition, while a Srensen similarity index showed less correspondence in the insect community between temperature treatments compared with CO2 or soil water treatments. Within the herbivore guild, elevated temperature significantly reduced richness and evenness. Corresponding reductions of diversity measures at higher trophic levels (i.e. parasitoids), along with the finding that herbivore richness was a significant predictor of parasitoid richness, suggest trophic-level effects within the insect community. When the most abundant species were considered in temperature treatments, a small number of species increased in abundance at elevated temperature, while others declined compared with ambient temperature. Effects of temperature in the dominant insects demonstrated that treatment effects were limited to a relatively small number of morphospecies. Observed effects of elevated CO2 concentration on whole-community foliar N concentration did not result in any effect on herbivores, which are probably the most susceptible guild to changes in plant nutritional quality. These results demonstrate that climatic warming may alter certain insect communities via effects on insect species most responsive to a higher temperature, contributing to a change in community structure. [source]

    Insects in a warmer world: ecological, physiological and life-history responses of true bugs (Heteroptera) to climate change

    Abstract Focusing on the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Pentatomidae), in central Japan the effects of climate change on true bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera) are reviewed. In the early 1960s, the northern edge of the species's distribution was in Wakayama Prefecture (34.1N) and distribution was limited by the +5C coldest month (January) mean temperature isothermal line. By 2000, N. viridula was recorded 70 km further north (in Osaka, 34.7N). Historical climate data were used to reveal possible causes of the northward range expansion. The increase of mean and lowest winter month temperatures by 1,2C in Osaka from the 1950s to the 1990s improved potential overwintering conditions for N. viridula. This promoted northward range expansion of the species. In Osaka, adult diapause in N. viridula is induced after mid-September, much later than in other local seed-feeding heteropterans. This late diapause induction results in late-season ineffective reproduction: some females start oviposition in autumn when the progeny have no chance of attaining adulthood and surviving winter. Both reproductive adults and the progeny die. A period from mid-September to early November represents a phenological mismatch: diapause is not yet induced in all adults, but it is already too late to start reproduction. Females that do not start reproduction but enter diapause in September have reduced postdiapause reproductive performance: they live for a shorter period, have a shorter period of oviposition and produce fewer eggs in smaller egg masses compared with females that emerge and enter diapause later in autumn. To some extent, N. viridula remains maladapted to Osaka environmental conditions. Ecological perspectives on establishment in recently colonized areas are discussed. A review of available data suggests that terrestrial and aquatic Heteroptera species respond to climate change by shifting their distribution ranges, changing abundance, phenology, voltinism, physiology, behaviour, and community structure. Expected responses of Heteroptera to further climate warming are discussed under scenarios of slight (<2C) and substantial (>2C) temperature increase. [source]

    Expression of an Aedes aegypti cation-chloride cotransporter and its Drosophila homologues

    V. Filippov
    Abstract Insects maintain haemolymph homeostasis under different environmental conditions by modulating the concentrations of Na+, K+ and Cl, ions. One group of proteins involved in ion transport across cell membranes consists of cation-chloride cotransporters that form a family of structurally similar proteins. Although much is known about these proteins in mammalian systems, our understanding of them in insects is lacking. The recent sequencing of two insect genomes, Drosophila and Anopheles, enabled us to identify globally members of the family of cation chloride cotransporters in these insects. Using RT-PCR we monitored the transcription of members of this family in development and in several tissues. Our analyses showed that transcription of these genes differ considerably from the ubiquitously and highly expressed CG5594 gene to the almost silent gene CG31547. Comparison of Drosophila CG12773 and its Aedes homologue AaeCG12773 showed that they have similar transcript expression profiles. Immunohistochemical analysis of AaeCG1277 gene expression revealed that it is highly expressed in the gut of larvae and female adults but not in Malpighian tubules. A more detailed analysis showed that this protein is localized predominantly in the basolateral membrane of these tissues. This expression pattern confirmed the results of RT-PCR analysis. We also created a mutant for one of the genes, CG10413, in Drosophila using P-element excision. Analysis of this mutant showed this protein does not appear to be essential for development. [source]

    High-nickel insects and nickel hyperaccumulator plants: A review

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
    Robert S. Boyd
    Abstract Insects can vary greatly in whole-body elemental concentrations. Recent investigations of insects associated with Ni hyperaccumulator plants have identified insects with relatively elevated whole-body Ni levels. Evaluation of the limited data available indicates that a whole-body Ni concentration of 500 ,g Ni/g is exceptional: I propose that an insect species with a mean value of 500 ,g Ni/g or greater, in either larval/nymphal or adult stages, be considered a "high-Ni insect". Using the 500 ,g Ni/g criterion, 15 species of high-Ni insects have been identified to date from studies in Mpumalanga (South Africa), New Caledonia and California (USA). The highest mean Ni concentration reported is 3 500 ,g Ni/g for nymphs of a South African Stenoscepa species (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae). The majority of high-Ni insects (66%) are heteropteran herbivores. Studies of high-Ni insect host preference indicate they are monophagous (or nearly so) on a particular Ni hyperaccumulator plant species. Much of the Ni in bodies of these insects is in their guts (up to 66%,75%), but elevated levels have also been found in Malpighian tubules, suggesting efficient elimination as one strategy for dealing with a high-Ni diet. Tissue levels of Ni are generally much lower than gut concentrations, but up to 1200 ,g Ni/g has been reported from exuviae, suggesting that molting may be another pathway of Ni elimination. One ecological function of the high Ni concentration of these insects may be to defend them against natural enemies, but to date only one experimental test has supported this "elemental defense" hypothesis. Community-level studies indicate that high-Ni insects mobilize Ni into food webs but that bioaccumulation of Ni does not occur at either plant-herbivore or herbivore-predator steps. Unsurprisingly, Ni bioaccumulation indices are greater for high-Ni insects compared to other insect species that feed on Ni hyperaccumulator plants. There is some evidence of Ni mobilization into food webs by insect visitors to flowers of Ni hyperaccumulator plants, but no high-Ni insect floral visitors have been reported. [source]

    Molecular strategies of plant defense and insect counter-defense

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 1 2005
    Abstract The prediction of human population growth worldwide indicates there will be a need to substantially increase food production in order to meet the demand on food supply. This can be achieved in part by the effective management of insect pests. Since plants have co-evolved with herbivorous insects for millions of years, they have developed an array of defense genes to protect themselves against a wide variety of chewing and sucking insects. Using these naturally-occurring genes via genetic engineering represents an environmentally friendly insect pest-control measure. Insects, however, have been actively evolving adaptive mechanisms to evade natural plant defenses. Such evolved adaptability undoubtedly has helped insects during the last century to rapidly overcome a great many human-imposed management practices and agents, including chemical insecticides and genetically engineered plants. Thus, better understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of plant defense and insect counter-defense mechanisms is imperative, not only from a basic science perspective, but also for biotechnology-based pest control practice. In this review, we emphasize the recent advance and understanding of molecular strategies of attack-counterattack and defense-counter-defense between plants and their herbivores. [source]

    Development of the herbivore Pieris rapae and its endoparasitoid Cotesia rubecula on crucifers of field edges

    J. A. Harvey
    Abstract:, Several studies have reported that flowering herbs, which grow naturally or are sown adjacent to agricultural fields, may be an important source of nutrients for natural enemies. Many parasitoids readily feed on plant exudates such as floral nectar, which contain different types of sugars that enable the insects to optimize their longevity, mobility and reproductive success. However, leaf tissues of plants grown in the margins of agricultural fields may also provide food for immature stages of insect herbivores, such as caterpillars, that are in turn attacked by parasitoids. Herbivores and their parasitoids may later disperse into the crop, so the nutritional quality of surrounding plants, as this affects herbivore and parasitoid fitness, may also influence the success of biological control programmes, especially later in the season. Here, we compare the suitability of three species of cruciferous plants (Brassicaceae) on the development of Pieris rapae L. (Lep., Pieridae) and its solitary endoparasitoid, Cotesia rubecula Marshall (Hym., Bracondiae). Insects were reared on a feral population of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, on radish Raphanus sativus, which is widely sown in agricultural margins, and on hedge mustard, Sisymbrium officinale, a wild crucifer which often grows in medium to large stands along road verges and field edges. Development time in both the herbivore and parasitoid were extended on R. sativus, compared with the other two species, whereas C. rubecula completed its development most rapidly on B. oleracea. Moreover, adult butterflies and parasitoids were significantly smaller when reared on R. sativus plants. Our results reveal that differences in the quality of plants growing adjacent to agricultural fields can affect the development of key herbivores and their parasitoids. This should be borne in mind when establishing criteria for the selection of floral biodiversity. [source]

    A practical method for predicting the short-time trend of bivoltine populations of Ips typographus (L.) (Col., Scolytidae)

    M. Faccoli
    Abstract:,Ips typographus is the main spruce pest of European forests. In most areas of the Italian Alps there are two generations per year; overwintering adults fly in May looking for trees suitable for breeding, their offspring emerge in summer, 7,8 weeks after tree colonization, and the adults of the second generation emerge in spring of the following year after overwintering under the bark or in the litter. A long-term population monitoring was carried out in north-east Italy with the aim at developing a prediction model able to estimate the population density of the following year. Between 1996 and 2004, pheromone traps monitored populations of I. typographus annually. Monitoring lasted 4 months (May,August), with replacement of pheromone dispensers after 8 weeks. Insects trapped before dispenser change were called ,spring captures' (May,June), and included both overwintering and re-emerging adults. Beetles caught after dispenser change were called ,summer captures' (July,August), and included the adults of the first generation. The results show a high positive correlation between the ratio of summer and spring captures of one year (Summerx/Springx), and the ratio of total captures of the following year (Yx+1) and those of the current year (Yx) (Yx+1/Yx). Summerx/Springx lower than 0.62 indicate decreasing populations in the following year (Yx+1/Yx <1), whereas Summerx/Springx higher than 0.62 indicate increasing populations (Yx+1/Yx >1). The applicability of the model in the study of I. typographus risk of outbreak and in the forest management is discussed. The prediction of the short-time trend of the population allows assessing its density in the following year, and therefore the risk of outbreak. [source]

    Atlas of Harmful Insects

    J. R. Starzyk
    First page of article [source]

    Transmission of cotton seed and boll rotting bacteria by the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.)

    E.G. Medrano
    Abstract Aims:, To determine the ability of the southern green stink bug (SGSB) (Nezara viridula L.) to transmit Pantoea agglomerans into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) bolls. Methods and Results:, An SGSB laboratory colony was kept on fresh green beans. A P. agglomerans variant resistant to rifampicin (Rif) (strain Sc 1-R) was used as the opportunistic cotton pathogen. Adult insects were individually provided green beans that were sterilized and then soaked in either sterile water or in a suspension of strain Sc 1-R. Insects were individually caged with an unopened greenhouse-grown cotton boll. After 2 days, live SGSB were collected, surfaced sterilized, ground, serially diluted, and then plated on nonselective media and media amended with Rif. Exterior and interior evidence of feeding on bolls was recorded 2 weeks after exposure to insects. Seed and lint tissue were harvested, ground, serially diluted, and then plated on media with and without Rif. Bacteria were recovered on nonselective media from all insects, and from seed and lint with signs of insect feeding at concentrations ranging from 102 to 109 CFU g,1 tissue. The Sc 1-R strain was isolated only from insects exposed to the marked strain and from seed and lint of respective bolls showing signs of insect feeding. Evidence of insect feeding on the exterior wall of the carpel was not always apparent (47%), whereas feeding was always observed (100%) on the interior wall in association with bacterial infections of seed and lint. Conclusions:,Nezara viridula readily ingested the opportunistic P. agglomerans strain Sc 1-R and transmitted it into unopened cotton bolls. Infections by the transmitted Sc 1-R strain caused rotting of the entire locule that masked internal carpel wounds incurred by insect feeding. Bacteria were recovered from penetration points by insects not exposed to the pathogen, but locule damage was limited to the area surrounding the feeding site (c. 3 mm). Significance and Impact of the Study:, This is the first study that demonstrates the ability of SGSB to acquire and transmit plant pathogenic bacteria into cotton bolls. [source]

    Cactus-independent nuclear translocation of Drosophila RELISH

    William D. Cornwell
    Abstract Insects can effectively and rapidly clear microbial infections by a variety of innate immune responses including the production of antimicrobial peptides. Induction of these antimicrobial peptides in Drosophila has been well established to involve NF-,B elements. We present evidence here for a molecular mechanism of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling involving Drosophila NF-,B, RELISH, in Drosophila S2 cells. We demonstrate that LPS induces a rapid processing event within the RELISH protein releasing the C-terminal ankyrin-repeats from the N-terminal Rel homology domain (RHD). Examination of the cellular localization of RELISH reveals that the timing of this processing coincides with the nuclear translocation of the RHD and the retention of the ankyrin-repeats within the cytoplasm. Both the processing and the nuclear translocation immediately precede the expression of antibacterial peptide genes cecropin A1, attacin, and diptericin. Over-expression of the RHD but not full-length RELISH results in an increase in the promoter activity of the cecropin A1 gene in the absence of LPS. Furthermore, the LPS-induced expression of these antibacterial peptides is greatly reduced when RELISH expression is depleted via RNA-mediated interference. In addition, loss of cactus expression via RNAi revealed that RELISH activation and nuclear translocation is not dependent on the presence of cactus. Taken together, these results suggest that this signaling mechanism involving the processing of RELISH followed by nuclear translocation of the RHD is central to the induction of at least part of the antimicrobial response in Drosophila, and is largely independent of cactus regulation. J. Cell. Biochem. 82: 22,37, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Selection and Use of Postharvest Technologies as a Component of the Food Chain

    ABSTRACT: Postharvest technologies refer to the stabilization and storage of unprocessed or minimally processed foods from the time of harvest until final preparation for human consumption. There is a special emphasis on seasonal crops, and simple, labor-intensive, capital-sparing technologies suitable for developing countries where food spoilage rates are high and malnutrition is prevalent. The first step is to determine the major spoilage vectors for each type of food and then identify a technology that will control that vector. For cereal grains the major spoilage vectors are mold, insects, rodents, and other vertebrate pests. Mold is controlled by prompt and adequate drying to a water activity below 0.7. Insects are controlled by good housekeeping, and use of insecticides and fumigants. Rodents are controlled by baits, traps, fumigants, and rodent-proof storage structures. For fruits, vegetables, roots, and tubers the main spoilage vectors are bruising, rotting, senescence, and wilting. Bruising is avoided by careful handling and use of shock-resistant packaging. Rotting is controlled by good housekeeping, gentle handling to avoid breaking the skin, cool storage, and use of preservatives. Senescence is retarded by cold storage or controlled-atmosphere storage. Wilting is controlled by high humidity and cold storage. Growth of microbes is the major spoilage of fish and other foods of animal origin. This is controlled by refrigerated or frozen storage, drying, freezing, or canning. Most spoilage vectors accelerate as the temperature and humidity increase; this makes it more difficult to control spoilage in tropical than in temperate regions. [source]

    Behavioural responses of the seven-spot ladybird Coccinella septempunctata to plant headspace chemicals collected from four crop Brassicas and Arabidopsis thaliana, infested with Myzus persicae

    R. D. Girling
    Abstract 1,Insects using olfactory stimuli to forage for prey/hosts are proposed to encounter a ,reliability,detectability problem', where the usability of a stimulus depends on its reliability as an indicator of herbivore presence and its detectability. 2,We investigated this theory using the responses of female seven-spot ladybirds Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to plant headspace chemicals collected from the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae and four commercially available Brassica cultivars; Brassica rapa L. cultivar ,turnip purple top', Brassica juncea L. cultivar ,red giant mustard', Brassica napus L. cultivar ,Apex', Brassica napus L. cultivar ,Courage' and Arabidopsis thaliana. For each cultivar/species, responses to plants that were undamaged, previously infested by M. persicae and infested with M. persicae, were investigated using dual-choice Petri dish bioassays and circular arenas. 3,There was no evidence that ladybirds responded to headspace chemicals from aphids alone. Ladybirds significantly preferred headspace chemicals from B. napus cv. Apex that were undamaged compared with those from plants infested with aphids. For the other four species/cultivars, there was a consistent trend of the predators being recorded more often in the half of the Petri dish containing plant headspace chemicals from previously damaged and infested plants compared with those from undamaged ones. Furthermore, the mean distance ladybirds walked to reach aphid-infested A. thaliana was significantly shorter than to reach undamaged plants. These results suggest that aphid-induced plant chemicals could act as an arrestment or possibly an attractant stimulus to C. septempunctata. However, it is also possible that C. septempunctata could have been responding to aphid products, such as honeydew, transferred to the previously damaged and infested plants. 4,The results provide evidence to support the ,reliability,detectability' theory and suggest that the effectiveness of C. septempunctata as a natural enemy of aphids may be strongly affected by which species and cultivar of Brassica are being grown. [source]

    Debugging Decomposition Data,Comparative Taphonomic Studies and the Influence of Insects and Carcass Size on Decomposition Rate

    Tal Simmons Ph.D.
    Abstract:, Comparison of data from a variety of environments and ambient temperatures has previously been difficult as few studies used standardized measures of time/temperature and decomposition. In this paper, data from previous studies and recent experiments are compared using simple conversions. These conversions allow comparison across multiple environments and experiments for the first time. Plotting decomposition score against logADD allows the exponential progression of decomposition to be expressed as a simple linear equation. Data comparison from many environments and temperatures shows no difference in decomposition progression when measured using Accumulated Degree Days. The major effector of change in rate was insect presence, regardless of depositional environment, species, or season. Body size is significant when carcasses are accessed by insects; when insects are excluded, while bodies are indoors, submerged, or buried, then decomposition progresses at the same rate regardless of body size. [source]

    Expanding radiation quarantine treatments beyond fruit flies

    Guy J. Hallman
    Abstract 1 The potential of ionizing radiation as a disinfestation treatment for insects other than tephritid fruit flies is discussed. Radiation quarantine treatments are unique in that insects are not killed immediately but rendered sterile or incapable of completing development. 2 The most tolerant insect stage to radiation is that which is most developed. Female insects, but not always mites, are sterilized with equal or lower doses than males. 3 Insects irradiated with sterilizing doses usually have shorter longevities than non-irradiated ones. Low oxygen conditions often increase tolerance to radiation. 4 Insects in diapause are not more tolerant of radiation than non-diapausing ones. 5 Some pests of several groups, such as aphids, whiteflies, weevils, scarab beetles, and fruit flies, may be controlled with doses ,,100 Gy. Some lepidopterous pests and most mites require about 300 Gy. Stored product moths may require as much as 1 kGy to sterilize, and nematodes could need >,4 kGy. 6 Even though application of irradiation to pallet-loads of produce could mean that up to three times the minimum required dose is applied to the perimeter of the pallet, many fresh commodities tolerate doses required for quarantine security against many quarantined pests. Irradiation is arguably the most widely applicable quarantine treatment from the standpoint of commodity quality. [source]

    Multitudinous, God-omnipresent, Coral Insects: Pip, Isabel, and Melville's Miltonic Sublime

    LEVIATHAN, Issue 1-2 2002

    An investigation on the Culicoides species composition at seven sites in southern Switzerland

    Abstract In the past decade, there have been regular outbreaks of bluetongue (BT) in many parts of Europe. Owing to the presence of BT disease and its vectors in countries adjacent to Switzerland, an initial entomological survey was conducted in 2003, which established the presence of several midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Subsequently, a sentinel herd monitoring system was established with the primary entomological aim being the determination and further study of Culicoides population compositions. Insects were collected in 2005 and 2006 at seven sentinel herd sites in the south of Switzerland (canton of Ticino) near the border of Italy, using Onderstepoort-type light traps. This region is botanically and zoologically similar to the Mediterranean and is one of the warmest and most humid areas of the country, hence it is considered a potential access path for BT disease into Switzerland. Collections were made at four cattle farms, two equestrian centres and one goat farm. Sites were sampled four times per month from June to October. Traps were operated from dusk until dawn and samples were collected monthly for analysis through microscopy as well as a Culicoides imicola -specific PCR. Results confirmed the absence of C. imicola (Kieffer) and demonstrated that the potential BT virus vectors are highly abundant, notably: Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), Culicoides scoticus (Downes & Kettle) and Culicoides dewulfi (Goetghebuer) subgenus Avaritia and Culicoides pulicaris (Linnaeus) subgenus Culicoides. These findings expand the current knowledge of Culicoides population composition in the southern part of the Switzerland. Culicoides cataneii (Clastrier), Culicoides flavipulicaris (Dzhafarov), Culicoides indistinctus (Khalaf), Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) and species of the Grisescens complex were reported for the first time in Switzerland. [source]

    Determination of the oral susceptibility of South African livestock-associated biting midges, Culicoides species, to bovine ephemeral fever virus

    G. J. Venter
    Abstract., A total of 10 607 Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were fed on either sheep or horse blood containing not less than 6.5 log10 TCID50/ml of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV). Insects were collected during two consecutive summers from two distinct climatic areas. Two seed viruses, originating from either South Africa or Australia, were used separately in the feeding trials. Blood-engorged females were incubated at 23.5C for 10 days and then individually assayed in microplate BHK-21 cell cultures. Of the 4110 Culicoides that survived, 43% were C. (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer and 27% were C. (A.) bolitinos Meiswinkel. The remainder represented 18 other livestock-associated Culicoides species. Although BEFV was detected in 18.9% of midges assayed immediately after feeding, no virus could be detected after incubation. The absence of evidence of either virus maintenance or measurable replication suggests that most of the abundant livestock-associated Culicoides species found in South Africa are refractory to oral infection with BEFV. Future studies should be carried out using species of mosquitoes that are associated with cattle in the BEF endemic areas. [source]