Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Inflammation

  • active inflammation
  • acute inflammation
  • acute joint inflammation
  • airway inflammation
  • allergic airway inflammation
  • allergic inflammation
  • asthmatic airway inflammation
  • asthmatic inflammation
  • autoimmune inflammation
  • bowel inflammation
  • brain inflammation
  • bronchial inflammation
  • chronic airway inflammation
  • chronic inflammation
  • chronic intestinal inflammation
  • chronic mucosal inflammation
  • cns inflammation
  • colonic inflammation
  • cutaneous inflammation
  • decreased inflammation
  • eosinophilic airway inflammation
  • eosinophilic inflammation
  • extensive inflammation
  • focal inflammation
  • gastric inflammation
  • gastric mucosal inflammation
  • gastrointestinal inflammation
  • gingival inflammation
  • granulomatous inflammation
  • gut inflammation
  • hepatic inflammation
  • increased inflammation
  • induced inflammation
  • interstitial inflammation
  • intestinal inflammation
  • intra-amniotic inflammation
  • intraocular inflammation
  • joint inflammation
  • liver inflammation
  • lobular inflammation
  • local inflammation
  • low-grade inflammation
  • low-grade systemic inflammation
  • lower airway inflammation
  • lung inflammation
  • lymphocytic inflammation
  • marked inflammation
  • mild inflammation
  • mucosal inflammation
  • nasal inflammation
  • neurogenic inflammation
  • neutrophilic airway inflammation
  • neutrophilic inflammation
  • ocular inflammation
  • ongoing inflammation
  • oral inflammation
  • paw inflammation
  • peri-implant inflammation
  • periapical inflammation
  • periodontal inflammation
  • peripheral inflammation
  • perivascular inflammation
  • persistent inflammation
  • portal inflammation
  • pulmonary inflammation
  • renal inflammation
  • segment inflammation
  • severe inflammation
  • significant inflammation
  • skin inflammation
  • soft tissue inflammation
  • subclinical inflammation
  • synovial inflammation
  • systemic inflammation
  • th2-type inflammation
  • tissue inflammation
  • transmural inflammation
  • vascular inflammation

  • Terms modified by Inflammation

  • inflammation marker
  • inflammation model
  • inflammation process
  • inflammation response
  • inflammation score

  • Selected Abstracts

    Disease-specific Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors: The Unfulfilled Promise

    HELICOBACTER, Issue S1 2000
    David Y. Graham
    A number of putative virulence factors for Helicobacter pylori have been identified including cagA, vacA and iceA. The criteria for a true virulence factor includes meeting the tests of biologically plausibility with the associations being both experimentally and epidemiologically consistent. Although disease-specific associations have been hypothesized/claimed, there are now sufficient data to conclusively state that none of these putative virulence factors have disease specificity. CagA has been claimed to be associated with increased mucosal IL-8 and inflammation, increased density of H. pylori in the antrum, duodenal ulcer (DU), gastric cancer, and protection against Barrett's cancer. Only the increase in IL-8/inflammation is direct and substantiated. Different H. pylori strains with functional cag pathogenicity islands do not vary in virulance as it has been shown that mucosal IL-8 levels are proportional to the number of cagA +H. pylori independent of the disease from which the H. pylori were obtained. It is now known that the density of either cagA + and cagA,H. pylori in the antrum of patients with H. pylori gastritis is the same. In contrast, the mean density of H. pylori in the antrum in DU is greater than in the antrum of patients with H. pylori gastritis. Of interest, the density of H. pylori is higher in the corpus of patients with H. pylori gastritis than those with DU, suggesting that acid secretion plays a critical role in these phenomena. The presence of a functional cag pathogenicity island increases inflammation and it is likely that any factor that results in an increase in inflammation also increases the risk of a symptomatic outcome. Nevertheless, the presence of a functional cag pathogenicity island has no predictive value for the presence, or the future development of a clinically significant outcome. The hypothesis that iceA has disease specificity has not been confirmed and there is currently no known biological or epidemiological evidence for a role for iceA as a virulence factor in H. pylori -related disease. The claim that vacA genotyping might prove clinically useful, e.g. to predict presentation such as duodenal ulcer, has been proven wrong. Analysis of the worldwide data show that vacA genotype s1 is actually a surrogate for the cag pathogenicity island. There is now evidence to suggest that virulence is a host-dependent factor. The pattern of gastritis has withstood the test of time for its relation to different H. pylori -related diseases (e.g. antral predominant gastritis with duodenal ulcer disease). The primary factors responsible for the different patterns of gastritis in response to an H. pylori infection are environmental (e.g. diet), with the H. pylori strain playing a lesser role. Future studies should work to eliminate potential bias before claiming disease associations. Controls must exclude regional or geographic associations related to the common strain circulation and not to the outcome. The authors must also control for both the presence of the factor and for the disease association. The study should be sufficiently large and employ different diseases and ethnic groups for the results to be robust. The findings in the initial sample (data derived hypothesis) should be tested in a new group (hypothesis testing), preferably from another area, before making claims. Finally, it is important to ask whether the results are actually a surrogate for another marker (e.g. vacA s1 for cagA) masquerading for a new finding. Only the cag pathogenicity island has passed the tests of biological plausibility (increased inflammation) and experimental and epidemiological consistency. [source]

    URINARY macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) LEVELS REFLECT RENAL INFLAMMATION IN HUMAN GN

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Brown Fg


    Garry M. Walsh
    First page of article [source]


    Vincent Lagente
    SUMMARY 1It was proposed previously that oxidative stress is a main component of the inflammatory process in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thus, in the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response in mice deficient for the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase (p47 KO) exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). 2Exposure of mice to CS elicited an increase in the number of macrophages and neutrophils and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC/CXCL1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1/CCL2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), which were lower in p47 KO mice compared with control mice. In contrast, 24 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure, the number of macrophages and neutrophils, as well as KC/CXCL1 levels, in BALF was significantly greater in p47 KO mice compared with control mice. 3The present study has shown that airway inflammation is decreased in p47 KO mice after exposure to CS, but not LPS, suggesting that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation associated with COPD. [source]


    Wei Zhang
    SUMMARY 1In coronary artery disease, the typical atheromatous plaque consists of a lipid core containing various inflammatory cells and a fibrous cap composed mostly of extracellular matrix. Both matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammation are involved in the initiation of atherosclerotic plaques and plaque instability. 22,3,4¢,5-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2- O -b- d -glucoside (TSG) reduces the blood lipid content and prevents the atherosclerotic process, but the mechanism of action of TSG is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to test whether TSG can suppress MMP activation and inflammation in atherosclerotic rats. 3Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding rats a hyperlipidaemic diet; TSG (120, 60 or 30 mg/kg per day) was administered by oral gavage. After 12 weeks of treatment, rats were killed (ethyl carbamate 1200 mg/kg) and serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a were measured. Haematoxylin,eosin (H&E) staining was used to examine histopathological changes in the aorta. The mRNA and protein expression of MMPs were assayed by reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Simvastatin (2 mg/kg per day) was administered as a positive control, whereas the vehicle (0.9% NaCl) group served as the untreated control. 4In the present study, TSG significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the hyperlipidaemic diet-induced alterations in serum lipid profile and increases in CRP, IL-6 and TNF-a levels. In addition, TSG normalized the structure of the aortic wall and suppressed the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at both the mRNA and protein level in the rat aortic wall. 5In summary, TSG suppresses the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and inhibits inflammation in the diet-induced atherosclerotic rats. [source]


    Norihiko Funaguchi
    SUMMARY 1Flavonoids are naturally occurring compounds that possess anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and anti-oxidant properties. In the present study, we investigated whether the flavonoid narirutin could reduce airway inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged NC/Nga mice, a model of allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. 2Mice were initially immunized intraperitoneally with OVA on Days 0 and 7 and then challenged with inhaled OVA on Days 14, 15 and 16. In addition, some mice received narirutin orally at doses of 0.1, 1 or 10 mg/kg bodyweight daily on Days 7,16. 3At 10 mg/kg, but not 0.1 or 1 mg/kg, narirutin significantly diminished OVA-induced airway inflammation caused by infiltration of lung tissue with inflammatory and mucus-producing cells, as well as reduced eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), interleukin (IL)-4 levels in BALF and IgE levels in serum. 4The mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of narirutin are likely to be associated with a reduction in the OVA-induced increases of IL-4 and IgE in a murine model of allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. These findings suggest that narirutin may be an effective new tool in the treatment of bronchial asthma. [source]

    Inflammation,Etiology or Consequence of Acute Congestive Heart Failure?

    Rubinder S. Ruby MD

    Microglia and inflammation: Impact on developmental brain injuries

    Li-Jin Chew
    Abstract Inflammation during the perinatal period has become a recognized risk factor for developmental brain injuries over the past decade or more. To fully understand the relationship between inflammation and brain development, a comprehensive knowledge about the immune system within the brain is essential. Microglia are resident immune cells within the central nervous system and play a critical role in the development of an inflammatory response within the brain. Microglia are critically involved with both the innate and adaptive immune system, regulating inflammation and cell damage within the brain via activation of Toll-like receptors, production of cytokines, and a myriad of other intracellular and intercellular processes. In this article, microglial physiology is reviewed along with the role of microglia in developmental brain injuries in humans and animal models. Last, microglial functions within the innate and adaptive immune system will be summarized. Understanding the processes of inflammation and microglial activation is critical for formulating effective preventative and therapeutic strategies for developmental brain injuries. MRDD Research Reviews 2006;12:105,112. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Inflammation and the etiology of type 2 diabetes

    Åke Sjöholm
    Type 2 diabetes is increasingly common worldwide and is beginning to strike younger age groups. Almost 90% of all patients with diabetes show insulin resistance, which also precedes the first symptoms of diabetes. The mechanisms underlying the development of insulin resistance are not well understood. In recent years, several studies have been published that implicate subclinical chronic inflammation as an important pathogenetic factor in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This opens new perspectives for diagnosis and treatment of early insulin resistance and incipient glucose intolerance. Surrogate markers for this low-grade chronic inflammation include CRP, IL-6 and TNF-,. Some antidiabetic agents, for example, glitazones that reduce insulin resistance, and insulin itself, reduce inflammation. Conversely, antiinflammatory drugs (ASA/NSAID) may improve glucose tolerance. Vasoactive drugs that are often prescribed to people with diabetes, for example, statins and ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor antagonists, also counteract inflammation and reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. More specific and sensitive biomarkers should be identified, which may predict early disturbances in insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk. Also, inflammatory signalling pathways need to be explored in greater detail, and may form the basis of drugable targets against the epidemic of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Daisuke Masuda
    Background:, Although endoscopic naso-gallbladder drainage (ENGBD) for gallbladder disease is useful, the procedure is difficult and investigations involving many cases are lacking. Furthermore, reports on transpapillary intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) of the gallbladder using a miniature probe are rare. Methods:, A total of 150 patients (119 suspected of having gallbladder carcinoma, 24 with acute cholecystitis (AC), and seven with Mirizzi's syndrome (MS)) were the subject. (i) ENGBD: We attempted to put ENGBD tube into the GB. (ii) IDUS of the gallbladder: Using the previous ENGBD tube, we attempted to insert the miniature probe into the gallbladder and perform transpapillary IDUS of the gallbladder. In five patients, we attempted three-dimensional intraductal ultrasonography (3D-IDUS). Results:, (i) ENGBD: Overall success rate was 74.7% (112/150); the rate for the patients suspected of having gallbladder carcinoma was 75.6% (90/119), and was 71.0% (22/31) for the AC and MS patients. Inflammation and jaundice improved in 20/22 successful patients with AC and MS. Success rate was higher when cystic duct branching was from the lower and middle parts of the common bile duct than from the upper part, and was higher when branching was upwards than downwards. (ii) IDUS of the gallbladder: Success rate for miniature probe insertion into the gallbladder was 96.4% (54/56). Lesions could be visualized in 50/54 patients (92.6%). Of these, detailed evaluation of the locus could be performed in 41. In five patients attempted 3D-IDUS, the relationship between the lesion and its location was readily grasped. Conclusion:, IDUS of the gallbladder is superior for diagnosing minute images. Improvement on the device will further increase its usefulness. [source]

    Inflammation reduces HDL protection against primary cardiac risk

    James P. Corsetti
    Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (6): 483,489 Abstract Background, We recently reported high high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as a predictor of recurrent risk in a subgroup of postinfarction patients defined by hypercholesterolemia and high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We investigated whether a similar high-risk subgroup might exist for incident cardiovascular disease. Material and Methods, A graphical exploratory data analysis tool was used to identify high-risk subgroups in a male population-based cohort (n = 3405) from the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study by generating 3-dimensional mappings of risk over the HDL-cholesterol/CRP domain with subsequent use of Kaplan,Meier analysis to verify high-risk. Within-subgroup risk was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan,Meier analysis. Results, Mappings revealed two high-risk subgroups: a low HDL-cholesterol/high CRP subgroup and a high HDL-cholesterol/high CRP subgroup. The low HDL-cholesterol subgroup demonstrated a pattern of metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia contrasted with a predominantly unremarkable biomarker pattern for the high HDL-cholesterol subgroup. However, in the high HDL-cholesterol subgroup, CRP levels were higher than the low HDL-cholesterol subgroup; and within the high HDL-cholesterol subgroup, CRP predicted risk. Moreover, in the high HDL-cholesterol subgroup, risk was associated with lower triglyceride levels in conjunction with presumptively larger HDL particles. Conclusions, High HDL-cholesterol and high CRP levels define a subgroup of men at high-risk for incident cardiovascular disease. High HDL cholesterol-associated risk likely relates to impaired HDL particle remodelling in the setting of inflammation. This approach may facilitate identification of additional inflammation-related mechanisms underlying high HDL cholesterol-associated risk; and potentially influence management of such patients. [source]

    Significance of white blood cell count and its subtypes in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    G. Huang
    Abstract Background, Inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. Materials and methods, Six hundred twenty-three patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) referred for coronary angiography for the first time in our hospital were enrolled in this study. White blood cell and its subtypes were measured on admission. The study population was divided into three groups based on total white blood cell count and followed up. Clinical end points were major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), including cardiogenic death, stroke, heart failure, non-fatal myocardial infarction, rehospitalization for angina pectoris. Results, The median age was 68 years (range 31,92) and 64·2% of the patients were men. The median white blood cell count was 6·48 × 109 L,1 (range 2·34,27·10 × 109 L,1). The median follow-up duration was 21 months (range 1,116) and MACEs occurred in 167 patients. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that neutrophil count [Relative risk = 1·098, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1·010,1·193, P = 0·029) was a risk factor for MACEs. The logistic regression model revealed that lymphocyte count [Odds ratio (OR) = 1·075, 95% CI: 1·012,1·142, P = 0·018] and monocyte count (OR = 8·578, 95% CI: 2·687,27·381, P < 0·001) were predictive of stenosis , 75%; Neutrophil proportion (OR = 1·060, 95% CI: 1·007,1·115, P = 0·026), monocyte count (OR = 12·370, 95% CI: 1·298,118·761, P = 0·029) were predictive of the presence of multivessel disease. Kaplan,Meier analysis of short-term and long-term cumulative survival showed no significant statistical differences among three groups. Conclusions, Neutrophil count adds prognostic information to MACEs in ACS. Monocyte count and lymphocyte count are predictive of severity of coronary atherosclerosis. [source]

    Anaemia after renal transplantation

    M. Lorenz
    Abstract Anaemia is a frequent complication among long-term renal transplant recipients. A prevalence of approximately 40% has been reported in several studies. If renal function declines to stage 5 kidney disease, the prevalence of anaemia in kidney transplants is even higher. A positive correlation between haemoglobin concentration and creatinine clearance has been reported, which is a function of endogenous erythropoietin production by the functioning graft. Inflammation related to a retained kidney graft may cause hypo-responsiveness to erythropoietic agents once kidney transplant recipients return to dialysis. Furthermore, the use of azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus may be associated with post-transplant anaemia. Along with erythropoietin deficiency, depletion of iron stores is one of the major reasons for anaemia in the kidney transplant population. The proportion of hypochromic red blood cells appears to be a useful parameter to measure iron supply and utilization as well as to estimate mortality risks in kidney transplant recipients. While anaemia is an important cardiovascular risk-factor after transplantation, our data suggest that anaemia is not associated with mortality and graft loss. Nevertheless, inadequate attention is paid so far to the management of anaemia after renal transplantation. A promising future aspect for risk reduction of cardiovascular disease includes the effect of erythropoietic agents on endothelial progenitor cells. [source]

    Association of serum sialic acid and MMP-9 with lipids and inflammatory markers

    Background Inflammation of the arterial wall has emerged to be an important contributor to the process of atherosclerosis, the major cause of coronary heart disease. Several factors are currently under investigation as inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis. Serum sialic acid and matrix metalloproteinase-9 may provide such markers. We studied their association with the lipid profile and with the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and leukocyte count in a clinically healthy population of men. Materials and methods Cardiovascular risk-related laboratory tests were carried out in 65 consecutive male employees in connection with an occupational health survey in 1996. The subjects were divided into tertiles on the basis of serum sialic acid or matrix metalloproteinase-9 concentration. Results In a stepwise polychotomous logistic regression model adjusting for coronary heart disease risk factors, serum sialic acid concentration was not associated with markers of inflammation but rather with the lipid risk factors of atherosclerosis: inversely with HDL cholesterol (OR = 0.081, 95% CI 0.0068,0.97) and positively with total cholesterol (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1,5.6). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels had a significant positive correlation with the leukocyte count (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.4,4). Conclusions Serum sialic acid does not appear to be an indicator of inflammation but is somehow connected with the level of total and HDL cholesterol. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 may provide a useful marker of inflammation because it correlates with the leukocyte count and is not associated with the lipid profile. [source]

    Increased levels of inflammatory chemokines in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    J. Kuhle
    Background and purpose:, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is classically assumed to be a neurodegenerative disorder. Inflammation has been observed in CNS tissue in ALS patients. We investigated the expression and prognostic relevance of proinflammatory chemokines in ALS. Methods:, We analyzed nine chemokines, eotaxin, eotaxin-3, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, macrophage derived chemokine (MDC), macrophage inflammatory protein-1, (MIP-1,), and serum thymus and activation- regulated chemokine (TARC) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 20 ALS- and 20 non-inflammatory neurological disease (NIND)-patients. Results:, MCP-1 and IL-8 levels in CSF in ALS were significantly higher than in NIND (1304 pg/ml vs. 1055 pg/ml, P = 0.013 and 22.7 pg/ml vs. 18.6 pg/ml, P = 0.035). The expression of MCP-1 and IL-8 were higher in CSF than in serum (P < 0.001). There was a trend towards higher MCP-1 CSF levels in ALS patients with shorter time between first symptoms and diagnosis (r = ,0.407; P = 0.075). Conclusions:, We confirmed previous findings of increased MCP-1 levels in CSF of ALS patients. Furthermore, increased levels of IL-8 in CSF suggest a stimulation of a proinflammatory cytokine cascade after microglia activation. We found a tendency for higher MCP-1 values in patients with a shorter diagnostic delay, who are known to have also a shorter survival. This may suggest an association of higher MCP-1 levels with rapidly progressing disease. [source]

    Altered kynurenine metabolism correlates with infarct volume in stroke

    L. G. Darlington
    Abstract Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in brain damage following stroke, and tryptophan oxidation along the kynurenine pathway contributes to the modulation of oxidative stress partly via the glutamate receptor agonist quinolinic acid and antagonist kynurenic acid, and via redox-active compounds such as 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. We have confirmed that following a stroke, patients show early elevations of plasma neopterin, S100B and peroxidation markers, the latter two correlating with infarct volume assessed from computed tomography (CT) scans, and being consistent with a rapid inflammatory response. We now report that the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism was also activated, with an increased kynurenine : tryptophan ratio, but with a highly significant decrease in the ratio of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid : anthranilic acid, which was strongly correlated with infarct volume. Levels of kynurenic acid were significantly raised in patients who died within 21 days compared with those who survived. The results suggest that increased tryptophan catabolism is initiated before or immediately after a stroke, and is related to the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, with a major change in 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid levels. Together with previous evidence that inhibiting the kynurenine pathway reduces brain damage in animal models of stroke and cerebral inflammation, and that increased kynurenine metabolism directly promotes oxidative stress, it is proposed that oxidative tryptophan metabolism may contribute to the oxidative stress and brain damage following stroke. Some form of anti-inflammatory intervention between the rise of S100B and the activation of microglia, including inhibition of the kynurenine pathway, may be valuable in modifying patient morbidity and mortality. [source]

    Inflammation alters somatostatin mRNA expression in sensory neurons in the rat

    Seham A. Abd El-Aleem
    Abstract Proinflammatory neuropeptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, are up-regulated in primary afferent neurons in acute and chronic inflammation. While these neuropeptides have been intensively studied, potentially anti-inflammatory and/or anti-nociceptive neuropeptides such as somatostatin (SS) have been less widely investigated. Endogenous somatostatin is thought to exert a tonic antinociceptive effect. Exogenous SS is anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive and is thought to exert these actions through inhibition of proinflammatory neuropeptide release. In this study we have compared the expression of somatostatin in two inflammatory models: arthritis, a condition associated with increased nociception, and periodontitis, in which there is little evidence of altered nociceptive thresholds. In acute arthritis (< 24 h) SS mRNA was down-regulated in ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRG; 52 ± 7% of control, P < 0.05), and up-regulated in contralateral DRG (134 ± 10% of control; P < 0.05). In chronic arthritis (14 days) this pattern of mRNA regulation was reversed, with SS being up-regulated ipsilaterally and down-regulated contralaterally. In chronic mandibular periodontitis (7,10 days), SS mRNA was up-regulated in only the mandibular division of the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion (TG) (day 7, 219 ± 9% and day 10, 217 ± 12% of control; P < 0.02) but showed no change in other divisions of the trigeminal ganglion or in the mesencephalic nucleus. These data show that antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory neuropeptides are also regulated in inflammation. It is possible that the degree of inflammation and nociception seen may depend on the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory and nociceptive peptide expression in a particular condition. [source]

    Increased serum anandamide level at ruptured plaque site in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Naotaka Maeda
    Abstract Inflammation caused by activated macrophages and T lymphocytes may trigger plaque rapture in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) are macrophage-derived signal lipids and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ACS, but no clinical relevant data have been reported. In 43 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients (66 ± 2 years), blood samples were obtained from the aortic root and the infarct-related coronary artery (IRA) using a PercuSurge system during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In six patients with stable effort angina (SEA) (56 ± 6 years), blood samples were obtained from the site of stenosis during elective PCI. In 25 of the 43 AMI patients, anandamide was detected in the serum. Serum anandamide level was 35 ± 20 pmol/mL in the aorta and was significantly increased to 401 ± 134 pmol/mL in the IRA (P < 0.01). 2-AG was undetectable in most of the patients. In patients with SEA, neither anandamide nor 2-AG was detected in the serum at the plaque site. In AMI patients with anandamide detected, left ventricular ejection fraction at 2 weeks after PCI was increased by 3.7 ± 2.1% compared with that at the acute phase, while it was decreased by 3.0 ± 1.8% in those without anandamide detected (P < 0.05). The serum anandamide level at the culprit lesion was elevated compared with the systemic level in a significant number of AMI patients, indicating the synthesis of anandamide at the IRA. Anandamide was suggested to be derived from ruptured plaque and may exert beneficial effects in humans. [source]

    Involvement of neuropsin in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    GLIA, Issue 2 2005
    Ryuji Terayama
    Abstract Inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage of the central nervous system (CNS) are major pathological features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Proteolytic digestion of the blood-brain barrier and myelin protein by serine proteases is known to contribute to the development and progression of MS. Neuropsin, a serine protease, has a role in neuronal plasticity, and its expression has been shown to be upregulated in response to injury to the CNS. To determine the possible involvement of neuropsin in demyelinating diseases of the CNS, we examined its expression in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a recognized animal model for MS. Neuropsin mRNA expression was induced in the spinal cord white matter of mice with EAE. Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that most of the cells expressing neuropsin mRNA showed immunoreactivity for CNPase, a cell-specific marker for oligodendrocytes. Mice lacking neuropsin (neuropsin,/,) exhibited an altered EAE progression characterized by delayed onset and progression of clinical symptoms as compared to wild-type mice. Neuropsin,/, mice also showed attenuated demyelination and delayed oligodendroglial death early during the course of EAE. These observations suggest that neuropsin is involved in the pathogenesis of EAE mediated by demyelination and oligodendroglial death. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Hypertrophic Cranial Pachymeningitis Accompanied by Inflammation of the Nasopharygeal Soft Tissue

    HEADACHE, Issue 8 2009
    Hai-Tao Lu MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    P04 Inflammation, Host response, Immunity, Animal Models, and Vaccines

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2009
    Article first published online: 23 JUL 200
    First page of article [source]

    W2 Inflammation, Host Response, and Vaccines

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2008
    Article first published online: 13 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Effects of Aspirin on the Development of Helicobacter pylori -Induced Gastric Inflammation and Heterotopic Proliferative Glands in Mongolian Gerbils

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 1 2008
    Guo Qing Li
    Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Aspirin has anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of aspirin on H. pylori -induced gastritis and the development of heterotopic proliferative glands. Methods: H. pylori strain SS1 was inoculated into the stomachs of Mongolian gerbils. Two weeks after inoculation, the animals were fed with the powder diets containing 0 p.p.m. (n = 10), 150 p.p.m. (n = 10), or 500 p.p.m. (n = 10) aspirin. Mongolian gerbils were killed after 36 weeks of infection. Uninfected Mongolian gerbils (n = 10) were used as controls. Histologic changes, epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels of gastric tissue were determined. Results: H. pylori infection induced gastric inflammation. Administration of aspirin did not change H. pylori -induced gastritis, but alleviated H. pylori -induced hyperplasia and the development of heterotopic proliferative glands. Administration of aspirin accelerated H. pylori -associated apoptosis but decreased H. pylori -associated cell proliferation. In addition, the increased gastric PGE2 levels due to H. pylori infection were suppressed by treatment with aspirin, especially at the dose of 500 p.p.m. Conclusions: Aspirin alleviates H. pylori -induced hyperplasia and the development of heterotopic proliferative glands. Moreover, aspirin increases H. pylori -induced apoptosis. We demonstrated the antineoplastic activities of aspirin in H. pylori -related gastric carcinogenesis. [source]

    Deficiency in OGG1 Protects against Inflammation and Mutagenic Effects Associated with H. pylori Infection in Mouse

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2006
    Eliette Touati
    Abstract Background:,Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastric cancer. Study with the Big Blue mouse model has reported a mutagenic effect associated with the H. pylori infection, as a result in part of oxidative DNA damage. The present work investigates the consequences of a deficiency in the OGG1 DNA glycosylase, responsible for the excision of 8-oxo guanine, on the inflammatory and genotoxic host response to the infection. Materials and Methods:, Big Blue Ogg1,/, C57BL/6 mice were orally inoculated with H. pylori strain SS1 or vehicle only, and sacrificed after 1, 3, or 6 months. The serologic response, histologic lesions, mutant frequency, and spectra of mutations were assessed in the stomach and compared to what observed in the wild-type (Wt) context. Results:, Inflammatory lesions induced in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori -infected mice, corresponding to a moderate gastritis, were less severe in Ogg1,/, than in Wt Big Blue mice. Analysis of antimicrobial humoral immunity exhibited a lower IgG2a serum level (Th1 response) after 6 months of infection in Ogg1,/, than in the Wt mice. In these conditions, the H. pylori -SS1 infection in the Ogg1,/, mice did not induce a mutagenic effect at the gastric epithelial cells level, either after 3 or 6 months. Conclusions:, The inactivation of the OGG1 DNA glycosylase in mouse leads to less severe inflammatory lesions and abolished the mutagenic effect at the gastric epithelial cells level, induced by the H. pylori infection. These data suggest for the OGG1deficiency a protective role against inflammation and genotoxicity associated to the H. pylori infection. [source]

    Inflammation and Host Response

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2006
    Article first published online: 13 JUL 200
    First page of article [source]

    Role of Chronic Infection and Inflammation in the Gastrointestinal Tract in the Etiology and Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Parkinsonism

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2005
    Part 1: Eradication of Helicobacter in the Cachexia of Idiopathic Parkinsonism
    ABSTRACT Background., Neuronal damage in idiopathic parkinsonism may be in response to ubiquitous occult infection. Since peptic ulceration is prodromal, Helicobacter is a prime candidate. Aim., To consider the candidature of Helicobacter in parkinsonism with cachexia. Methods., We explore the relationship between being underweight and inflammatory products in 124 subjects with idiopathic parkinsonism and 195 controls, and present the first case-series evidence of efficacy of Helicobacter eradication, in parkinsonism advanced to the stage of cachexia. Results., Association of a low body mass index with circulating interleukin-6 was specific to parkinsonism (p = .002), unlike that with antibodies against Helicobacter vacuolating-toxin and cytotoxicity-associated gene product (p < .04). Marked reversibility in both cachexia and disability of idiopathic parkinsonism followed Helicobacter heilmannii eradication in one case, Helicobacter pylori eradication in another, follow-up being , 3.5 years. The latter presented with postprandial bloating, and persistent nausea: following eradication, radioisotope gastric-emptying returned towards normal, and upper abdominal symptoms regressed. Reversibility of their cachexia/disability contrasts with the outcome of anti- Helicobacter therapy where eradication repeatedly failed (one case), and in non- Helicobacter gastritis (three cases). Anti-parkinsonian medication remained constant. Intestinal absorption and barrier function were normal in all. Conclusion., Categorization, according to presence or absence of Helicobacter infection, was a useful therapeutic tool in late idiopathic parkinsonism. [source]

    Role of Chronic Infection and Inflammation in the Gastrointestinal Tract in the Etiology and Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Parkinsonism

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2005
    Part 2: Response of Facets of Clinical Idiopathic Parkinsonism to Helicobacter pylori Eradication.
    ABSTRACT Background., Links between etiology/pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disease and infection are increasingly recognized. Aim., Proof-of-principle that infection contributes to idiopathic parkinsonism. Methods., Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy study of proven Helicobacter pylori eradication on the time course of facets of parkinsonism. Intervention was 1 week's triple eradication therapy/placebos. Routine deblinding at 1 year (those still infected received open-active), with follow-up to 5 years post-eradication. Primary outcome was mean stride length at free-walking speed, sample size 56 for a difference, active vs. placebo, of 3/4 (between-subject standard deviation). Recruitment of subjects with idiopathic parkinsonism and H. pylori infection was stopped at 31, because of marked deterioration with eradication failure. Interim analysis was made in the 20 who had reached deblinding, seven of whom were receiving antiparkinsonian medication (long- t1/2, evenly spaced) which remained unchanged. Results., Improvement in stride-length, on active (n = 9) vs. placebo (11), exceeded size of effect on which the sample size was calculated when analyzed on intention-to-treat basis (p = .02), and on protocol analysis of six weekly assessments, including (p = .02) and excluding (p = .05) those on antiparkinsonian medication. Active eradication (blind or open) failed in 4/20, in whom B-lymphocyte count was lower. Their mean time course was: for stride-length, ,243 (95% CI ,427, ,60) vs. 45 (,10, 100) mm/year in the remainder (p = .001); for the ratio, torque to extend to flex relaxed arm, 349 (146, 718) vs. 58 (27, 96)%/ year (p < .001); and for independently rated, visual-analog scale of stance,walk videos (worst,best per individual , 0,100 mm), ,64 vs. ,3 mm from anterior and ,50 vs. 11 lateral (p = .004 and .02). Conclusions., Interim analysis points to a direct or surrogate (not necessarily unique) role of a particular infection in the pathogenesis of parkinsonism. With eradication failure, bolus release of antigen from killed bacteria could aggravate an effect of ongoing infection. [source]

    Inflammation and host response

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2004
    Article first published online: 9 SEP 200
    First page of article [source]

    Helicobacter pylori Infection in the Cat: Evaluation of Gastric Colonization, Inflammation and Function

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 1 2001
    Kenneth W. Simpson
    Background. Further elucidation of the consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric mucosal inflammation and gastric secretory function would be facilitated by an animal model that is susceptible to infection with H. pylori, is broadly similar in gastric physiology and pathology to people, and is amenable to repeated non-invasive evaluation. The goal of this study was to examine the interrelationship of bacterial colonization, mucosal inflammation and gastric secretory function in cats with naturally acquired H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods. Twenty clinically healthy cats with naturally acquired H. pylori infection (cagA,, picB) and 19 Helicobacter -free cats were evaluated. Gastric colonization was determined by tissue urease activity, light microscopy, culture and PCR. The mucosal inflammatory response was evaluated by light microscopy, and by RT-PCR of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1,, IL-1,, IL-8 and TNF-, in gastric mucosa. Gastric secretory function was assessed by measuring pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion, fasting plasma gastrin, and antral mucosal gastrin and somatostatin immunoreactivity. Results. H. pylori colonized the pylorus, fundus and cardia in similar density. Bacteria were observed free in the lumen of gastric glands and were also tightly adherent to epithelial cells where they were associated with microvillus effacement. Mononuclear inflammation, lymphoid follicle hyperplasia, atrophy and fibrosis were observed primarily in H. pylori -infected cats, with the pylorus most severely affected. Neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltrates, epithelial dysplasia, and up-regulation of mucosal IL-1, and IL-8 were observed solely in infected cats. Fasting plasma gastrin concentrations and pentagastrin-stimulated acid output were similar in both infected and uninfected cats. There was no relationship of bacterial colonization density or gastric inflammation to plasma gastrin concentrations or gastric acid output. Conclusions. The pattern of colonization and the mucosal inflammatory response in cats with naturally acquired H. pylori are broadly similar to those in infected people, particularly children, and non-human primates. The upregulation of IL-8 in infected cats was independent of cagA and picB. Our findings argue against a direct acid-suppressing effect of H. pylori on the gastric secretory-axis in chronically infected cats. Abbreviations: RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, HLO; Helicobacter -like organisms. [source]

    The kidney disease wasting: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and diet-gene interaction

    Abstract The 350,000 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients in the United States have an unacceptably high mortality rate of >20%/year. Almost half of all deaths are assumed to be cardiovascular. Markers of kidney disease wasting (KDW) such as hypoalbuminemia, anorexia, body weight and fat loss, rather than traditional cardiovascular risk factors, appear to be the strongest predictors of early death in these patients. The KDW is closely related to oxidative stress (SOX). Such SOX markers as serum myeloperoxidase are associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and poor survival in MHD patients. Identifying the conditions that modulate the KDW/SOX-axis may be the key to improving outcomes in MHD patients. Dysfunctional lipoproteins such as a higher ratio of the high-density lipoprotein inflammatory index (HII) may engender or aggravate the KDW, whereas functionally intact or larger lipoprotein pools, as in hypercholesterolemia and obesity, may mitigate the KDW in MHD patients. Hence, a reverse epidemiology or "bad-gone-good" phenomenon may be observed. Diet and gene and their complex interaction may lead to higher proportions of pro-inflammatory or oxidative lipoproteins such as HII, resulting in the aggravation of the SOX and inflammatory processes, endothelial dysfunction, and subsequent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and death in MHD patients. Understanding the factors that modulate the KDW/SOX complex and their associations with genetic polymorphism, nutrition, and outcomes in MHD patients may lead to developing more effective strategies to improve outcomes in this and the 20 to 30 million Americans with chronic disease states such as individuals with chronic heart failure, advanced age, malignancies, AIDS, or cachexia. [source]