Individuation

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology


Selected Abstracts


JAN LEE: A JOURNEY OF INDIVIDUATION

BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY, Issue 2 2007
Christopher Perry
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Individuation of pairs of objects in infancy

DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
Alan M. Leslie
Looking-time studies examined whether 11-month-old infants can individuate two pairs of objects using only shape information. In order to test individuation, the object pairs were presented sequentially. Infants were familiarized either with the sequential pairs, disk-triangle/disk-triangle (XY/XY), whose shapes differed within but not across pairs, or with the sequential pairs, disk-disk/triangle-triangle (XX/YY), whose shapes differed across but not within pairs. The XY/XY presentation looked to adults like a single pair of objects presented repeatedly, whereas the XX/YY presentation looked like different pairs of objects. Following familiarization to these displays, infants were given a series of test trials in which the screen was removed, revealing two pairs of objects in one of two outcomes, XYXY or XXYY. On the first test trial, infants familiarized with the identical pairs (XY/XY) apparently expected a single pair to be revealed because they looked longer than infants familiarized with the distinct pairs (XX/YY). Infants who had seen the distinct pairs apparently expected a double pair outcome. A second experiment showed outcomes of a single XY pair. This outcome is unexpected for XX/YY-familiarized infants but expected for XY/XY-familiarized infants, the reverse of Experiment 1. This time looking times were longer for XX/YY infants. Eleven-month-olds appear to be able to represent not just individual objects but also pairs of objects. These results suggest that if they can group the objects into sets, infants may be able to track more objects than their numerosity limit or available working memory slots would normally allow. We suggest possible small exact numerosity representations that would allow tracking of such sets. [source]


The Conservation of Industrial Remains as a Source of Individuation and Socialization

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN AND REGIONAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2007
YUCEL CAN SEVERCAN
Abstract The disappearance of public spaces from the urban realm is a sign of the de-individuation and asocialization of the modern individual. However, cities still provide important tools for reclaiming our lost public life. The aim of this essay is to approach industrial heritage, usually considered a conservation issue, from a different perspective, as a tool for individuation and socialization. In order to do this, we start by describing the effects of capitalism and globalization on public open spaces, and then link this to governments' privatization policies for industrial heritage. We show how industrial landscapes could function as public spaces. Finally, we explain how, in the absence of other public open spaces, industrial landscapes could be used for public purposes to meet the social needs of humans, and could thus be instrumental in the proliferation of our rituals. Résumé La disparition des espaces publics de la sphère urbaine reflète la désindividuation et l'associalisation de l'individu moderne. Pourtant, les villes procurent encore d'importants outils de revendication de notre vie publique perdue. Ce travail envisage le patrimoine industriel, non pas dans la perspective conservatrice habituelle, mais comme un outil en faveur de l'individuation et de la socialisation. Pour ce faire, nous décrivons d'abord les effets du capitalisme et de la mondialisation sur les espaces ouverts publics, puis les associons aux politiques de privatisation des gouvernements en faveur du patrimoine industriel. Nous montrons comment les paysages industriels pourraient opérer en tant qu'espaces publics. Enfin, nous expliquons comment, en l'absence d'autres espaces ouverts publics, les paysages industriels pourraient servir à des fins publiques pour répondre aux besoins sociaux des hommes et contribuer ainsi à la propagation de nos rituels. [source]


Erythema measurements may allow early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in adult psoriatics

JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY & VENEREOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
O Avci
ABSTRACT Background ,We have observed that the erythema in subjects with psoriasis vulgaris associated with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) presents a mostly deep-red to purple hue instead of the typical pink to red tones. We carried out a descriptive clinical study, including 141 patients with psoriasis vulgaris to quantify these colour differences. Methods, Mean erythema index values were established for the psoriatic plaques of adult subjects using an optoelectronic method. Non-diabetic psoriatics underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and based on the results of the oral OGTTs, the subjects were divided into three groups: 18 psoriatics with NIDDM, 16 psoriatics with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 107 psoriatics with normal glucose tolerance. The mean erythema index value was calculated for each group and the findings were compared. Results, The differences in the erythema were found to be highly significant between the group of subjects with psoriasis having normal glucose tolerance and both those with IGT and those with NIDDM (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01). The differences in the erythema were also highly significant between the psoriatic group with normal glucose tolerance and the group of 34 psoriatics with IGT and NIDDM all together (P < 0.01). Conclusions, Individuation of the various hues of erythema in psoriatics by careful dermatological examination or routine measurements of lesional erythema may alert the physician to possible IGT in the presenting subject, and this may affect disease severity. [source]


Concepts and Epistemic Individuation

PHILOSOPHY AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH, Issue 2 2005
WAYNE A. DAVIS
Christopher Peacocke has presented an original version of the perennial philosophical thesis that we can gain substantive metaphysical and epistemological insight from an analysis of our concepts. Peacocke's innovation is to look at how concepts are individuated by their possession conditions, which he believes can be specified in terms of conditions in which certain propositions containing those concepts are accepted. The ability to provide such insight is one of Peacocke's major arguments for his theory of concepts. I will critically examine this "fruitfulness" argument by looking at one philosophical problem Peacocke uses his theory to solve and treats in depth. Peacocke (1999, 2001) defines what he calls the "Integration Challenge." The challenge is to integrate our metaphysics with our epistemology by showing that they are mutually acceptable. Peacocke's key conclusion is that the Integration Challenge can be met for "epistemically individuated concepts."A good theory of content, he believes, will close the apparent gap between an account of truth for any given subject matter and an overall account of knowledge. I shall argue that there are no epistemically individuated concepts, and shall critically analyze Peacocke's arguments for their existence. I will suggest more generally that the possession conditions of concepts and their principles of individuation shed little light on the epistemology or metaphysics of things other than concepts. My broader goal is to shed light on what concepts are by showing that they are more fundamental than the sorts of cognitive and epistemic factors a leading theory uses to define them.1 [source]


Too Close for Comfort: Inadequate Boundaries With Parents and Individuation in Late Adolescent Girls

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 2 2009
Ofra Mayseless PhD
This longitudinal study examined the ramifications of psychological control-guilt induction, parentification, triangulation, and blurring in parent-adolescent relationships for girls' individuation and adjustment. The study followed 120 girls in their transition from high school to military service. Results from the variable-centered and person-centered analyses merged in underscoring the somewhat different developmental path of two groups of inadequate boundary constellations. The group with high guilt induction and psychological control, which involves rejection and invalidation of the child's autonomous self, evinced the worst coping and adjustment to the transition and the lowest level of individuation with a combination of angry entanglement and strivings for overindependence. The blurred-parentified group resembled the adequate boundaries group regarding some indicators (e.g., low levels of engulfment anxiety and high conflictual independence), but further revealed overdependence and immaturity (e.g., high nurturance seeking, low emotional independence, and the lowest functional independence). Implications for preventive work with adolescents and their families are suggested. [source]


Psychotherapy in the aesthetic attitude

THE JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
John Beebe
Abstract:, Drawing upon the writings of Jungian analyst Joseph Henderson on unconscious attitudes toward culture that patients and analysts may bring to therapy, the author defines the aesthetic attitude as one of the basic ways that cultural experience is instinctively accessed and processed so that it can become part of an individual's self experience. In analytic treatment, the aesthetic attitude emerges as part of what Jung called the transcendent function to create new symbolic possibilities for the growth of consciousness. It can provide creative opportunities for new adaptation where individuation has become stuck in unconscious complexes, both personal and cultural. In contrast to formulations that have compared depth psychotherapy to religious ritual, philosophic discourse, and renewal of socialization, this paper focuses upon the considerations of beauty that make psychotherapy also an art. In psychotherapeutic work, the aesthetic attitude confronts both analyst and patient with the problem of taste, affects how the treatment is shaped and ,framed', and can grant a dimension of grace to the analyst's mirroring of the struggles that attend the patient's effort to be a more smoothly functioning human being. The patient may learn to extend the same grace to the analyst's fumbling attempts to be helpful. The author suggests that the aesthetic attitude is thus a help in the resolution of both countertransference and transference en route to psychological healing. Translations of Abstract S'appuyant sur les écrits de l'analyste jungien Joseph Henderson sur les attitudes inconscientes vis-à-vis la culture que patient et analyste apportent en thérapie, l'auteur définit l'attitude esthétique comme l'un des moyens élémentaires d'appréhension par la conscience de l'expérience culturelle, celle-ci devenant une part consciente de l'expérience propre d'un individu. Dans le traitement analytique, l'attitude esthétique émerge comme une partie de ce que Jung a nommé la fonction transcendante, apte à créer de nouvelles possibilités symboliques d'accroissement de la conscience. Elle peut offrir des possibilités créatrices d'adaptation nouvelle, là où l'individuation s'est enlisée dans les complexes inconscients, à la fois personnels et culturels. S'érigeant contre les formulations qui ont comparé la psychologie des profondeurs au rituel religieux, au discours philosophique et au renouveau de la socialisation, l'auteur met l'accent sur une prise en compte de la beauté qui fait de la psychothérapie également un art. Dans le travail psychothérapeutique, l'attitude esthétique confronte l'analyste et le patient au problème du goût, influe sur la forme et le cadre de l'analyse et peut conférer une dimension de grâce à la façon dont l'analyste renvoie en miroir au patient ses combats et ses efforts pour devenir un être humain au fonctionnement plus flexible. De même, le patient peut-il concéder la même grâce aux tentatives maladroites de l'analyste pour se rendre utile. L'auteur suggère que l'attitude esthétique constitue donc une aide à la résolution du transfert et du contre-transfert,,en route,vers la guérison psychologique. Am Beispiel der Schriften des jungianischen Analytikers Joseph Henderson über unbewußte kulturelle Haltungen, die Patienten wie Analytiker in die Behandlung einbringen, definiert der Autor die ästhetische Haltung als einen der elementaren Wege, auf dem instinktiv Zugang zur kulturellen Erfahrung gewonnen und vorangetrieben wird, so daß diese zum bewußten Bestandteil der Erfahrungswelt eines Individuums werden kann. Innerhalb der analytischen Behandlung erscheint die ästhetische Haltung als Teil dessen, was Jung die Transzendente Funktion nennt, um neue symbolische Möglichkeiten für das Wachstum des Bewußtseins entstehen zu lassen. Sie kann kreative Möglichkeiten für Neuadaptionen da schaffen, wo die Individuation in einem unbewußten Komplex steckengeblieben ist und dies sowohl auf personeller wie auch auf kultureller Ebene. Im Kontrast zu Ausführungen in denen Tiefenpsychologie mit religiösen Ritualen, philosophischen Diskursen und Erneuerung der Sozialisation verglichen wurde fokussiert sich der Autor auf die Betrachtungen der Schönheit, welche Psychotherapie zugleich zu einer Kunst werden lassen. In der psychotherapeutischen Arbeit konfrontiert die ästhetische Haltung den Analytiker wie den Patienten mit dem Problem des Geschmacks der beeinflußt, wie die Behandlung geformt und ,gerahmt' wird, und der eine Dimension der Anmut zum Spiegeln des Analytikers hinzufügt, dem Spiegeln des Ringens, welches die Anstrengungen des Patienten, ein glattes funktionierendes menschliches Wesen zu sein, begleitet. Der Patient kann lernen, die gleiche Anmut den tastenden Versuchen des Analytikers hilfreich zu sein, entgegen zu bringen. Der Autor unterstellt, daß die ästhetische Haltung eine Hilfe darstellen kann bei der Auflösung sowohl der Gegenübertragung als auch der Übertragung auf dem Weg zu seelischer Heilung. Attingendo agli scritti dell'analista junghiano Joseph Henderson sugli atteggiamenti inconsci nei confronti della cultura che pazienti e analisti possono portare in terapia, l'autore definisce l'atteggiamento estetico come uno dei modi basici con cui si accede istintivamente all'esperienza culturale così che questa possa diventare parte conscia dell'esperienza di un individuo del sé. Nella terapia analitica l'atteggiamento estetico. Emerge come parte di ciò che Jung chiamo funzione trascendente per creare nuove forme simboliche per lo sviluppo della consapevolezza. Può fornire opportunità creative per un nuovo adattamento quando l'individuazione è rimasta bloccata in complessi inconsci, sia personali che culturali. In contrasto con le affermazioni che hanno comparato la psicoterapia del profondo al rituale religioso, al discorso filosofico e al rinnovamento della socializzazione, l'autore si concentra sulla considerazione della bellezza che fa della psicoterapia anche un'arte. Nel lavoro psicoterapeutico, l'atteggiamento estetico mette a confronto sia l'analista che il paziente con il problema del gusto, influenza il modo in cui il trattamento prende forma e ,si struttura', e può aggiungere una dimensione di gentilezza al rispecchiamento dell'analista delle lotte che accompagnano lo sforzo del paziente di divenire un essere umano più morbido. Il paziente può imparare ad estendere la stessa gentilezza ai goffi tentativi dell'analista di essere di aiuto. L'autore pensa che nel percorso di guarigione l'atteggiamento estetico può quindi essere di aiuto alla risoluzione del transfert e del controtransfert. Estudiando los trabajos del analista Jungiano Joseph Henderson sobre las actitudes inconscientes hacia la cultura que pacientes y analistas aportan a la terapia, el autor define la actitud estética como una de las formas básicas en las cuales la experiencia cultural es instintivamente alcanzada y procesada para ser parte consciente de la experiencia individual del self. En el tratamiento analítico, la actitud estética surge como parte de lo que Jung llamó la función trascendente, ella crea nuevas posibilidades simbólicas para el desarrollo de la consciencia. Ella puede proporcionar oportunidades creativas para una nueva adaptación donde la individuación se ha detenido en complejos inconscientes, tanto personales como culturales. Contrastando con formulaciones que han comparado la psicoterapia profunda con el ritual religioso, el discurso filosófico, y la renovación de la socialización, el autor se enfoca en aquellas consideraciones sobre la belleza que hacen de la psicoterapia un arte. En el trabajo psicoterapéutico, la actitud estética confronta tanto al analista como al paciente con el problema del gusto, afecta en cómo el tratamiento es establece y se ,encuadra', pudiendo otorgar una dimensión de gracia al espejo del analista en las luchas que asisten al esfuerzo del paciente para convertirse en un ser humano más armónico. Al paciente aprender a ver esta misma gracia en los esfuerzos del analista por ser útil. El autor sugiere que la actitud estética es, por lo tanto, una ayuda en la resolución de la contratransferencia y de la transferencia en el camino de la cura psicológica. [source]


Jung, Irigaray, Individuation: Philosophy, Analytical Psychology and the Question of the Feminine by Gray, Frances

THE JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
Yvonne Lynton Reid
First page of article [source]


Individuation: finding oneself in analysis , taking risks and making sacrifices

THE JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
Martin Schmidt
Abstract:, This paper looks at some of the processes that are at work in finding oneself in analysis. It explores Jung's unique contribution to our thinking about the self and its dynamic of individuation. The author attempts to show how the Self, in its quest for consciousness, requires the surrendering of ego inflation,the narcissistic delusion that the ego is the self. A case is made for seeing analysis as an individuation process which offers the opportunity for experiences of a more authentic sense of oneself. Jung stated that individuation requires the ego to enter into service of the Self. For this to happen, the author argues that both patient and analyst must be prepared to make sacrifices and take risks. Using clinical examples, he illustrates that, although purposive, the Self can be experienced as violent and destructive if the ego is unable to facilitate its expression. This may result in an individuation crisis for both analyst and patient. The paper demonstrates how impasse in analysis can evoke the transcendent function, which also requires sacrifices to be made and risks to be taken for analysis to proceed. [source]


Understanding the Self,Ego Relationship in Clinical Practice: Towards Individuation , By Margaret Clark

BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY, Issue 1 2008
Sarah Jackson
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Infants' Use of Lexical-Category-to-Meaning Links in Object Individuation

CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2008
D. Geoffrey Hall
Infants watched an experimenter retrieve a stuffed animal from an opaque box and then return it. This happened twice, consistent with either 1 animal appearing on 2 occasions or 2 identical-looking animals each appearing once. The experimenter labeled each object appearance with a different novel label. After infants retrieved 1 object from the box, their subsequent search behavior was recorded. Twenty-month-olds, but not 16-month-olds, searched significantly longer for a second object inside the box when the labels were both proper names than when they were 1 count noun followed by 1 proper name. The effect was not significant when proper names were replaced by adjectives. Twenty-month-olds' understanding of meaning distinctions among several word categories guided their object individuation. [source]


Individuation of pairs of objects in infancy

DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
Alan M. Leslie
Looking-time studies examined whether 11-month-old infants can individuate two pairs of objects using only shape information. In order to test individuation, the object pairs were presented sequentially. Infants were familiarized either with the sequential pairs, disk-triangle/disk-triangle (XY/XY), whose shapes differed within but not across pairs, or with the sequential pairs, disk-disk/triangle-triangle (XX/YY), whose shapes differed across but not within pairs. The XY/XY presentation looked to adults like a single pair of objects presented repeatedly, whereas the XX/YY presentation looked like different pairs of objects. Following familiarization to these displays, infants were given a series of test trials in which the screen was removed, revealing two pairs of objects in one of two outcomes, XYXY or XXYY. On the first test trial, infants familiarized with the identical pairs (XY/XY) apparently expected a single pair to be revealed because they looked longer than infants familiarized with the distinct pairs (XX/YY). Infants who had seen the distinct pairs apparently expected a double pair outcome. A second experiment showed outcomes of a single XY pair. This outcome is unexpected for XX/YY-familiarized infants but expected for XY/XY-familiarized infants, the reverse of Experiment 1. This time looking times were longer for XX/YY infants. Eleven-month-olds appear to be able to represent not just individual objects but also pairs of objects. These results suggest that if they can group the objects into sets, infants may be able to track more objects than their numerosity limit or available working memory slots would normally allow. We suggest possible small exact numerosity representations that would allow tracking of such sets. [source]


Shifting ontological boundaries: how Japanese- and English-speaking children generalize names for animals and artifacts

DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE, Issue 1 2003
Hanako Yoshida
Past research shows that young language learners know something about the different category organizations of animals, objects and substances. The three experiments reported here compare Japanese-speaking and English-speaking children's novel name generalizations for two kinds of objects: clear instances of artifacts and objects with ambiguous features suggestive of animates. This comparison was motivated by the very different nature of individuation in the two languages and by the boundary shift hypothesis that proposes that entities that straddle the individuation boundary of a language are assimilated toward the individuated side. The results of the three experiments support the hypothesis. An explanation in terms of mutually reinforcing correlations among language, perceptual properties and category structure is proposed. [source]


Object individuation and event mapping: developmental changes in infants' use of featural information

DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE, Issue 1 2002
Teresa Wilcox
The present research examined the development of 4.5- to 7.5-month-old infants' ability to map different-features occlusion events using a simplified event-mapping task. In this task, infants saw a different-features (i.e. egg-column) event followed by a display containing either one object or two objects. Experiments 1 and 2 assessed infants' ability to judge whether the egg-column event was consistent with a subsequent one-column display. Experiments 3 and 4 examined infants' ability to judge whether the objects seen in the egg-column event and those seen in a subsequent display were consistent in their featural composition. At 7.5 and 5.5 months, but not at 4.5 months, the infants successfully mapped the egg-column event onto the one-column display. However, the 7.5- and 5.5-month-olds differed in whether they mapped the featural properties of those objects. Whereas the 7.5-month-olds responded as if they expected to see two specific objects, an egg and a column, in the final display the 5.5-month-olds responded as if they simply expected to see ,two objects'. Additional results revealed, however, that when spatiotemporal information specified the presence of two objects, 5.5-month-olds succeeded at tagging the objects as being featurally distinct, although they still failed to attach more specific information about what those differences were. Reasons for why the younger infants had difficulty integrating featural information into their object representations were discussed. [source]


The complexity of individuation

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDIES, Issue 4 2004
Inna Semetsky Honorary Research Associate
Abstract This paper addresses the problematics of individuation in Deleuze and Guattari's philosophy. The concept of fold , the inside of the outside , is analyzed in terms of the relations between thought and unthought constituting the process of thinking in affects. It is suggested that thinking of this sort, called by Deleuze the supreme act of philosophy, may be considered tending towards Jungian and post-Jungian depth psychology. The unconscious of thought is described by the archetypal dynamics of forces acting in the space of the Outside, that this paper posits as the field of collective unconscious. Analogous to Deleuzian virtual tendencies, Jungian archetypes subsist in potentia only and, as a multiplicity of relations between forces, can be expressed through cartographic microanalysis. In accord with Deleuze's method of transcendental empiricism, the unconscious, immanent, microperceptions are reterritorialized by means of mapping the archetypal field. Copyright © 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


The Conservation of Industrial Remains as a Source of Individuation and Socialization

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN AND REGIONAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2007
YUCEL CAN SEVERCAN
Abstract The disappearance of public spaces from the urban realm is a sign of the de-individuation and asocialization of the modern individual. However, cities still provide important tools for reclaiming our lost public life. The aim of this essay is to approach industrial heritage, usually considered a conservation issue, from a different perspective, as a tool for individuation and socialization. In order to do this, we start by describing the effects of capitalism and globalization on public open spaces, and then link this to governments' privatization policies for industrial heritage. We show how industrial landscapes could function as public spaces. Finally, we explain how, in the absence of other public open spaces, industrial landscapes could be used for public purposes to meet the social needs of humans, and could thus be instrumental in the proliferation of our rituals. Résumé La disparition des espaces publics de la sphère urbaine reflète la désindividuation et l'associalisation de l'individu moderne. Pourtant, les villes procurent encore d'importants outils de revendication de notre vie publique perdue. Ce travail envisage le patrimoine industriel, non pas dans la perspective conservatrice habituelle, mais comme un outil en faveur de l'individuation et de la socialisation. Pour ce faire, nous décrivons d'abord les effets du capitalisme et de la mondialisation sur les espaces ouverts publics, puis les associons aux politiques de privatisation des gouvernements en faveur du patrimoine industriel. Nous montrons comment les paysages industriels pourraient opérer en tant qu'espaces publics. Enfin, nous expliquons comment, en l'absence d'autres espaces ouverts publics, les paysages industriels pourraient servir à des fins publiques pour répondre aux besoins sociaux des hommes et contribuer ainsi à la propagation de nos rituels. [source]


Simultaneous separation and identification of oligomeric procyanidins and anthocyanin-derived pigments in raw red wine by HPLC-UV-ESI-MSn

JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY (INCORP BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY), Issue 7 2006
S. Pati
Abstract Samples of raw red wine (Primitivo di Manduria, Apulia, Southern Italy) were analysed without any pre-treatment (except 1 : 2 dilution with water) using HPLC with detection based on UV absorbance and Electrospray Ionisation Sequential Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn, with n = 1,3) in a series configuration. In particular, absorbance at 520 nm was monitored for UV detection in order to identify pigments responsible for wine colour. On the other hand, two subsequent stages of MS detection based on positive ions were adopted. The first consisted of an explorative MS acquisition, aimed at the individuation of the m/z ratios for positively charged compounds; the second was based on fragmentation of the detected ions within an ion trap analyser, followed by MS/MS and, if required, MS3 acquisitions. The synergy between UV detection and MSn analysis led to the identification of 41 pigments, which can be classified into five groups: grape anthocyanins, pyranoanthocyanins, vinyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, ethyl-bridged anthocyanin-flavanol pigments and flavanol-anthocyanin compounds. Many isomeric and oligomeric structures were found within each group. A further class of compounds, not absorbing in the visible spectrum, could be also characterised by ESI-MSn and corresponded to B-type procyanidins, i.e. proanthocyanidins arising from C4,C8/C4,C6 couplings between catechin or epicatechin units. In particular, oligomeric structures (from dimers to pentamers), often present with several isomers, were identified and their fragmentation patterns clarified. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Development of the pharyngeal arch skeleton in Catostomus commersonii (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)

JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
Jeffrey M. Engeman
Abstract Skeletal elements of the gill arches of adult cypriniform fishes vary widely in number, size, and shape and are important characters in morphologically based phylogenetic studies. Understanding the developmental basis for this variation is thus phylogenetically significant but also important in relation to the many developmental genetic and molecularly based studies of the early developing and hence experimentally tractable gill arches in the zebrafish, a cyprinid cypriniform. We describe the sequence of the chondrification and ossification of the pharyngeal arches and associated dermal bones from Catostomus commersonii (Catostomidae, Cypriniformes) and make selected comparisons to other similarly described pharyngeal arches. We noted shared spatial trends in arch development including the formation of ventral cartilages before dorsal and anterior cartilages before posterior. Qualitatively variable gill arch elements in Cypriniformes including pharyngobranchial 1, pharyngobranchial 4, and the sublingual are the last such elements to chondrify in C. commersonii. We show that the sublingual bone in C. commersonii has two cartilaginous precursors that fuse and ossify to form the single bone in adults. This indicates homology of the sublingual in catostomids to the two sublingual bones in the adults of cobitids and balitorids. Intriguing patterns of fusion and segmentation of the cartilages in the pharyngeal arches were discovered. These include the individuation of the basihyal and anterior copula through segmentation of a single cartilage rod, fusion of cartilaginous basibranchials 4 and 5, and fusion of hypobranchial 4 with ceratobranchial 4. Such "fluidity" in cartilage patterning may be widespread in fishes and requires further comparative developmental studies. J. Morphol., 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Family dynamics and postnatal depression

JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC & MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 2 2004
T. TAMMENTIE mnsc rn
Research has shown that postnatal depression (PND) affects 10,15% of mothers in Western societies. PND is not easily identified and therefore it often remains undetected. Untreated depression has a detrimental effect on the mother and child and the entire family. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the state of family dynamics after delivery and whether the mother's PND was associated with family dynamics. The study used a survey covering the catchment area of one Finnish university hospital. Both primi- and multiparas took part and data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for mothers and the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) for both mothers and fathers. The data were analysed using SPSS statistical programme and frequency and percentage distributions, means and standard deviations were examined. Correlations were analysed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The significance of any differences between mothers' and fathers' scores was determined with a paired t -test. Of the families participating in the study (373 mothers and 314 partners), 13% of the mothers suffered from PND symptoms (EPDS score of 13 or more). As a whole, family dynamics in the families participating in the study were reported to be rather good. However, mothers having depressive symptoms reported more negative family dynamics compared with other families. With the exception of individuation, mothers having depressive symptoms reported more negative family dynamics than their partners. With the exception of role reciprocity, non-depressed mothers reported more positive family dynamics than their partners. Knowledge of the association of mothers' PND with family dynamics could help to develop nursing care at maternity and child welfare clinics and maternity hospitals. Depressed mothers and their families need support to be able to make family dynamics as good as possible. [source]


Micro-Raman characterizations of Pompei'smortars

JOURNAL OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY, Issue 2 2008
M. Castriota
Abstract The ancient town of Pompei offers a unique opportunity to study in detail many aspects of the every day life during the Roman early imperial age. The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy can be of great help in performing a reasonably rapid comparative analysis of the mortars, quite useful to ascertain the degree of uniformity of the technical recipes among the various building firms and the eventual technical evolution in the time; moreover, the individuation of minerals of specific geographical origins can give useful information about the extension of commercial intercourses. An example of a micro-Raman investigation on building materials is reported in this work, concerning the analysis of the mortars coming from different points of the wall in the ,The House of the Wedding of Hercules'. Remarkable differences between ancient and modern mortars are found, allowing a discrimination that can be useful in the case of historical building which underwent several restoration works. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable: Factor Analyses and Concurrent Validity of the "New Look" Measures

JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 2 2002
Luc Goossens
This study examined key components of the "New Look" at the imaginary audience and personal fable constructs. Toward this end, data from four samples of Belgian high school students (N= 1,458) were analyzed. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses failed to confirm that the measures associated with the New Look theory, the New Imaginary Audience Scale, and the New Personal Fable Scale (NPFS), tapped a common underlying construct. Only the invulnerability and omnipotence subscales of the NPFS proved to be highly related. In line with the New Look theory, boys were found to believe more strongly in their own uniqueness, invulnerability, and omnipotence than were girls. Higher scores on the invulnerability and omnipotence subscales were associated with lower levels of depression and loneliness. Finally, each aspect of the personal fable seemed to have its own specific role in the process of separation , individuation. Implications of these findings for the New Look theory of the imaginary audience and the personal fable are discussed. Suggestions for future research are put forth, with particular emphasis on the role of the invulnerability/omnipotence complex in adolescent development and behavior and on the family resemblances among the various aspects of the personal fable. [source]


Perceived barriers to adherence among adolescent renal transplant candidates

PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 3 2008
Nataliya Zelikovsky
Abstract:, Non-adherence to medical regimens is a ubiquitous hindrance to quality health care among adolescent transplant recipients. Identification of potentially modifiable barriers to adherence when patients are listed for organ transplant would help with early intervention efforts to prepare adolescents for the stringent medication regimen post-transplant. Fifty-six adolescents listed for a kidney transplant, mean age 14.27 (s.d. = 2.2; range 11,18 yr), 73.2% male, 62.5% Caucasian participated in a semi-structured interview, the Medical Adherence Measure, to assesses the patient's knowledge of the prescribed regimen, reported adherence (missed and late doses), the system used to organized medications, and who holds the primary responsibility over medication management. Better knowledge of the medication regimen was associated with fewer missed doses (r = ,0.48, p < 0.001). Patients who perceived more barriers had more missed (r = 0.38, p = 0.004) and late (r = 0.47, p < 0.001) doses. Patients who endorsed "just forget," the most common barrier (56.4%), reported significantly more missed (z = ,4.25, p < 0.001) and late (z = ,2.2, p = 0.02) doses. Only one-third of the transplant candidates used a pillbox to organize medications but these patients had significantly better adherence, z = ,2.2, p = 0.03. With regard to responsibility over managing the regimens, adolescents missed fewer doses when their parents were in charge than when they were solely responsible, z = ,2.1, p = 0.04. Interventions developed to prepare transplant candidates for a stringent post-transplant regimen need to focus on ensuring accurate knowledge of as simple a regimen as possible. Use of an organized system such as a pillbox to establish a routine and facilitate tracking of medications is recommended with integration of reminders that may be appealing for this age group. Although individuation is developmentally normative at this age, parent involvement seems critical until the adolescent is able to manage the responsibility more independently. [source]


Predicting marital satisfaction: Social absorption and individuation versus attachment anxiety and avoidance

PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, Issue 2 2007
MAHNAZ R. CHARANIA
The incremental validity of social absorption and social individuation in predicting relationship satisfaction beyond anxious and avoidant attachment was assessed in a sample of 400 heterosexual couples. Results indicated that the actor's and partner's social absorption scores and the absolute difference between the partners' social individuation scores made significant unique contributions to the actor's satisfaction in a model that included avoidant and anxious attachment. This model accounted for 49% of the variance in the actors' satisfaction scores. Satisfaction was high when both partners were predisposed toward behavioral interdependence but suffered when the partners were discrepant in their need to cognitively distinguish self and other. Possible explanations for these findings and their implications for marital satisfaction are discussed. [source]


Concepts and Epistemic Individuation

PHILOSOPHY AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH, Issue 2 2005
WAYNE A. DAVIS
Christopher Peacocke has presented an original version of the perennial philosophical thesis that we can gain substantive metaphysical and epistemological insight from an analysis of our concepts. Peacocke's innovation is to look at how concepts are individuated by their possession conditions, which he believes can be specified in terms of conditions in which certain propositions containing those concepts are accepted. The ability to provide such insight is one of Peacocke's major arguments for his theory of concepts. I will critically examine this "fruitfulness" argument by looking at one philosophical problem Peacocke uses his theory to solve and treats in depth. Peacocke (1999, 2001) defines what he calls the "Integration Challenge." The challenge is to integrate our metaphysics with our epistemology by showing that they are mutually acceptable. Peacocke's key conclusion is that the Integration Challenge can be met for "epistemically individuated concepts."A good theory of content, he believes, will close the apparent gap between an account of truth for any given subject matter and an overall account of knowledge. I shall argue that there are no epistemically individuated concepts, and shall critically analyze Peacocke's arguments for their existence. I will suggest more generally that the possession conditions of concepts and their principles of individuation shed little light on the epistemology or metaphysics of things other than concepts. My broader goal is to shed light on what concepts are by showing that they are more fundamental than the sorts of cognitive and epistemic factors a leading theory uses to define them.1 [source]


Too Close for Comfort: Inadequate Boundaries With Parents and Individuation in Late Adolescent Girls

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 2 2009
Ofra Mayseless PhD
This longitudinal study examined the ramifications of psychological control-guilt induction, parentification, triangulation, and blurring in parent-adolescent relationships for girls' individuation and adjustment. The study followed 120 girls in their transition from high school to military service. Results from the variable-centered and person-centered analyses merged in underscoring the somewhat different developmental path of two groups of inadequate boundary constellations. The group with high guilt induction and psychological control, which involves rejection and invalidation of the child's autonomous self, evinced the worst coping and adjustment to the transition and the lowest level of individuation with a combination of angry entanglement and strivings for overindependence. The blurred-parentified group resembled the adequate boundaries group regarding some indicators (e.g., low levels of engulfment anxiety and high conflictual independence), but further revealed overdependence and immaturity (e.g., high nurturance seeking, low emotional independence, and the lowest functional independence). Implications for preventive work with adolescents and their families are suggested. [source]


Radical quotation and real repetition

RATIO, Issue 2 2004
David Roden
In this essay I argue for a constructivist account of the entities composing the object languages of Davidsonian truth theories and a quotational account of the reference from metalinguistic expressions to interpreted utterances. I claim that ,radical quotation' requires an ontology of repeatable events with strong similarities to Derrida's account of iterable events. In part one I summarise Davidson's account of interpretation and Olav Gjelsivk's arguments to the effect that the syntactic individuation of linguistic objects is only workable if interpreters make richer assumptions about semantic properties than Davidson can tolerate. In part two I show that the objectivist account of syntactic objects which Gjelsivk's arguments presuppose is incompatible with one corollary of Davidsonian semantic indeterminacy: namely, the relativity of language to interpretative scheme. In place of this an account of radical interpretation is presented in which a quotational theory of metalinguistic reference furnishes the requisite relativity. In part three I argue that this account requires that particular utterance events must be repeatable to be radically quotable and give reasons why particularity and repeatability are not incompatible. [source]


Norms that Confer Competence

RATIO JURIS, Issue 1 2003
Torben Spaak
The author maintains that norms that confer competence (or power) on persons should be understood as duty,imposing norms addressed to legal officials, rather than as special competence norms whose sole function is to confer competence, and which are addressed to the competence,holders themselves. The argument is that only duty,imposing norms are genuine norms in the sense that they give complete reasons for action. En route to this conclusion the author analyzes norms in terms of reasons for action, and considers the problem of norm,individuation and the action,guiding capacity of norms. [source]


From unity to atonement: Some religious correlates of Hans Loewald's developmental theory

THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS, Issue 3 2003
Jenifer A. Nields
Loewald's understanding of ego development offers a way to conceptualise, from a psychoanalytic perspective, those aspects of religious experience that can reflect or contribute to the enrichment of the ego, in contradistinction to the defensive and regressive elements of religious experience that have been well detailed in the psychoanalytic literature in the past. In Loewald's view, a dynamic and metabolic interplay between ego and reality characterises the developmental process. With increasing levels of internalisation, differentiation, individuation and integration, ego and reality are restructured into increasingly resilient and durable forms. An ongoing dialectical tension between separation and reunion provides the driving force for development. Loewald's emphasis on the synthetic rather than defensive aspects of ego functioning forms the basis for his characterisation of sublimation as a ,genuine appropriation' rather than a defence, thus opening up one way to understand non-defensive aspects of religious experience from a psychoanalytic perspective. In the course of this exploration of Loewald's view of ego development and its implications for an understanding of religious experience, the author offers perspectives on Freud's views of religion, on some extreme forms of religious fundamentalism, and on the dynamics of ,mature' faith as illuminated by Loewald's developmental theory. [source]


Psychotherapy in the aesthetic attitude

THE JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
John Beebe
Abstract:, Drawing upon the writings of Jungian analyst Joseph Henderson on unconscious attitudes toward culture that patients and analysts may bring to therapy, the author defines the aesthetic attitude as one of the basic ways that cultural experience is instinctively accessed and processed so that it can become part of an individual's self experience. In analytic treatment, the aesthetic attitude emerges as part of what Jung called the transcendent function to create new symbolic possibilities for the growth of consciousness. It can provide creative opportunities for new adaptation where individuation has become stuck in unconscious complexes, both personal and cultural. In contrast to formulations that have compared depth psychotherapy to religious ritual, philosophic discourse, and renewal of socialization, this paper focuses upon the considerations of beauty that make psychotherapy also an art. In psychotherapeutic work, the aesthetic attitude confronts both analyst and patient with the problem of taste, affects how the treatment is shaped and ,framed', and can grant a dimension of grace to the analyst's mirroring of the struggles that attend the patient's effort to be a more smoothly functioning human being. The patient may learn to extend the same grace to the analyst's fumbling attempts to be helpful. The author suggests that the aesthetic attitude is thus a help in the resolution of both countertransference and transference en route to psychological healing. Translations of Abstract S'appuyant sur les écrits de l'analyste jungien Joseph Henderson sur les attitudes inconscientes vis-à-vis la culture que patient et analyste apportent en thérapie, l'auteur définit l'attitude esthétique comme l'un des moyens élémentaires d'appréhension par la conscience de l'expérience culturelle, celle-ci devenant une part consciente de l'expérience propre d'un individu. Dans le traitement analytique, l'attitude esthétique émerge comme une partie de ce que Jung a nommé la fonction transcendante, apte à créer de nouvelles possibilités symboliques d'accroissement de la conscience. Elle peut offrir des possibilités créatrices d'adaptation nouvelle, là où l'individuation s'est enlisée dans les complexes inconscients, à la fois personnels et culturels. S'érigeant contre les formulations qui ont comparé la psychologie des profondeurs au rituel religieux, au discours philosophique et au renouveau de la socialisation, l'auteur met l'accent sur une prise en compte de la beauté qui fait de la psychothérapie également un art. Dans le travail psychothérapeutique, l'attitude esthétique confronte l'analyste et le patient au problème du goût, influe sur la forme et le cadre de l'analyse et peut conférer une dimension de grâce à la façon dont l'analyste renvoie en miroir au patient ses combats et ses efforts pour devenir un être humain au fonctionnement plus flexible. De même, le patient peut-il concéder la même grâce aux tentatives maladroites de l'analyste pour se rendre utile. L'auteur suggère que l'attitude esthétique constitue donc une aide à la résolution du transfert et du contre-transfert,,en route,vers la guérison psychologique. Am Beispiel der Schriften des jungianischen Analytikers Joseph Henderson über unbewußte kulturelle Haltungen, die Patienten wie Analytiker in die Behandlung einbringen, definiert der Autor die ästhetische Haltung als einen der elementaren Wege, auf dem instinktiv Zugang zur kulturellen Erfahrung gewonnen und vorangetrieben wird, so daß diese zum bewußten Bestandteil der Erfahrungswelt eines Individuums werden kann. Innerhalb der analytischen Behandlung erscheint die ästhetische Haltung als Teil dessen, was Jung die Transzendente Funktion nennt, um neue symbolische Möglichkeiten für das Wachstum des Bewußtseins entstehen zu lassen. Sie kann kreative Möglichkeiten für Neuadaptionen da schaffen, wo die Individuation in einem unbewußten Komplex steckengeblieben ist und dies sowohl auf personeller wie auch auf kultureller Ebene. Im Kontrast zu Ausführungen in denen Tiefenpsychologie mit religiösen Ritualen, philosophischen Diskursen und Erneuerung der Sozialisation verglichen wurde fokussiert sich der Autor auf die Betrachtungen der Schönheit, welche Psychotherapie zugleich zu einer Kunst werden lassen. In der psychotherapeutischen Arbeit konfrontiert die ästhetische Haltung den Analytiker wie den Patienten mit dem Problem des Geschmacks der beeinflußt, wie die Behandlung geformt und ,gerahmt' wird, und der eine Dimension der Anmut zum Spiegeln des Analytikers hinzufügt, dem Spiegeln des Ringens, welches die Anstrengungen des Patienten, ein glattes funktionierendes menschliches Wesen zu sein, begleitet. Der Patient kann lernen, die gleiche Anmut den tastenden Versuchen des Analytikers hilfreich zu sein, entgegen zu bringen. Der Autor unterstellt, daß die ästhetische Haltung eine Hilfe darstellen kann bei der Auflösung sowohl der Gegenübertragung als auch der Übertragung auf dem Weg zu seelischer Heilung. Attingendo agli scritti dell'analista junghiano Joseph Henderson sugli atteggiamenti inconsci nei confronti della cultura che pazienti e analisti possono portare in terapia, l'autore definisce l'atteggiamento estetico come uno dei modi basici con cui si accede istintivamente all'esperienza culturale così che questa possa diventare parte conscia dell'esperienza di un individuo del sé. Nella terapia analitica l'atteggiamento estetico. Emerge come parte di ciò che Jung chiamo funzione trascendente per creare nuove forme simboliche per lo sviluppo della consapevolezza. Può fornire opportunità creative per un nuovo adattamento quando l'individuazione è rimasta bloccata in complessi inconsci, sia personali che culturali. In contrasto con le affermazioni che hanno comparato la psicoterapia del profondo al rituale religioso, al discorso filosofico e al rinnovamento della socializzazione, l'autore si concentra sulla considerazione della bellezza che fa della psicoterapia anche un'arte. Nel lavoro psicoterapeutico, l'atteggiamento estetico mette a confronto sia l'analista che il paziente con il problema del gusto, influenza il modo in cui il trattamento prende forma e ,si struttura', e può aggiungere una dimensione di gentilezza al rispecchiamento dell'analista delle lotte che accompagnano lo sforzo del paziente di divenire un essere umano più morbido. Il paziente può imparare ad estendere la stessa gentilezza ai goffi tentativi dell'analista di essere di aiuto. L'autore pensa che nel percorso di guarigione l'atteggiamento estetico può quindi essere di aiuto alla risoluzione del transfert e del controtransfert. Estudiando los trabajos del analista Jungiano Joseph Henderson sobre las actitudes inconscientes hacia la cultura que pacientes y analistas aportan a la terapia, el autor define la actitud estética como una de las formas básicas en las cuales la experiencia cultural es instintivamente alcanzada y procesada para ser parte consciente de la experiencia individual del self. En el tratamiento analítico, la actitud estética surge como parte de lo que Jung llamó la función trascendente, ella crea nuevas posibilidades simbólicas para el desarrollo de la consciencia. Ella puede proporcionar oportunidades creativas para una nueva adaptación donde la individuación se ha detenido en complejos inconscientes, tanto personales como culturales. Contrastando con formulaciones que han comparado la psicoterapia profunda con el ritual religioso, el discurso filosófico, y la renovación de la socialización, el autor se enfoca en aquellas consideraciones sobre la belleza que hacen de la psicoterapia un arte. En el trabajo psicoterapéutico, la actitud estética confronta tanto al analista como al paciente con el problema del gusto, afecta en cómo el tratamiento es establece y se ,encuadra', pudiendo otorgar una dimensión de gracia al espejo del analista en las luchas que asisten al esfuerzo del paciente para convertirse en un ser humano más armónico. Al paciente aprender a ver esta misma gracia en los esfuerzos del analista por ser útil. El autor sugiere que la actitud estética es, por lo tanto, una ayuda en la resolución de la contratransferencia y de la transferencia en el camino de la cura psicológica. [source]


Frozen time and endless analyses: a response to David Tresan's ,Thinking individuation forward'

THE JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
Angela Connolly Dragosei
First page of article [source]