Individual Difference Variables (individual + difference_variable)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Employee satisfaction with meetings: A contemporary facet of job satisfaction

Steven G. Rogelberg
Abstract Given the ubiquity, time investment, and theoretical relevance of meetings to work attitudes, this study explored whether organizational science should consider employee satisfaction with meetings as a contemporary, important, and discrete facet of job satisfaction. Using affective events theory, we postulated that meetings are affect-generating events that meaningfully contribute to overall job satisfaction. Two surveys queried working adults: Study 1 used a paper-based survey (n = 201), while Study 2 used an Internet-based survey (n = 785). Satisfaction with meetings was positively related to and significantly predicted overall job satisfaction (p < .05) after controlling for individual difference variables (e.g., participant background variables, negative affect), traditional job satisfaction facets (e.g., work, supervision, pay), and other conceptually relevant constructs (e.g., satisfaction with communication, organizational commitment). Exploratory (Study 1) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses provided evidence that meeting satisfaction is a distinct facet of job satisfaction. Finally, as hypothesized, the relationship between meeting satisfaction and job satisfaction depends in part upon the number of meetings typically attended. The relationship was stronger (more positive) when meeting demands were higher and weaker when meeting demands were lower. Implications for assessment, leadership development, on-boarding, and high potential initiatives are discussed. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Unanswered questions: A preliminary investigation of personality and individual difference predictors of 9/11 conspiracist beliefs

Viren Swami
Given the widespread appeal of conspiratorial beliefs, it is surprising that very little empirical research has examined the psychological variables associated with such beliefs. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in conspiracy theories concerning the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks on the World Trade Centre and Pentagon among a representative British sample of 254 women and men. Results of structural equation modelling showed that 9/11 conspiracist beliefs were positively associated with belief in other conspiracy theories, exposure to 9/11 conspiracist ideas, political cynicism, defiance of authority and the Big Five personality factor of Agreeableness. In total, a model including demographics, personality and individual difference variables explained over 50% of the variance in 9/11 conspiracist ideas. The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Children's memory for emergency medical treatment after one year: the impact of individual difference variables on recall and suggestibility

Elaine Burgwyn-Bailes
This study explores the impact of individual difference variables on children's recall and suggestibility when they discuss a stressful personal experience. It was hypothesized that some differences in social factors, including child self concept and parenting style, would be associated with variations in the way children related their experiences. Participants were 24 3- to 7-year-old children who sustained facial lacerations requiring minor medical emergency treatment by a plastic surgeon. The children were interviewed about their surgeries on three occasions: a few days, 6 weeks and 1 year after the experience. A number of individual difference measures were administered to the children and their parents at the time of the first two interviews. The results support the hypothesis that there are individual difference variables that may help to explain some of the variability in children's recall and suggestibility. Younger children with poorer receptive language skills and children of more traditional parents recalled less total information about their surgeries after one year. Child traditionalism, achievement-motivation and social avoidance, as assessed by use of the Eder Self-View Questionnaire, made a difference in suggestibility at the initial interview, but not at subsequent memory assessments. The results are interpreted as suggesting that both the demand characteristics of the interview and the strength of the memory trace are important in understanding the effects of individual difference variables in memory performance. Implications for child testimony are discussed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The role of perceptual elaboration and individual differences in the creation of false memories for suggested events

Sarah B. Drivdahl
Witnesses who are exposed to false or misleading information in the course of an investigation are often asked follow-up questions designed to elicit more detailed information about the alleged objects/events. The results of the present study showed that pressing witnesses to elaborate on the perceptual characteristics of suggested events increased false memory for these events. Specifically, participants who were asked about the perceptual details of suggested events (e.g. their location, physical appearance, etc.) were much more likely to later claim they ,definitely' remembered witnessing the fictions events than participants who were exposed to the same suggestions but were not probed about additional perceptual details. In addition, the present study examined the role of individual difference variables in susceptibility to suggestion. The results showed that scores on the Tellegen Absorption Scale (but not the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Creative Imagination Scale) were correlated with susceptibility to false memory in this paradigm. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Importance of Perceived Personnel Selection System Fairness Determinants: Relations with Demographic, Personality, and Job Characteristics

Chockalingam Viswesvaran
This study explored the relative importance attached to various perceived personnel selection fairness determinants (e.g., selection system content-based variables, features of selection system administration). We investigated how demographic variables (ethnicity and gender), individual differences characteristics (the Big Five and cognitive ability) and job characteristics (job complexity and domestic/expatriate assignment status) relate to the importance of ratings of perceived personnel selection system determinants. The results, especially for race/ethnicity analyses indicated that there might be differences across demographic groups in importance placed on different aspects of selection system characteristics. The magnitudes of the relationships were small to moderate for Asian,White and Hispanic,White comparisons. Asian,Hispanic and gender differences in importance assessments were small. Few individual differences variables (i.e., personality and cognitive ability) were associated with importance placed on various aspects of selection system characteristics. Notable exceptions were moderate positive relationships between general mental ability and importance of content-based selection system characteristics, and moderate negative relationships between emotional stability, conscientiousness and cognitive ability, and importance of selection system context variables. The complexity levels of the jobs held by respondents did not appreciably affect the importance placed on the different selection system characteristics. There were few notable differences between importance assessments for domestic versus expatriate positions. Implications for practice, especially managing cultural diversity in organizations, and for theory development are discussed. [source]

The link between sociotropy/autonomy and dimensions of relationship commitment: Evidence from gay and lesbian couples

The tendency to be excessively concerned about either interpersonal relationships (sociotropy) or self-reliance (autonomy) has been regarded as increasing one's susceptibility to experience symptoms of depression. In this study, both one's own and one's partner's scores for each tendency were linked to two dimensions of one's own appraisal of relationship commitment (attractions to the relationship and constraints against leaving the relationship) in a sample of both partners from 29 gay and 35 lesbian cohabiting couples. One's own high autonomy was linked to perceiving few attractions to the relationship, whereas one's own high sociotropy was linked to perceiving many constraints to leaving the relationship under two conditions: when one's partner's sociotropy was low or when one regarded the partner as highly dependable. Findings support the view that individual differences variables may serve as either risk factors for or protective factors against difficulties in maintaining a close relationship and underscore the need to examine cross-partner effects and moderating effects in identifying the individual differences variables linked to relationship functioning. [source]