Individual Development (individual + development)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Epigenesis of the Family System as a Context for Individual Development

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 3 2002
Herta A. Guttman M.D.
In this article, the concept introduced by Lyman Wynne, that the individual develops epigenetically within the family system, is discussed and validated with data from a study of the characteristics and relationships of 27 women with borderline personality disorder and their parents. Each stage of the epigenetic process is impaired in one way or another, adversely affecting subsequent stages. Early impairment of attachment-care-giving processes is at least partly attributable to a lack of empathic parenting; effective communication is marred by family members' inability to experience or express feelings (alexithymia); this, in turn, makes it difficult to engage in joint family problem solving. Mutuality between family members does not occur in such a context, and there is an absence of intimacy between family members. These are often abusive family systems, with multiple abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse more specifically directed at the daughter with BPD. The symptoms of the daughter can be understood systemically, as representing both predispositional characteristics and reactions to the family system. It is suggested that the epigenetic paradigm could be used to characterize the specific failure of developmental processes in many different disorders. [source]

Predictors and outcomes of persistent or age-limited registered criminal behavior: a 30-year longitudinal study of a Swedish urban population

Lars R. Bergman
Abstract This study uses data from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation, where an entire school-grade cohort of children in a middle-size Swedish city (n,1.300) has been followed from ages 10 to 43 and 48 for women and men, respectively. Our findings indicate that the patterns of offending across the life-course differ between genders, where males seem to initiate their offending earlier than females. Further, there are very few women on a persistent offending-trajectory. Focusing on precursors to as well as consequences of offending as indexed in official registers, our results indicate that individuals in the persistent offender group have the most pronounced adjustment problems in school- as well as in middle age. Individual characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aggression, hyperactivity, antisocial behavior) vary systematically between individuals with different developmental offending patterns. The combination of an unstable upbringing and own antisocial behavior seems to be especially predictive for criminality. For persistent offenders, the prevalence of alcohol and psychiatric problems at adult age is high for males and extremely high for females (nine out of ten and six out of ten for each of the two problem types for females). Further, the importance for adjustment of the two-dimensional variation in the number of crimes committed during adolescence and adult age seems to have been surprisingly well captured by the "crude" division into the four offender groups that were used. Aggr. Behav. 35:164,178, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Variables Affecting the Participation in Individual Development

Janet L. Polach
ABSTRACT Workers across the country are being asked to acquire more information at an increasing rate in response to technological, structural, and new product and process changes occurring in the workplace. Organizations continue to struggle with understanding the capabilities and capacity of their workforce and are making critical investments in building expertise. But how do organizations engage people in this development effort? This paper proposes three critical variables that affect an individual's participation in the development process. Proposed variables are: 1) individual expertise, 2) system stability, and 3) the acceptance for the need for improvement. The paper reviews the theories that support the proposed variables in terms of influencing learning participation, and it concludes by pointing out implications for human development practitioners. It identifies where further research is needed in gaining greater insight into understanding this complex issue. [source]

Differential development of body equilibrium among littermates in the newborn rabbit

Edith Muciño
Abstract Interest is growing among psychobiologists and behavioral ecologists in the role of sibling relations in shaping individual development and life histories. In litters of domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus the heaviest pups at birth are more likely to survive the critical first postnatal week, they compete more effectively with littermates for milk and well-insulated positions in the litter huddle, and are the heaviest at weaning. Here we report that high birth weight pups are also better able to maintain body equilibrium. Testing pups' ability to maintain equilibrium when placed on a 15° ramp for 2 min each day during the first postnatal week, we found that pups showed a continual daily improvement in their ability to maintain balance while moving on the ramp, rarely lost balance by postnatal day 8, and that heavier pups could maintain balance better and earlier than their lighter littermates. Better ability to maintain body equilibrium, however achieved, may help explain heavier pups' advantage in competing for vital resources such as milk and in gaining access to better-insulated positions in the litter huddle. It also provides further support for the usefulness of birth weight, not only as an absolute measure but also relative to the weight of other littermates, as a predictor of different developmental trajectories, behavioral and physiological, among same-age siblings in this mammal. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 51: 24,33, 2009 [source]

"They Took Out the Wrong Context": Uses of Time-Space in the Practice of Positioning

ETHOS, Issue 2 2004
Kevin M. Leander
Time-space is not merely a backdrop to social interaction; rather, individuals use particular forms of time-space to discursively position themselves and others. This article analyzes how several adolescents interpreted a previous classroom interaction, which was rife with social positioning. Responding to a videotape of this interaction, the adolescents were in general agreement that one of them ("Latayna") acted "ghetto." An analysis of the interview data reveals how participants use typified forms of time-space, or particular chronotopes, in the practice of positioning. These chronotopes index the relative changeability of the social world, the possibilities of individual agency, and the relations of social and individual development. The analysis also makes visible how individual actors, including Latanya, creatively and strategically shape subjectivities by transforming and laminating diverse chronotopes. [source]

Johnson & Johnson's transformational leadership program prepares quality leaders for global challenges

Cindy L. Crosby
The health care giant, faced with gaps in its pipeline for executives in the Quality function, constructed a potent yearlong development experience around action learning and a strong international focus. The program's successful five-year run has produced a strong stable of high-potential individuals prepared to lead in a global business. The authors discuss the structure and content of the program, the role of faculty and coaches, and the benefits of action learning projects and exercises for group and individual development, including how failure can lead to pivotal teaching moments, as illustrated through the experience of participants in the Class of 2009. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

The impact of Investors in People: a case study of a hospital trust

Irena Grugulis
This article reports on case study research conducted in a hospital trust and explores the impact that the Investors in People award had on employees. Investors in People is widely seen as the principal mechanism for increasing workforce skills within a voluntarist system as well as supporting ,good' employment policies. Yet in this case study, as elsewhere, most of the ,soft' HR initiatives had existed prior to accreditation and the internal marketing of corporate value statements was met with both amnesia and cynicism. More worrying, training activity was focused on ,business need', which was defined in the narrowest sense, with the result that some employees had fewer opportunities for individual development. Motivation and commitment levels were high, staff were enthusiastic about their work and many actively engaged in training and development. But this owed little to Investors in People, and its impact here raises questions about its influence on skill levels more broadly. [source]

The face and voice of volunteering: a suitable case for branding?

Philippa Hankinson
Volunteers make a substantial contribution to UK society but the level of volunteering has peaked and may, in part, be due to the poor ,image' of volunteering. Through qualitative research, this study explores the need to re-shape perceptions of volunteering and the extent to which this may be achieved through branding. Key findings suggest that although there is much consistency in perceptions about generic volunteering, perceptions of the different strands of volunteering, such as governance and campaigning, are different and may require individual development as sub-brands. It is argued that Volunteering England is best placed to lead a brand development programme, supported by managers of national and local bodies as well as volunteers to create a new visual identity and, importantly, key messages that will resonate with current and potential volunteers across different areas of activity. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Food-dependent individual growth and population dynamics in fishes,

L. Persson
It is long since well established that growth and development in fish individuals are heavily dependent on food intake. Yet, this dependence of individual development on food levels has only to a limited extent been taken into consideration when studying fish population and community processes. Using the modelling framework of physiologically structured population models and empirical data for a number of species configurations, how different size-dependent processes may affect fish population dynamics and community structures are reviewed. Considering competitive interactions, cohort interactions will often give rise to cohort cycles driven by an inequality in competitive abilities between differently sized individuals. The addition of cannibalism may dampen these cycles, the extent to which is dependent on life-history characteristics of the cannibals. The circumstance that individuals change their trophic position over their life cycle as a result of an increase in size gives rise to life history omnivory. In such omnivorous systems, food-dependent growth demotes the potential for predatory and prey fishes to coexist. In tritrophic food chains, food-dependent growth in the intermediate consumer may lead to the presence of bistability including sensitivity to catastrophic behaviour. These results shed new light on the drastic decreases observed in the stocks of many marine fish top predators including their inability to recover after fishing moratoria, and on the suggested presence of alternative states in freshwater fish communities. [source]

Life Course Transitions, the Generational Stake, and Grandparent-Grandchild Relationships

Robert Crosnoe
Drawing on past research and prominent theoretical orientations, this research note suggests new approaches to intergenerational dynamics. For 316 grandparent-grandchild pairs, we found that the transition of grandchildren to higher education, controlling for other transitions, improves the quality of the grandparent-grandchild relationship. For grandparent mentoring, however, we see evidence of a generational stake, with grandparents overestimating their mentoring role, compared to grandchildren, during this transition. This generational stake reflects the importance of grandparent education, with increased mentoring for the college-going grandchildren of college-educated grandparents. These findings indicate that the intergenerational literature can be significantly advanced by taking a long-term perspective, incorporating multiple points of view, and examining contextual variation. Moreover, greater understanding of these intergenerational ties will benefit research on families and individual development. [source]


Anthony Ryle
ABSTRACT The claims made for the contribution of Evolutionary Psychology to psychotherapy are questioned. The relevance of human evolutionary history is not disputed, but it is argued that insufficient account is taken of the unique features of human beings, that the polemical attacks made on the social and human sciences are irrational, that the hypothetical reconstructions of human evolution are frequently arbitrary and biased, and that the extent to which evolved innate,mentalities'are said to determine social roles ignores the evidence for the plasticity of human brains and for social influences in individual development. In its consistent bias in favour of innate rather than learned and culturally formed processes and in its language and assumptions EP underestimates the inherited and acquired capacities of human societies and individuals to change. It fails to take adequate account of the key evolutionary development whereby humans became symbol-making and symbol-using social animals whose individual psychological development involves processes, the understanding of which requires a new theoretical perspective. These features, combined with the absence of a clear model of practice, seriously limit the contribution of EP to psychotherapy. [source]

Sibling Relationships During the Transition to Adulthood

Katherine Jewsbury Conger
Abstract, Recent research has shed new light on individual development during the early adulthood years, yet few investigators have examined sibling relationships during this stage of life. These relationships undergo transformations as individuals enter adult roles and orient their lives toward friends and romantic partners and establish independence from parents and siblings. This article examines major life events and role transitions, such as leaving home, completing school, obtaining employment, getting married, and having children, that influence individuals and their sibling relationships. In addition, it considers how sibling relationships may affect individuals during the transition to adulthood and calls attention to the importance of family and cultural contexts in shaping these relationships. The article concludes with suggestions for future research on sibling relationships during early adulthood and beyond. [source]

Early pubertal maturation in the prediction of early adult substance use: a prospective study

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh
ABSTRACT Aims To examine whether self-reporting a later stage of pubertal development in early adolescence predicts young adults' use of illicit drugs. Design Population-based prospective birth cohort study. Setting Follow-up of a cohort of mothers and their children, recruited between 1981 and 1983. Participants Cohort of 2710 young adults who completed a self-report questionnaire about their use of cannabis and amphetamines at the 21-year follow-up. Measurements Young adults' use of cannabis and amphetamines were measured at the 21-year follow-up. Stage of pubertal development was assessed at the 14-year follow-up. Potential confounding and mediating variables were assessed between birth and when the child was 14 years. Findings Of 2710 young adults, 49.9% (47.3 females and 52.7% males) reported that they had used cannabis and 21.0% (18.9% females and 23.3% males) reported that they had used amphetamines and cannabis by 21 years. In multivariate analyses, adolescents with a later stage of puberty were more likely to use cannabis or amphetamines in young adulthood. This association was not confounded by mother's education or child's gender and age. Part of the relationship was explained by the higher frequency of child externalizing behaviour at 14 years. Conclusions The findings warrant further attention to puberty as a sensitive period in an individual's development. With regard to prevention, there is a need to understand more about the pathways between pubertal development, child behaviour problems and substance use. [source]

Interactions of Temperament and Culture: The Organization of Diversity in Samoan Infancy

ETHOS, Issue 2 2009
Harold L. Odden
Although most are minor adaptations, some culturally patterned adjustments can have profound organizational effects on the niche and the child's developmental trajectory. Research conducted in Samoa suggests at least two distinct adaptations of the modal developmental niche for infants and toddlers keyed to different temperamental profiles: interpersonally assertive and behaviorally restrained. I argue that these two different variants of the modal niche emerge from dynamic interplay of different temperamental profiles, ethnotheories of child development, and child-rearing practices. These different niches can be developmentally significant in that they channel the individual's development in contrastive ways and introduce different future developmental challenges and opportunities. My larger point is that these different manifestations of the developmental niche represent one way in which social, cultural, and ecological factors on the one hand, and individual diversity on the other hand, interact to organize and constrain individual diversity. [Child development, temperament, infancy, developmental niche, Samoa] [source]