Individual Decisions (individual + decision)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Individual Decisions

  • individual decision making

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT The factors influencing the organizational as well as the individual decision to utilize the balanced scorecard (BSC) approach have not been widely researched. In the first part of this paper, we study BSC adoption at the organizational level while utilizing a multifaceted perspective of socio-psychological, economic, and resource-based influences; specifically, we investigate the perceptions of desirability, urgency, and feasibility of BSC adoption. Our findings show that customer norms, competitor norms, and organizational resources are significant predictors of BSC adoption. In the second part of the paper, we discuss individual-level aspects of utilization decisions. Here, we explore the impact of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and awareness on the intentions to use the BSC approach. Our findings show that both awareness of BSC capabilities and perceived ease of use are significantly related to perceived usefulness. However, only perceived usefulness is significantly related to intentions to use the BSC. Implications for research and practice are discussed. [source]

    The two faces of knowledge diffusion: the Chilean case

    Piergiuseppe Morone
    This paper analyses the dynamics of return to knowledge where knowledge is acquired through the combination of interactive and individual learning. We suggest that in light of this new definition of knowledge, choosing the optimal level of education is no longer an individual exercise of present and future utility maximization as suggested by formal human capital theory. We find that other external (environmental) variables might affect the individual decision of investment. We calculate the effect of individual and interactive learning on determining the wage of Chilean male workers resident in urban areas and aged between 14 and 65. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The macroeconomic effects of infrequent information with adjustment costs

    Marco Bonomo
    We extend the macroeconomic literature on Ss -type rules by introducing infrequent information in a kinked adjustment-cost model. We first show that optimal individual decision rules are both state and time dependent. We then develop an aggregation framework to study the macroeconomic implications of such optimal individual decision rules. In our model, a vast number of agents act together, and more so when uncertainty is large. The average effect of an aggregate shock is inversely related to its size and to aggregate uncertainty. These results contrast with those obtained with full information adjustment cost models. JEL Classification: E0,E1,E2,E3 Les effets macroéconomiques de l'information infréquente quand il y a des coûts d'ajustement. Les auteurs étendent la portée de la littérature spécialisée sur les règles de type Ss en proposant des postulats d'information infréquente et de fonction de coûts d'ajustement pliée. On montre que les règles de décision optimales des individus dépendent à la fois de l'état de l'environnement et du moment. On développe alors un cadre d'agrégation pour étudier les impacts macroéconomiques de ces règles optimales de décision. Dans ce modèle, un grand nombre d'agents agissent de concert, et optimales ce d'autant plus que l'incertitude s'accroît. L'effet moyen d'un choc au niveau global est inversement reliéà son importance et au niveau d'incertitude agrégée. Ces résultats contredisent ceux qu'on obtient dans des modèles de coûts d'ajustement avec pleine information. [source]


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2004
    Martin Howe
    Less attention is paid to the European Court of Justice than to other European Union institutions when discussing the centralising tendencies of the Union. However, the court has given an important impetus to the process of centralisation through its individual decisions and also through its tendency to give effect in its decisions to what it believes to be the,purpose'of EU treaties rather than to the text of the treaties. The proposed EU constitution will significantly widen the power of the European Court since it includes articles which are wide open to a number of different interpretations, and it will be for the court to decide how they should be interpreted. [source]

    Prior encounters modulate subsequent choices in host acceptance behavior by the bark beetle Ips pini

    Kimberly F. Wallin
    Abstract Laboratory bioassays indicate that the bark beetle Ips pini employs flexible, rather than absolute, responses to phytochemicals in its host acceptance behavior. Each beetle's decision to enter substrate was influenced by the types and concentrations of monoterpenes present. However, previous rejection of a simulated host containing a moderate concentration of monoterpenes increased the likelihood that the same concentration would be accepted upon a second or third encounter. This flexibility more than offsets any loss of vigor due to starvation and age that accompanies a process of trial and error. Starvation decreased beetles' total lipid content, but beetles can recover some energetic losses by a small amount of feeding during each trial. In addition to its adaptive value, a flexible host acceptance strategy may yield population level consequences. That is, bark beetles preferentially enter trees having low concentrations of monoterpenes, but may modify their acceptance thresholds when cues associated with stressed trees are not available. This could partially explain how some tree-killing bark beetles colonize a broader physiological range of trees during outbreaks. The adaptive value of relating individual decisions to population density may arise from two ecological relationships: first, as populations rise, the pool of stressed trees is rapidly depleted; secondly, healthy trees are attainable through pheromone , mediated mass attacks when adequate numbers of beetles are present. Flexible host acceptance behaviors may also reduce the advantage of relying exclusively on pre-landing cues to distinguish between susceptible and non-susceptible trees. [source]

    The role of food supply in the dispersal behaviour of juvenile Tawny Owls Strix aluco

    IBIS, Issue 2 2003
    C. F. Coles
    We investigated the effects of food supply on decisions made by dispersing juvenile Tawny Owls Strix aluco in Kielder Forest, Northumberland, in 1996 and 1997. Field Voles Microtus agrestis were the main food of the owls and clear-cuts the main habitat for voles. A vole sign index was used to estimate vole abundance. In areas near to roosting owls, mean vole densities were 83 and 115 ha,1 in 1996 and 1997, respectively. The prediction that birds would perform area-restricted searches when prey was more abundant was not confirmed. Moreover, we found no evidence that juveniles avoided conspecifics. Owls appeared to have an imperfect knowledge of the environment as they responded to variability in Field Vole densities by altering the time spent in different areas rather than by moving to areas with successively greater vole densities. Vole abundance explained 25.7% of the variation in the time spent in different areas. Movements did not decrease with time after dispersal, although the detection of such movements was prone to error. This study supports recent work suggesting that although dispersal may be initiated by a variety of proximate and ultimate factors, individual decisions made during dispersal may depend partly on environmental conditions encountered during the process itself. [source]


    METROECONOMICA, Issue 2 2009
    Marcello Basili
    ABSTRACT The paper discusses the role of George L.S. Shackle in fostering an unconventional approach to individual decision making. Up until the early 1970s Shackle was the single critic of the probabilistic approach to decision making who proposed an alternative formal corpus for dealing with uncertainty. The main aim of the paper is to analyse Shackle's non-probabilistic conceptualization of individual decisions under uncertainty from a specific viewpoint, namely that of a possible connection between his theory and one of the most interesting recent approaches to decision under uncertainty, the so-called non-additive probability approach of Gilboa and Schmeidler. The paper shows that these developments in modern decision theory take Shackle's issue seriously and confirm that the reliance of strict Bayesian theory on probabilistic judgements based on point-probability estimates, a reliance that Shackle intended to oppose, is untenable. Non-additive decision theory also provides a usage of non-additive probability distributions in choice that is an alternative to Shackle's approach of using a qualitative notion of probability, such as potential surprise. [source]

    Human nature: a foundation for palliative care

    NURSING PHILOSOPHY, Issue 2 2008
    Beverly J. B. Whelton PhD MSN RN
    Abstract, The Aristotelian-Thomist philosopher holds that human intellectual knowledge is possible because of the order in the world and natural human capacities. It is the position of this paper that there is a shared human form or nature that unites all humanity as members of the same kind. Moral treatment is due to every human being because they are human, and is not based upon expression of abilities. Humans have substantial dynamic existence in the world, an existence which overflows in expressive relationships. As both patient and health professional are human, human nature forms the natural foundation of health care. This paper looks towards human nature for moral guidance. The therapeutic relationship is seen as a part of the interpersonal moral space formed by human relationality, which tends towards community , in this case, the healthcare system. The therapeutic relationship is also a source of moral responsibility, as illness makes the patient vulnerable, while knowledge and nursing capacities generate in the nurse a duty to care. Nursing theory serves to connect philosophical reflection and nursing practice. Imogene King's conceptual system and theory of Goal Attainment is the theory that follows from the perspective of human person being presented. This synthesis of philosophy and theory is developed with the goal of shedding light on healthcare decisions in palliative care. The article concludes with the acknowledgement that the complexity of contextualized individual decisions requires the insight and discipline of the moral practitioner, and provides some thoughts on how education, development, and refinement transform an individual into a nurse. [source]

    The Fourfold Pattern of Risk Attitudes in Choice and Pricing Tasks,

    THE ECONOMIC JOURNAL, Issue 545 2010
    William T Harbaugh
    We examine the robustness of the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes under two elicitation procedures. We find that individuals are, on average, risk-seeking over low-probability gains and high-probability losses and risk-averse over high-probability gains and low-probability losses when we elicit prices for the gambles. However, a choice-based elicitation procedure, where participants choose between a gamble and its expected value, yields individual decisions that are indistinguishable from random choice. Sensitivity to elicitation procedure holds between and within participants, and remains when participants are allowed to review and change decisions. The price elicitation procedure is more complex; this finding may be further evidence that an increase in cognitive load exacerbates behavioural anomalies. [source]

    Effects of pre-trial publicity and jury deliberation on juror bias and source memory errors

    Christine Ruva
    We examined the effects of exposure to pre-trial publicity (PTP) and jury deliberation on juror memory and decision making. Mock jurors either read news articles containing negative PTP or articles unrelated to the trial. They later viewed a videotaped murder trial, after which they either made collaborative group decisions about guilt or individual decisions. Finally, all participants independently attributed specific information as having been presented during the trial or in the news articles. Exposure to PTP significantly affected guilty verdicts, sentence length, perceptions of defendant credibility, and misattributions of PTP as having been presented as trial evidence. Jury deliberation had significant effects on jury verdicts, perceptions of defendant credibility, source memory for trial items, and confidence in source memory judgements, but did not affect sentences or critical source memory errors. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Outcome, Process and the Rule of Law

    Murray Gleeson AC
    In this address, marking the 30th anniversary of the establishment of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal, Chief Justice Gleeson of the High Court speaks about several matters bearing upon decision-making in administration and the role of administrative review. These include the impact of policy in individual decisions, and the relationship of merits review tribunals to courts. He notes that ,one of the characteristic features of the context in which modern administrative law functions is a change in emphasis from the duties of public officials to the rights of citizens. [source]

    Investment in the public good through conditional phenotypes of large effect

    G. WILD
    Abstract We investigate the evolution of an individual's willingness to invest in a public good (what we call, helping) in a patch-structured population with limited natal dispersal. We assume that an individual's decision to invest is informed by its dispersal status: an individual makes one decision given it is native to the patch on which it breeds, and is free to make a different decision given that it is not native to the patch on which it breeds. Unlike previous work, we assume that investment in the public good, and the public good, itself, both have a large effect on individual fecundity. Kin selection analysis reveals that only extreme investment decisions (i.e. ,always invest' or ,never invest') can be evolutionarily stable. Numerical results suggest that the evolutionary instability of the ,never invest' phenotype (what we call, complete nonhelping) implies the evolutionary stability of ,always invest' (what we call, complete helping). In addition, numerical results show that bistability of extreme phenotypes is possible, indicating that the adaptive significance of altruism, in this context, is greater than has been previously recognized. Numerical results are supported by computer simulation, and results, themselves, are briefly discussed in a concluding section. [source]

    ,Rational' Theories of Voter Turnout: A Review

    Benny Geys
    The paradox between an individual's decisions to head to the polls and the absence of strictly rational arguments for this action has intrigued , and troubled , many scholars. The present article surveys various theoretical contributions to resolve this paradox of (not) voting. We assess these approaches based on their ability to explain a number of ,stylised facts' with respect to voter turnout. The main conclusion is that straying away from the behavioural assumptions of the Downsian model provides more realistic models and leads to promising predictions as to the individual's decision to head to the polls. Incorporating the role of (social) groups and learning in particular can be regarded as important strides towards understanding the individual's decision to cast a vote. [source]

    Neighbors Matter: Causal Community Effects and Stock Market Participation

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE, Issue 3 2008
    ABSTRACT This paper establishes a causal relation between an individual's decision whether to own stocks and average stock market participation of the individual's community. We instrument for the average ownership of an individual's community with lagged average ownership of the states in which one's nonnative neighbors were born. Combining this instrumental variables approach with controls for individual and community fixed effects, a broad set of time-varying individual and community controls, and state-year effects rules out alternative explanations. To further establish that word-of-mouth communication drives this causal effect, we show that the results are stronger in more sociable communities. [source]

    ,Rational' Theories of Voter Turnout: A Review

    Benny Geys
    The paradox between an individual's decisions to head to the polls and the absence of strictly rational arguments for this action has intrigued , and troubled , many scholars. The present article surveys various theoretical contributions to resolve this paradox of (not) voting. We assess these approaches based on their ability to explain a number of ,stylised facts' with respect to voter turnout. The main conclusion is that straying away from the behavioural assumptions of the Downsian model provides more realistic models and leads to promising predictions as to the individual's decision to head to the polls. Incorporating the role of (social) groups and learning in particular can be regarded as important strides towards understanding the individual's decision to cast a vote. [source]

    Drought, Domestic Budgeting and Wealth Distribution in Sahelian Households

    Matthew Turner
    Over the past twenty-five years, Sahelian households have experienced recurrent harvest failure and greater reliance on remittances from migratory wage labour. Household subsistence has become less dependent on household grain stores and more on the liquidation of individual wealth stores. This study investigates how these broader changes have affected struggles between household members over obligations to support the household in the Zarmaganda region of western Niger. As the land-derived leverage of male patriarchs has declined and household dependence on individual wealth stores has increased, domestic budgeting has become more contested. Household heads make case-by-case moral claims on other household members during times of grain shortage. Women and subordinate males invoke Islamic law, which accords primary provisioning responsibility to the household head, to protect their individual wealth in times of grain deficit. This article investigates the nature of these budgetary struggles, showing how individuals' decisions to contribute individual wealth to support the household are best understood as highly situated, affected not only by the specific material conditions of the household but also the interplay of the moral, structural, and individualistic imperatives that derive from one's position within the household. Using reconstructed livestock wealth histories for the members of fifty-four households in western Niger, this study investigates the material consequences of these struggles. Male heads of corporate households, the historic managers of the household's land and agricultural labour, have lost wealth relative to their wives and married male subordinates since the drought of 1984. [source]

    Computational Models for the Combination of Advice and Individual Learning

    Guido Biele
    Abstract Decision making often takes place in social environments where other actors influence individuals' decisions. The present article examines how advice affects individual learning. Five social learning models combining advice and individual learning-four based on reinforcement learning and one on Bayesian learning-and one individual learning model are tested against each other. In two experiments, some participants received good or bad advice prior to a repeated multioption choice task. Receivers of advice adhered to the advice, so that good advice improved performance. The social learning models described the observed learning processes better than the individual learning model. Of the models tested, the best social learning model assumes that outcomes from recommended options are more positively evaluated than outcomes from nonrecommended options. This model correctly predicted that receivers first adhere to advice, then explore other options, and finally return to the recommended option. The model also predicted accurately that good advice has a stronger impact on learning than bad advice. One-time advice can have a long-lasting influence on learning by changing the subjective evaluation of outcomes of recommended options. [source]