Individual Control (individual + control)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Control of an electro-mechanical valve actuator for a camless engine

. Haskara
Abstract In an electro-mechanical valve actuated engine, the valves are driven by solenoid-type actuators and cam-shaft is eliminated. Individual control of each valve provides flexibility in valve timings over all engine conditions and fully exploits the benefits of variable valve timing. This paper pertains to the closed-loop control of an electro-mechanical valve actuator. The primary emphasis is on the soft-seating problem, in which the valve and the moving actuator parts need to be brought to a soft-stop at the end of their travels. The actuator control features which provide reliable valve motion are discussed in detail. Several illustrative experimental results are also presented. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Indoor Air Quality in the 21st Century: Search for Excellence

INDOOR AIR, Issue 2 2000
Abstract Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, even though existing standards and guidelines are met. The reason is that the requirements specified in these standards are rather low, allowing a substantial group of people to become dissatisfied and to be adversely affected. A paradigm shift from rather mediocre to excellent indoor environments is foreseen in the 21st century. Based on existing information and on new research results, five principles are suggested as elements behind a new philosophy of excellence: 1) better indoor air quality increases productivity and decreases SBS symptoms; 2) unnecessary indoor pollution sources should be avoided; 3) the air should be served cool and dry to the occupants; 4) "personalized air", i.e. a small amount of clean air, should be served gently, close to the breathing zone of each individual; and 5) individual control of the thermal environment should be provided. These principles of excellence are compatible with energy efficiency and sustainability. [source]

Associations among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood control, perceived individual control, and self-reported health,

Spencer Moore
Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these two constructs represented distinct mechanisms linking SES with self-reported health. The sample consisted of 869 adults residing in 300 census tracts in Montreal, Canada. Multilevel methods were used to assess the associations among self-reported health, SES, perceived control, and perceived informal social control adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Perceived control (mediation estimate=,0.16, p<.001) and perceived informal social control (mediation estimate=,0.05, p<.05) partially mediated the association between SES and self-reported health. Perceived control did not mediate the association of perceived informal social control with self-reported health. Perceived informal social control may act alongside but distinct from perceived control as a mechanism linking SES to self-reported health. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Consumer decision making in low-income families: The case of conflict avoidance

Kathy Hamilton
This paper explores consumer decision making in low-income families. The focus is on the issue of conflict avoidance within the family when making consumption choices. Whereas previous studies have focused on conflict resolution strategies, this paper considers the ways in which families prevent conflict from arising in the first instance. These include individual control in purchasing and budgeting decisions, giving in to the requests of children and ensuring open communication about the family's financial situation. Importantly, the connections between the poverty narrative and the family decision making narrative are considered as the decision making strategies employed are not only aimed at avoiding conflict but also making experiences of poverty more manageable. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sarbanes Oxley Section 404 Costs of Compliance: a case study

Lineke Sneller
In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The European division of a US listed company is used as a case study. The divisional project approach is described, and costs of compliance for this division are presented in two categories: assessment costs, mainly hours spent by internal staff; and attestation costs, mainly audit fees. The case study shows that the internal hours spent on assessment are approximately 12 times higher than the initial estimate made by the SEC in 2002, and that the realised other expenses are approximately 1.4 times higher than this estimate. Furthermore, a year on year increase of 50 per cent of the company's audit fee in the first year of Section 404 compliance is found. Companies can reduce the costs of compliance by implementing programmed controls, using auditors from countries with lower rates, remediating material weaknesses only, focusing on the internal control system rather than on individual controls, and by encouraging the auditor to rely on the company's assessment. [source]

Rabbit Facial Nerve Regeneration in Autologous Nerve Grafts After Antecedent Injury ,

FACS, J. Gershon Spector MD
Objective The effect of incomplete antecedent injuries on subsequent facial nerve regeneration within cable graft repairs is not known. The purpose of this study is to compare facial nerve regeneration after an immediate and delayed neural cable graft repair. Method Rabbit facial nerve regeneration after complete transectional injuries of the buccal division was compared in two experimental models. In one, a 10-mm segment of the nerve was transected, rotated 180, and immediately repaired as a cable graft (N=8). In the second, a preliminary nerve crush was allowed to recover over a 4-week period and a 10-mm segment of nerve centered on the crush site was then transected, rotated 180, and delay repaired as a cable graft (N = 7). Data are presented as total numbers of regenerating myelinated axons that traverse the surgical repair to innervate the cable graft and distal nerve stumps, as well as the percentage of regenerating neurites compared with preoperative pooled and individual controls. Subpopulations of regenerating neurons are delineated to quantify the pattern of neural innervation. Results Five weeks after cable graft repair both groups had similar myelinated outgrowth from the proximal nerve stump across the proximal anastomosis to innervate the cable graft (3995 1209 vs. 3284 651;P = .89). However, the delayed repair group had more intrafascicular regeneration within cable grafts (2261 931 vs. 1660 1169;P = .02) and distal nerve stump (1532 281 vs. 445 120;P = .004) than the immediate repair group. The immediate repair group had greater extrafascicular nerve regeneration in the cable graft (2335 1954 vs. 437 236;P = .001) and more myelin and axonal debris in pre-existing neural fascicles of the cable graft (P = .02) and distal nerve stump (463 187 vs. 103 87;P = .02). Conclusions Antecedent priming lesions do not enhance axonal survival as determined by regenerating myelinated axonal counts. However, antecedent injuries enhance the efficiency of neural innervation of the affected mimetic musculature by increasing the number of myelinated intrafascicular neural regenerants in the cable graft and distal nerve stump. This is accomplished by two factors: increased perineural fibrosis and decreased intrafascicular myelin and axonal debris. [source]

Family health effects: complements or substitutes

Michael Lee Ganz
Abstract Genetic endowments play a fundamental role in the production of health. At birth individuals have different capacities to be healthy, largely due to genetic dispositions. Whether or not individuals realize this health depends on their choice of health behaviours. Previous research has linked negative factors beyond the individual's control, which include genetic endowments, to both poor health and poor health behaviours. The health economics literature proposes that behaviours and genetic (or family health) endowments can be either substitutes or complements in the production of health. The goal of this paper is to investigate the behavioural consequences of changes in knowledge about one's genetic endowment. Using two waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Followup Study, I find that for smokers, smoking intensity substitutes for newly diagnosed smoking-related family cancers, while smoking intensity is complementary to newly diagnosed non-smoking-related family cancers. I find no evidence for the hypothesized relationships with respect to alcohol consumption among drinkers. These results have implications for the growing field of genetic testing and test development. These results also reinforce current practices of ascertaining family health histories in the context of medical history taking. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Reducing Obesity: Motivating Action While Not Blaming the Victim

Context: The rise in obesity in the United States may slow or even reverse the long-term trend of increasing life expectancy. Like many risk factors for disease, obesity results from behavior and shows a social gradient. Especially among women, obesity is more common among lower-income individuals, those with less education, and some ethnic/racial minorities. Methods: This article examines the underlying assumptions and implications for policy and the interventions of the two predominant models used to explain the causes of obesity and also suggests a synthesis that avoids "blaming the victim" while acknowledging the role of individuals' health behaviors in weight maintenance. Findings: (1) The medical model focuses primarily on treatment, addressing individuals' personal behaviors as the cause of their obesity. An underlying assumption is that as independent agents, individuals make informed choices. Interventions are providing information and motivating individuals to modify their behaviors. (2) The public health model concentrates more on prevention and sees the roots of obesity in an obesogenic environment awash in influences that lead individuals to engage in health-damaging behaviors. Interventions are modifying environmental forces through social policies. (3) There is a tension between empowering individuals to manage their weight through diet and exercise and blaming them for failure to do so. Patterns of obesity by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status highlight this tension. (4) Environments differ in their health-promoting resources; for example, poorer communities have fewer supermarkets, more fast-food outlets, and fewer accessible and safe recreational opportunities. Conclusions: A social justice perspective facilitates a synthesis of both models. This article proposes the concept of "behavioral justice" to convey the principle that individuals are responsible for engaging in health-promoting behaviors but should be held accountable only when they have adequate resources to do so. This perspective maintains both individuals' control and accountability for behaviors and society's responsibility to provide health-promoting environments. [source]