Individual Contributions (individual + contribution)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Using profit sharing to enhance employee attitudes: A longitudinal examination of the effects on trust and commitment

Jacqueline A-M.
The ability of profit sharing to increase organizational performance via positive changes in employee attitudes has yielded mixed results. Drawing on principal agent, expectancy, and organizational justice theories, we assess how perceptions of profit sharing (capacity for individual contribution and organizational reciprocity) alter organizational commitment and trust in management using longitudinal data provided by 141 engineering employees. Favorable perceptions of profit sharing served to increase organizational commitment while only organizational reciprocity predicted trust in management. The relationship between organizational reciprocity and commitment was partially mediated by trust in management. Implications for the design of profit sharing initiatives are noted. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Peer and cyber aggression in secondary school students: the role of moral disengagement, hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies

Chrisa D. Pornari
Abstract This study investigated the relationship between cognitive mechanisms, applied by people to rationalize and justify harmful acts, and engagement in traditional peer and cyber aggression among school children. We examined the contribution of moral disengagement (MD), hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies, and we further explored the individual contribution of each MD mechanism. Our aim was to identify shared and unique cognitive factors of the two forms of aggression. Three hundred and thirty-nine secondary school children completed self-report measures that assessed MD, hostile attribution bias, outcome expectancies, and their roles and involvement in traditional and cyber aggression. We found that the MD total score positively related to both forms of peer-directed aggression. Furthermore, traditional peer aggression positively related to children's moral justification, euphemistic language, displacement of responsibility and outcome expectancies, and negatively associated with hostile attribution bias. Moral justification also related positively to cyber aggression. Cyber aggression and cyber victimization were associated with high levels of traditional peer aggression and victimization, respectively. The results suggest that MD is a common feature of both traditional and cyber peer aggression, but it seems that traditional forms of aggression demand a higher level of rationalization or justification. Moreover, the data suggest that the expectation of positive outcomes from harmful behavior facilitates engagement in traditional peer aggression. The differential contribution of specific cognitive mechanisms indicates the need for future research to elaborate on the current findings, in order to advance theory and inform existing and future school interventions tackling aggression and bullying. Aggr. Behav. 36:81,94, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A general model of the public goods dilemma

S. A. Frank
Abstract An individually costly act that benefits all group members is a public good. Natural selection favours individual contribution to public goods only when some benefit to the individual offsets the cost of contribution. Problems of sex ratio, parasite virulence, microbial metabolism, punishment of noncooperators, and nearly all aspects of sociality have been analysed as public goods shaped by kin and group selection. Here, I develop two general aspects of the public goods problem that have received relatively little attention. First, variation in individual resources favours selfish individuals to vary their allocation to public goods. Those individuals better endowed contribute their excess resources to public benefit, whereas those individuals with fewer resources contribute less to the public good. Thus, purely selfish behaviour causes individuals to stratify into upper classes that contribute greatly to public benefit and social cohesion and to lower classes that contribute little to the public good. Second, if group success absolutely requires production of the public good, then the pressure favouring production is relatively high. By contrast, if group success depends weakly on the public good, then the pressure favouring production is relatively weak. Stated in this way, it is obvious that the role of baseline success is important. However, discussions of public goods problems sometimes fail to emphasize this point sufficiently. The models here suggest simple tests for the roles of resource variation and baseline success. Given the widespread importance of public goods, better models and tests would greatly deepen our understanding of many processes in biology and sociality. [source]

Measurement Error and Incentive Pay

LABOUR, Issue 1 2005
Eero Lauri Oskari Lehto
Each agent produces an individual contribution which jointly form a total output. Agents' efforts are unobservable and the principal cannot observe individual outputs without an error. Neither the observed individual output of an agent nor the observed total output of the whole team are then sufficient statistics for the actual individual output in the sense of Blackwell. We show that the mixed contract of the pure piece-rate contract and of the pure team contract then dominates the pure contracts from the principal's point of view. [source]

Differential regulation of TGA transcription factors by post-transcriptional control

Dominique Pontier
Summary Transcription factors often belong to multigene families and their individual contribution in a particular regulatory network remains difficult to assess. We show here that specific members from a family of conserved Arabidopsis bZIP transcription factors, the TGA proteins, are regulated in their protein stability by developmental stage-specific proteolysis. Using GFP fusions of three different Arabidopsis TGA factors that represent members of distinct subclasses of the TGA factor family, we demonstrate that two of these TGA proteins are specifically targeted for proteolysis in mature leaf cells. Using a supershift gel mobility assay, we found evidence for similar regulation of the cognate proteins as compared to the GFP fusion proteins expressed under the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Using various inhibitors, we showed that the expression of at least one of these three TGA factors could be stabilized by inhibition of proteasome-mediated proteolysis. This study indicates that TGA transcription factors may be regulated by distinct pathways of targeted proteolysis that can serve to modulate the contribution of specific members of a multigene family in complex regulatory pathways. [source]

Botulinum Toxin, Physical and Occupational Therapy, and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation to Treat Spastic Upper Limb of Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

Gerardo Rodríguez-Reyes
Abstract Spasticity has been successfully managed with different treatment modalities or combinations. No information is available on the effectiveness or individual contribution of botulinum toxin type A (BTA) combined with physical and occupational therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation to treat spastic upper limb. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of such treatment and to inform sample-size calculations for a randomized controlled trial. BTA was injected into spastic upper limb muscles of 10 children. They received 10 sessions of physical and occupational therapy followed by 10 sessions of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the wrist extensors (antagonist muscles). Degree of spasticity using the Modified Ashworth scale, active range of motion, and manual function with the Jebsen hand test, were assessed. Meaningful improvement was observed in hand function posttreatment (P = 0.03). Median spasticity showed a reduction trend and median amplitude of wrist range of motion registered an increase; however, neither of these were significant (P > 0.05). There is evidence of a beneficial effect of the combined treatment. Adequate information has been obtained on main outcome-measurement variability for calculating sample size for a subsequent study to quantify the treatment effect precisely. [source]

The contributions of microtubule stability and dynamic instability to adenovirus nuclear localization efficiency

CYTOSKELETON, Issue 9 2007
James C. Warren
Abstract Adenoviruses (Ads) utilize host cell microtubules to traverse the intracellular space and reach the nucleus in a highly efficient manner. Previous studies have shown that Ad infection promotes the formation of stable, posttranslationally modified microtubules by a RhoA-dependent mechanism. Ad infection also shifts key parameters of microtubule dynamic instability by a Rac1-dependent mechanism, resulting in microtubules with lower catastrophe frequencies, persistent growth phases, and a bias toward net growth compared to microtubules in uninfected cells. Until now it was unclear whether changes in RhoGTPase activity or microtubule dynamics had a direct impact on the efficiency of Ad microtubule-dependent nuclear localization. Here we have performed synchronous Ad infections and utilized confocal microscopy to analyze the individual contributions of RhoA activation, Rac1 activation, microtubule stability, dynamic behavior, and posttranslational modifications on Ad nuclear localization efficiency (NLE). We found that drug-induced suppression of microtubule dynamics impaired Ad NLE by disrupting the radial organization of the microtubule array. When the microtubule array was maintained, the suppression or enhancement of microtubule turnover did not significantly affect Ad NLE. Furthermore, RhoA activation or the formation of acetylated microtubules did not enhance Ad NLE. In contrast, active Rac1 was required for efficient Ad nuclear localization. Because Rac1 mediates persistent growth of microtubules to the lamellar regions of cells, we propose that Ad-induced activation of Rac1 enhances the ability of microtubules to "search and capture" incoming virus particles. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Intrinsic properties of human and murine memory B cells

Shannon M. Anderson
Summary:, The central question of how the immune system responds in a qualitatively and quantitatively better way upon re-exposure to a pathogen is largely unanswered. Both the increased frequency of antigen-specific memory cells and the intrinsic properties that memory cells acquire after antigen experience could contribute to the faster and more robust responses seen after repeated exposure to antigen. In the case of the memory B-cell response, it has been difficult to discern the individual contributions of these two effects. However, because of recent advances in identifying memory B cells, there is an increasing understanding of the intrinsic properties of these cells. The current insights into the unique properties of memory B cells and the progress that has been made in understanding how these affect secondary responses in both the human and the mouse systems are discussed. In addition, we compare the various advantages and disadvantages inherent in each of these systems, in terms of studying the intrinsic properties of memory B cells, and introduce the details of the system that we have developed using conventional heavy chain transgenic (Tgic) mice, which addresses some of the drawbacks of traditional memory models. [source]

SOFCo Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Liang A. Xue
SOFCo-EFS Holdings LLC has developed a multi-layer, planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack that has the potential to provide superior performance and reliability at reduced costs. Our approach combines state-of-the-art SOFC materials with the manufacturing technology and infrastructure established for multi-layer ceramic (MLC) packages for the microelectronics industry. With the proper selection of SOFC materials, implementation of MLC fabrication methods offers unique designs for stacks. Over the past two years, substantial progress has been made in the design and manufacturing development of our second-generation stack. Effective stack and manifold seals have been developed. Cell performance has been improved and relatively low non-cell contributions to stack resistance have been achieved. Stack development has been facilitated through the implementation of two key test methods: (1) a 10-cm single-cell test to bridge the gap in performance data obtained from button cell tests (used for cell R&D) and stack tests; and (2) a novel instrumented short stack (<5 cells) that allows for effective isolation of individual contributions to stack resistance. As a result of progress made to date, a clear pathway for improving stack performance has been established, thereby building confidence that commercial stack performance targets will be reached. [source]

Contribution of Cellular Structure to the Large and Small Deformation Rheological Behavior of Kiwifruit

A.M. Rojas
ABSTRACT: The relative contribution of turgor pressure, cell wall and middle lamellae to the rheology of kiwifruit was studied by performing large deformation assays and using an empirical model proposed by our group. Results were compared with those obtained previously through dynamic testing. Initial (,0) and residual relaxation (,,) stresses determined under 14% constant deformation correlated significantly with complex moduli (G*) and they allowed to detect incipient plasmolysis but not to determine the individual contributions of cell wall and middle lamellae to tissue elasticity. Firmness (Fm) showed no correlation with G* because measurement of failure stress required tissue damage but it was affected by ripening allowing to determine the individual contributions of cell wall and middle lamellae to its value. [source]

Recognizing large donations to public goods: an experimental test

Jeremy Clark
Private charities often publicise generous individual contributions or contributors, possibly to encourage others to give. In contrast, public good experiments used to study voluntary giving commonly tell participants only of total contributions. This paper reports an experimental test of the effect on contributions of supplying additional selective information. A control treatment is run that reveals only total contributions over ten one-shot decision rounds. This is compared to a second treatment that also informs subjects of the maximum contribution made in their group after each round. In a third treatment, subjects are further given the opportunity to make costly rewards to the maximum contributor. Revealing generous contributions appears to raise average contributions slightly. Surprisingly, adding the ability to reward large contributors does little to generate further increases, though it significantly raises the variance of contributions. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Intrinsic Motivation and the Logic of Collective Action: The Impact of Selective Incentives

Andreas P. Kyriacou
I integrate the notion of intrinsic motivation, applied to economics most notably by Frey (1997), into the logic of individual contributions toward collective goods as analyzed since Olson ([1965] 1971). This illuminates the many and various ways through which the intrinsic motivation to contribute toward such goods can be crowded out by the application of selective incentives. I suggest that the crowding-out effect increases the cost to society of organizing the provision of collective goods and argue in favor of designing selective incentives that mitigate this effect. [source]

Quantitatively resolving mixtures of isobaric compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry by modulating the reactant ion composition

E. C. Fortner
Acrolein (C3H4O) and 1-butene (C4H8) can both be individually detected by proton transfer chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-MS). However, because these compounds are isobaric, mixtures of these two compounds cannot be resolved since both compounds react with H3O+ via a proton-transfer reaction to form a protonated molecule that is detected at a nominal mass-to-charge ratio of 57 (m/z 57). While both compounds react with H3O+ only acrolein reacts to any significant extent with H3O+(H2O). Recognizing that the electrical potential applied to a drift tube reaction mass spectrometer provides a simple and effective means for varying the relative intensity of the H3O+ and H3O+(H2O) reactant ions we have developed a method whereby we make use of this reactivity difference to resolve mixtures of these two compounds. We demonstrate a technique where the individual contributions of acrolein and 1-butene within a mixture can be quantitatively resolved by systematically changing the reagent ion from H3O+ to H3O+(H2O) through control of the electric potential applied to the drift tube reaction region of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effective interprofessional teams: "Contact is not enough" to build a team

Joan Sargeant PhD
Abstract Introduction: Teamwork and interprofessional practice and learning are becoming integral to health care. It is anticipated that these approaches can maximize professional resources and optimize patient care. Current research, however, suggests that primary health care teams may lack the capacity to function at a level that enhances the individual contributions of their members and team effectiveness. This study explores perceptions of effective primary health care teams to determine the related learning needs of primary health care professionals. Methods: Primary health care team members with a particular interest in teamwork shared perspectives of effective teamwork and educational needs in interprofessional focus groups. Transcripts from nine focus groups with a total of 61 participants were analyzed using content analysis and grounded hermeneutic approaches to identify themes. Results: Five themes of primary care team effectiveness emerged: (1) understanding and respecting team members' roles, (2) recognizing that teams require work, (3) understanding primary health care, (4) working together: practical "know-how" for sharing patient care, and (5) communication. Communication was identified as the essential factor in effective primary health care teams. Discussion: Several characteristics of effective primary health care teams and the related knowledge and skills that professionals require as effective team members are identified. Effective teamwork requires specific cognitive, technical, and affective competence. [source]

,,, Energy Separation in Homodesmotic Reactions

CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 12 2005
Georg Hohlneicher Dr.
Abstract A well-established quantity for specifying the aromaticity or antiaromaticity of cyclic conjugated molecules is the so-called aromatic stabilization energy (ASE), which can be derived,either experimentally or theoretically,from appropriate homodesmotic reactions. To gain further insight into the origin of aromaticity, several schemes have been devised to partition ASE into nuclear and electronic as well as , and , contributions, some of which have resulted in contradictory statements about the driving force of aromatic stabilization. Currently, these contradictions have not been resolved and have resulted in a confusing distinction between two different types of aromaticity: extrinsic and intrinsic aromaticity. By investigating different homodesmotic reactions we show that, in contrast to ASE itself, the individual contributions that enter the ASE can strongly depend on the type of reaction. Caution is therefore advised if conclusions or physical interpretations are derived from the individual components. The contradictions result from the fact that some reactions suffer from an imbalance in the number of interaction terms at the two sides of the reaction equation. The concept of isointeractional reactions is introduced and results in the elimination of the imbalance. For these reactions, the contradictions disappear and the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic aromaticity becomes unnecessary. As far as the ,,, partitioning is concerned, several schemes proposed in the literature are compared. Contradictory results are obtained depending on the partitioning scheme and reaction used. In this context, it is demonstrated that for the partitioning of the electron,electron interaction, the scheme introduced by Jug and Köster is the one that is most theoretically grounded. [source]

Knockout models are useful tools to dissect the pathophysiology and genetics of insulin resistance

Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
Summary objective The development of type 2 diabetes is linked to insulin resistance coupled with a failure of pancreatic ,-cells to compensate by adequate insulin secretion. design Here, we review studies obtained from genetically engineered mice that provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. results Knockout models with monogenic impairment in insulin action have highlighted the potential role for insulin signalling molecules in insulin resistance at a tissue-specific level. Polygenic models have strengthened the idea that minor defects in insulin secretion and insulin action, when combined, can lead to diabetes, emphasizing the importance of interactions of different genetic loci in the production of diabetes. Knockout models with tissue-specific alterations in glucose or lipid metabolism have dissected the individual contributions of insulin-responsive organs to glucose homeostasis. They have demonstrated the central role of fat as an endocrine tissue in the maintenance of insulin sensitivity and the development of insulin resistance. Finally, these models have shown the potential role of impaired insulin action in pancreatic ,-cells and brain in the development of insulin deficiency and obesity. [source]

A wedding in the family: home making in a global kin network

Karen Fog Olwig
Rituals such as weddings and funerals are significant for transnational family networks as events where scattered relatives meet and validate shared kinship and common origins. They are particularly important when taking place at a family ,home' that has been a centre of social and economic relations and locus of emotional attachment. This article analyses a wedding on a Caribbean island involving a large global family network, which occurred at a critical point in the family's history. It became an occasion when members asserted their notions of belonging rooted in the ,home', not just as members of a common kin group, but as persons whose life trajectories had involved them in different social, economic and geographical contexts. Individually they had dissimilar interpretations and expectations of their place in the home, and these were played out at the wedding. The gathering allowed a display of family solidarity, but was also a site where differing views of individuals' contribution to the global household were expressed, and rights to belong in the family home and, by implication, the island were contested. [source]