Individual Consumers (individual + consumer)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


ABSTRACT A popular product testing procedure is to obtain sensory intensity and liking ratings from the same consumers. Consumers are instructed to attend to the sensory attribute, such as sweetness, when generating their liking response. We propose a new model of this concurrent ratings task that conjoins a unidimensional Thurstonian model of the ratings on the sensory dimension with a probabilistic version of Coombs' (1964) unfolding model for the liking dimension. The model assumes that the sensory characteristic of the product has a normal distribution over consumers. An individual consumer selects a sensory rating by comparing the perceived value on the sensory dimension to a set of criteria that partitions the axis into intervals. Each value on the rating scale is associated with a unique interval. To rate liking, the consumer imagines an ideal product, then computes the discrepancy or distance between the product as perceived by the consumer and this imagined ideal. A set of criteria are constructed on this discrepancy dimension that partition the axis into intervals. Each interval is associated with a unique liking rating. The ideal product is assumed to have a univariate normal distribution over consumers on the sensory attribute evaluated. The model is shown to account for 94.2% of the variance in a set of sample data and to fit this data significantly better than a bivariate normal model of the data (concurrent ratings, Thurstonian scaling, Coombs' unfolding model, sensory and liking ratings). [source]

The psychology of deception in marketing: A conceptual framework for research and practice

Ram N. AdityaArticle first published online: 25 MAY 200
The Federal Trade Commission's current policy statements on deceptive and unfair marketing practices are predicated primarily on economic considerations, ignoring the broader ramifications of trade policy for society as well as specific considerations with regard to the individual consumer. In part, this is due to the fact that research in this area has addressed only isolated aspects of the problem of deception in marketing. This article takes a pluralistic perspective on the issue in an attempt to stimulate research into hitherto unexplored avenues and provide a platform for future policy. The relevant psychological processes in consumer behavior are discussed in the light of product attributes and situational characteristics in a framework that takes into account the needs of the individual as well as the broader values of society. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

Applying domain knowledge and social information to product analysis and recommendations: an agent-based decision support system

EXPERT SYSTEMS, Issue 3 2004
Wei-Po LeeArticle first published online: 24 JUN 200
Abstract: The advance of Internet and Web technologies has boosted the development of electronic commerce. More and more people have changed their traditional trading behaviors and started to conduct Internet shopping. However, the exponentially increasing product information provided by Internet enterprises causes the problem of information overload, and this inevitably reduces the customer's satisfaction and loyalty. To overcome this problem, in this paper we propose a multi-agent system that is capable of eliciting expert knowledge and of recommending optimal products for individual consumers. The recommendations are based on both product knowledge from domain experts and the customer's preferences from system,consumer interactions. In addition, the system also uses behavior patterns collected from previous consumers to predict what the current consumer may expect. Experiments have been conducted and the results show that our system can give sensible recommendations, and it is able to adapt to the most up-to-date preferences for the customers. [source]

Food consumption and political agency: on concerns and practices among Danish consumers

Bente Halkier
Abstract Increasingly ordinary individual consumers are expected to perform some kind of societal or political agency. In the debates about political consumption it is a recurrent topic to what degree consumption practices can be seen as political practices and how many consumers perform such practices. The aim of this article is to empirically qualify the demarcation of the political in individual consumer activities by integrating the concept of political agency in the definition of political consumption. On the basis of empirical results from a representative survey among food consumers in Denmark, the article suggests that by supplementing the criteria of consumers performing specific consumption activities with a criteria of consumers expressing political agency, a more precise empirical delimitation of political consumption can be achieved. Three groups of food consumers are identified: those who perform political consumption practices; those who perform politicized consumption practices; and those who vocalize the discourse of political consumerism. [source]

Alcohol Price and Intoxication in College Bars

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2009
Ryan J. O'Mara
Background:, Many population studies find that alcohol prices are inversely related to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, including among college students and young adults. Yet, little is known about the "micro-level" effects of alcohol price on the behavior of individual consumers in natural drinking settings such as college bars. Therefore, we assessed patron's cost per gram of ethanol consumed at on-premise drinking establishments and its association with intoxication upon leaving an establishment. Methods:, On 4 consecutive nights during April 2008, data were collected from 804 patrons exiting 7 on-premise establishments in a bar district located adjacent to a large university campus in the southeastern United States. Anonymous interview and survey data were collected as well as breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) readings. We calculated each patron's expenditures per unit of ethanol consumed based on self-reported information regarding the type, size, number, and cost of consumed drinks. Results:, A multivariable model revealed that a 10-cent increase in cost per gram of ethanol at on-premise establishments was associated with a 30% reduction in the risk of exiting an establishment intoxicated (i.e., BrAC , 0.08 g/210 l). Conclusions:, The results are consistent with economic theory and population-level research regarding the price elasticity of alcoholic beverages, which show that increases in alcohol prices are accompanied by less alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that stricter regulation of the drink discounting practices of on-premise drinking establishments would be an effective strategy for reducing the intoxication levels of exiting patrons. [source]

The behavioral ecology of brand choice: How and what do consumers maximize?

Gordon R. Foxall
Matching theory predicts choices on concurrent variable ratio schedules on which consumers' brand selection occurs will show maximization via exclusive choice of the richest schedule. However, aggregate studies of consumer choice indicate two modes of consumer brand purchase within a product category: either exclusive purchase of one brand or multibrand purchasing. This article uses brand-selection data from individual consumers to determine whether, at this level of analysis, (a) consumers' purchasing patterns show matching, (b) consumers maximize returns, and, if so, (c) what they maximize. Consumer behavior for fast-moving goods exhibits matching, but in the form of multibrand purchasing rather than exclusive choice. Moreover, for substitutes, brand selection is price sensitive, suggesting both melioration and maximization; for nonsubstitutes, choice is not price sensitive but still appears consistent with maximization of price- and nonprice-related sources of value. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Not Afraid to Blame: The Neglected Role of Blame Attribution in Medical Consumerism and Some Implications for Health Policy

Marsha Rosenthal
Starting roughly a quarter century ago, american medicine began a dramatic transformation from a system dominated by clinicians' decision making and professional norms to one in which medical care is expected to reflect the preferences and choices of individual consumers. This growing aspiration toward "medical consumerism" began during the 1970s with a set of popular social movements devoted to giving patients more control over their own treatment and a more informed choice of their physicians (Rodwin 1994). Although the seeds of consumerism were only haphazardly sown and incompletely germinated (Hibbard and Weeks 1987), by the end of the decade they had grown into a noticeable presence in the health care system (Haug and Lavin 1981). During the 1980s, these shifts in popular attitudes were reinforced by public policies and private practices intended to give consumers greater incentives to learn more about their medical choices and to exercise these choices in a cost-conscious manner (Arnould, Rich, and White 1993). [source]

Traceability in the Canadian Red Meat Sector: Do Consumers Care?

Jill E. Hobbs
Increased traceability of food and food ingredients through the agri-food chain has featured in recent industry initiatives in the Canadian livestock sector and is an important facet of the new Canadian Agricultural Policy Framework (APF). While traceability is usually implicitly associated with ensuring food safety and delivering quality assurances, there has been very little economic analysis of the functions of traceability systems and the value that consumers place on traceability assurances. This paper examines the economic incentives for implementing traceability systems in the meat and livestock sector. Experimental auctions are used to assess the willingness to pay of Canadian consumers for a traceability assurance, a food safety assurance, and an on-farm production method assurance for beef and pork products. Results from these laboratory market experiments provide insights into the relative value for Canadian consumers of traceability and quality assurances. Traceability, in the absence of quality verification, is of limited value to individual consumers. Bundling traceability with quality assurances has the potential to deliver more value. La traçabilité accrue des produits et des ingrédients alimentaires dans la chaîne agro-alimentaire a été mise en valeur dans les récents projets de l'industrie canadienne du bétail et représente un aspect important du Cadre stratégique pour l'agriculture (CSA). Bien que le concept de traçabilité soit habituellement et implicitement associéà la sécurité et à la qualité alimentaires, très peu d'analyses économiques se sont penchées sur les fonctions des systèmes de traçabilité et sur la valeur que les consommateurs accordent aux garanties de traçabilité. Cet article étudie les stimulants économiques de la mise en ,uvre des systèmes de traçabilité dans l'industrie de la viande et du bétail. Des ventes aux enchères expérimentales permettront d'évaluer si les consommateurs canadiens sont prêts à payer pour obtenir une garantie de traçabilité et de sécurité alimentaire ainsi qu'une garantie de méthode de production chez les éleveurs de b,uf et de porc. Les résultats de ces expériences obtenues dans ces marchés de laboratoire fourniront un aperçu de la valeur relative des garanties de traçabilité et de qualité pour les consommateurs canadiens. En l'absence de vérification de la qualité, la traçabilité ne présente que peu de valeur pour les consommateurs. Par contre, une plus grande valeur lui serait accordée si elle était associée à la garantie de la qualité. [source]