Individual Companies (individual + company)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Logic of Access to the European Parliament: Business Lobbying in the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs

Pieter Bouwen
This article is an attempt to test empirically a theory of access that investigates the logic behind the lobbying behaviour of business interests in the European Parliament. The theoretical framework tries to explain the degree of access of different organizational forms of business interest representation (companies, associations and consultants) to the supranational assembly in terms of a theory of the supply and demand of ,access goods'. On the basis of 14 exploratory and 27 semi-structured interviews, the hypotheses are checked in the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) of the European Parliament. Surprisingly, European and national associations enjoy a similar degree of access to the Parliament. Individual companies and consultants have a much lower degree of access than the two collective forms of interest representation. In the conclusion, these results are analysed in the light of the existing literature on party cohesion and coalition formation in the European Parliament. [source]

Which Tangible and Intangible Assets Matter for Innovation Speed in Start-Ups?,

Ans Heirman
The launch of the first product is an important event for start-ups, because it takes the new venture closer to growth, profitability, and financial independence. The new product development (NPD) literature mainly focuses its attention on NPD processes in large firms. In this article insights on the antecedents on innovation speed in large firms are combined with resource-based theory and insights from the entrepreneurship literature to develop hypotheses concerning the antecedents of innovation speed in start-ups. In particular, tangible assets such as starting capital and the stage of product development at founding and intangible assets such as team tenure, experience of founders, and collaborations with third parties are considered as important antecedents for innovation speed in start-ups. A unique data set on research-based start-ups (RBSUs) was collected, and event-history analyses were used to test the hypotheses. The rich qualitative data on the individual companies are used to explain the statistical findings. This article shows that RBSUs differ significantly in their starting conditions. The impact of starting conditions on innovation speed differs between software and other companies. Although intuition suggests that start-ups that are further in the product development cycle at founding launch their first product faster, our data indicate that software firms starting with a beta version experience slower product launch. The amount of initial financing has no significant effect on innovation speed. Next, it is shown that team tenure and experience of founders leads to faster product launch. Contrary to expectations, alliances with other firms do not significantly affect innovation speed, and collaborations with universities are associated with longer development times. [source]

Experiential Education In New Product Design And Business Development

Richard N. Cardozo
We describe an experiential approach to teaching new product design and business development in a year-long course that combines intensive project work with classroom education. Our course puts together up to six teams of graduate students from management and engineering who work on projects sponsored by individual companies. Student teams work with faculty from multiple disciplines and personnel from the sponsoring companies. The year-long format and involvement with company personnel provide opportunities for students to gain hands-on experience in a real product development project. Time constraints, coupled with students' determination to demonstrate what they can accomplish, stimulate teams to learn how to compress the design and development cycle. To help students generalize from their own projects to a wider universe of product design and business development phenomena, students participate continuously in constructive critiques of others' projects; and in presentations, case discussions and workshops that help them learn about the product and business development process itself. This article describes course objectives, syllabus, projects, sponsors, faculty, students and our course administration. In an effort to move towards a "paperless" course, we have put as much of the course material as possible on the World Wide Web; relevant websites are referred to in the article. At the end of the course each team presents a prototype and a protoplan to the sponsoring company in a final report, which in many cases includes suggestions for the sponsor on how to improve its design and development process. Students' positive evaluations, along with their comments, indicate that they are attaining their educational goals. Course projects have resulted in commercialized products, patents, continuing development projects in sponsoring companies, and placements for students. The course has generated public relations value for the units involved and for the university as a whole. © 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. [source]

The Need for Effective Communication with Market Stakeholders

Karen Hamilton
Good corporate governance practices have become increasingly important in determining the cost of capital in global capital markets. The Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) aims to promote an environment of market confidence so that listed companies can obtain reasonably priced capital and maximise the value of their listing. As the market operator, the exchange has the ability to set and monitor disclosure standards and to support dialogue between companies and investors. However, a problem with corporate governance disclosures in Australia is that they have not delivered particularly meaningful information to investors about the performance of individual companies. [source]

The Red Queen and the environment: reconciling public regulation and business strategy

Villy Søgaard
Abstract Until the late 1980s, environmental regulation in Denmark was often carried out in an intensely politicized and confrontational climate marked by strong tensions between authorities and polluting firms. In recent years, however, the general spirit of regulation seems to have improved significantly. During this same period, ,generic' measures such as general discharge limits have been supplemented with more specific demands, tailored for individual companies. The present paper presents a case study based on the environmental regulation of TripleNine, a West Jutland fishmeal factory. In response to major changes in its market and regulatory environment, the firm has revised its general strategy and taken a more pro-active stance on environmental issues, pursuing a policy of active co-operation with local environmental authorities. Informed by this and other case studies, a theoretical model is developed to account for the incorporation of ecological concerns into firms' general business strategy. Against the background of this model, the paper addresses the long-term possibilities of reconciling business strategy and public regulation in the future. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Should we measure corporate social responsibility?

Dr Jouni Korhonen
This paper is critical towards efforts that try and measure corporate social responsibility (CSR). A critical approach can be important for the development of the theory of the emerging field of corporate social responsibility. A critical and provocative approach can generate discussion and debate. Three main points of critique are presented toward the current efforts in the literature to measure corporate contributions to economic, social and ecological sustainability. First, the use of the concepts of eco-efficiency and eco-efficacy in measuring corporate contributions to sustainability are criticized from the viewpoint of the complementarity relation of human-manufactured capital, natural capital and social sustaining functions. Second, the use of measures that focus on an individual process or an individual company are reconsidered with an approach to industrial and firm networks. Third, the use of the monetary value is reconsidered, e.g. by suggesting an approach based on physical material and energy flows and on a new paradigmatic foundation for social responsibility. The social and ecological indicators illustrating the social and environmental impacts of economic activity and of firms can be combined with economic indicators, but not expressed in monetary terms. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. [source]

RFID research and testing for packages of apparel, consumer goods and fresh produce in the retail distribution environment

S. P. Singh
Abstract Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a term used for any device that can be sensed at a distance by radio frequencies with few problems of obstruction. The origins of the term lie in the invention of tags that reflect or retransmit a radio-frequency signal. According to a recent article by Forrester Research, the minimal ,Slap and Ship' approach to RFID compliance will cost an individual company between $2 million and $20 million. Because retailers like Wal-Mart plan to share with their suppliers all the RFID-generated data points (from when a case/pallet enters their distribution centre until it leaves their stockroom), suppliers will eventually be able to use this data as a powerful forecasting tool. RFID is an enabling technology that can potentially facilitate a real-time, end-to-end supply chain visibility system. Suppliers who integrate full-scale RFID systems will realize efficiencies in time, material movement, inventory planning, shipping and warehousing both internally and externally. This paper provides a brief overview of the RFID technology, mandates by retailers and federal agencies, advances towards global standardization and typical consumer level RFID applications, and discusses RFID initiatives taken by some of the global leaders in apparel, consumer goods and fresh produce industries. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Stress Testing of Financial Industries: A Simple New Approach to Joint Stress Testing of Korean Banking, Securities, and Non-Life Insurance Industries,

Kook-Hyun Chang
Abstract This paper proposes a simple joint stress testing model useful in studying the effects of specific stress scenarios on a financial sector. In doing so, we adopt the principal component analysis (PCA) as a main device to interpret various financial information contained in figures and numbers on a financial company. We repeat the principal component analysis across different levels from individual company to a financial industry, and eventually to a financial sector as a whole to derive a financial sector risk index. We then link the sector risk index with stress macro variables, which constitute a much simpler task than devising individual models for each financial components. Once a relationship is established, a joint stress test is conducted by repeating PCA conversely. As a sample of stress scenario in the paper, we use the case of the 2003 credit card distress. We find that securities industry is more sensitive to market stresses than two other industries-bank and insurance-and that financial institutions in such a stress-sensitive industry are, consequently, more affected by the stresses than those in other industries. Despite the simplicity of the proposed model, this model is expected to provide substantial information, particularly for financial supervisors without having to build a complicated joint stress testing model. [source]

Managing the environmental adaptation process in supplier,customer relationships

Louise Canning
This paper details the results and managerial implications from four case studies, which examine how the environmental adaptation process (EAP) is managed within business-to-business relationships. The research uses models of supplier,customer interaction and inter-organization cooperation in order to explore inter-firm relationships and the process of adaptation. The research findings show that either party might pursue adaptations and also establishes features of the process itself as well as identifying factors that can facilitate or hinder the introduction of environmental changes. Arriving at a satisfactory outcome to the adaptation process can be determined by individual company and relationship characteristics, as well as the behaviour and experience of those managers involved in the process. Guidelines for the management of the process of environmental adaptation are proposed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment [source]