Individual Classes (individual + class)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Expression of multiple human endogenous retrovirus surface envelope proteins in ovarian cancer

Feng Wang-Johanning
Abstract Individual classes of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) genes and proteins are expressed in cancer, but expression of more than one type of HERV is rare. We report here the expression of multiple HERV genes and proteins in ovarian cell lines and tissues. Expression of HERV-K env mRNA was greater in ovarian epithelial tumors than in normal ovarian tissues (N = 254). The expression of this protein on the surface and in the cytoplasm of ovarian cancer cells was confirmed using anti-HERV-K specific antibody by flow cytometric analysis. The frequency of expression of HERV-K env protein in multitissue microarrays (N = 641) was determined by immunohistochemistry and a significant correlation with tumor histotype was found. A significantly increased expression of HERV-K was observed in tumors with low malignant potential and low grade, relative to expression in normal ovarian tissues. The increase in expression of HERV-K env protein took place in a stepwise fashion in serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Interestingly, we found that other classes of HERV env mRNAs, including ERV3 and HERV-E, are expressed in the same ovarian cancer tissues that expressed HERV-K. Furthermore, anti-HERV antibodies including anti-ERV3 (30%), anti-HERV-E (40%) and anti-HERV-K (55%) were detected in patients with ovarian cancer, but not in normal female controls. HERV env proteins are frequently transcribed and translated in ovarian epithelial tumors, and multiple HERV families are detectable in ovarian cancer. HERV env proteins, and especially those expressed on the cell surface, may serve as novel tumor targets for detection, diagnosis and immunotherapy of ovarian cancer. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Pyrolysis of tetra pack in municipal solid waste

Chao-Hsiung Wu
Abstract The pyrolysis of tetra pack in nitrogen was investigated with a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) reaction system. The pyrolysis kinetics experiments for the tetra pack and its main components (kraft paper and low-density poly(ethene) (LDPE)) were carried out at heating rates (,) of 5.2, 12.8, 21.8,K,min,1. The results indicated that the one-reaction model and two-reaction model could be used to describe the pyrolysis of LDPE and kraft paper respectively. The total reaction rate of tetra pack can be expressed by the summation of the individual class of LDPE and kraft paper by multiplying the weighting factors. The pyrolysis products experiments were carried out at a constant heating rate of 5.2,K,min,1. The gaseous products were collected at room temperature (298,K) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The residues were collected at some significant pyrolysis reaction temperatures and analyzed by an elemental analyzer (EA) and X-ray powdered diffraction (XRPD). The accumulated masses and the instantaneous concentrations of gaseous products were obtained under the experimental conditions. The major gaseous products included non-hydrocarbons (CO2, CO, and H2O) and hydrocarbons (C1,5). In the XRPD analysis, the results indicated that pure aluminum foil could be obtained from the final residues. The proposed model may be supported by the pyrolysis mechanisms with product distribution. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Positive Support Strategies for Students with Behavioral Disorders in General Education Settings

Meme Hieneman
Although it has been argued that students with behavioral disorders benefit most from placement in general education classrooms, careful and systematic support is required to insure that their placement is successful. In this article, we review supports and interventions provided at multiple levels that together are known as "positive behavior support" (PBS). The levels include school-wide PBS, which involves the full student body; classroom-based PBS, focusing on the individual class as the unit of analysis; and individualized PBS, addressing the individualized needs of specific students. When relatively intense and chronic behavior problems exist, individualized PBS involves the use of functional behavioral assessments and proactive, educative interventions. In this article, we describe each of these levels with reference to the empirical literature and with an emphasis on practical applications. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 42: 779,794, 2005. [source]

Quantifying spatial classification uncertainties of the historical Wisconsin landscape (USA)

ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2005
Janine Bolliger
Landscape feature can be classified by creating categories based on aggregation of spatially explicit information. However, many landscape features appear continuous rather than discrete. The aggregation process likely involves loss of information and introduces a variety of uncertainties whose degree and extent may differ spatially. Since landscape classifications have found wide application in e.g. natural resource policies or ecological research, assessments of spatial classification uncertainties are required. We present a quantitative framework to identify the degree of landscape continuity (fuzziness) and structure (categorization) based on fuzzy classification and offer measures to quantify uncertainties originating from aggregating features into categories. Fuzzy classification is a non-hierarchical, quantitative method of assessing class definitions using degrees of association between features and class. This results in classes which are well defined and compositionally distinct, as well as classes which are less clearly defined but which, to various degrees, share characteristics with some or all classes. The spatial variation in the degree of class definition on the landscape is used to assess classification uncertainties. The two aspects of uncertainty investigated are the degree of association of a feature with the overall class definitions (membership diffusion), and the class-specific degree of association of each pixel on the landscape with each class (membership saturation). Three classification scenarios, one fuzzy and one discrete, of the historical landscape of Wisconsin (USA) were compared for spatial classification uncertainties. Membership diffusion is highest in topographically heterogeneous environments, or areas characterized by many species occupying similar ecological niches. Classification uncertainties for individual classes show that differentiated species distributions can be identified, not only distribution centers. [source]

Groupwise registration based on hierarchical image clustering and atlas synthesis

Qian Wang
Abstract Groupwise registration has recently been proposed for simultaneous and consistent registration of all images in a group. Since many deformation parameters need to be optimized for each image under registration, the number of images that can be effectively handled by conventional groupwise registration methods is limited. Moreover, the robustness of registration is at stake due to significant intersubject variability. To overcome these problems, we present a groupwise registration framework, which is based on a hierarchical image clustering and atlas synthesis strategy. The basic idea is to decompose a large-scale groupwise registration problem into a series of small-scale problems, each of which is relatively easy to solve using a general computer. In particular, we employ a method called affinity propagation, which is designed for fast and robust clustering, to hierarchically cluster images into a pyramid of classes. Intraclass registration is then performed to register all images within individual classes, resulting in a representative center image for each class. These center images of different classes are further registered, from the bottom to the top in the pyramid. Once the registration reaches the summit of the pyramid, a single center image, or an atlas, is synthesized. Utilizing this strategy, we can efficiently and effectively register a large image group, construct their atlas, and, at the same time, establish shape correspondences between each image and the atlas. We have evaluated our framework using real and simulated data, and the results indicate that our framework achieves better robustness and registration accuracy compared to conventional methods. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

OPLS discriminant analysis: combining the strengths of PLS-DA and SIMCA classification,

Max Bylesjö
Abstract The characteristics of the OPLS method have been investigated for the purpose of discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). We demonstrate how class-orthogonal variation can be exploited to augment classification performance in cases where the individual classes exhibit divergence in within-class variation, in analogy with soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification. The prediction results will be largely equivalent to traditional supervised classification using PLS-DA if no such variation is present in the classes. A discriminatory strategy is thus outlined, combining the strengths of PLS-DA and SIMCA classification within the framework of the OPLS-DA method. Furthermore, resampling methods have been employed to generate distributions of predicted classification results and subsequently assess classification belief. This enables utilisation of the class-orthogonal variation in a proper statistical context. The proposed decision rule is compared to common decision rules and is shown to produce comparable or less class-biased classification results. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Laminar variation in neuronal viability and trophic dependence in neocortical slices

Mary M. Niblock
Abstract Organotypic slices are used frequently in studies of central nervous system development and function because they provide excellent experimental access with significant preservation of cellular context and relationships. Within a slice, however, a variety of factors may cause individual classes of neurons to respond differently to the culture environment. Differences in deafferentation, cellular maturation, trophic dependence and ongoing naturally occurring cell death may produce changes in the neuronal population that are transparent to the experimenter but that could affect experimental results significantly. In this study, we examined the distribution and prevalence of cell death among neurons in each cortical layer in organotypic slices. In addition, we assessed the ability of several neurotrophic factors to ameliorate neuronal death in each cortical layer. Within the first 24 hr in culture, there was striking laminar variation in the extent of neuronal death in culture, which could not be accounted for by the pattern of programmed cell death in vivo. In addition, neurons in the six layers of the neocortex differed in the degree to which they could be rescued by neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that differential neuronal death and rescue are important considerations in studies utilizing organotypic slices and may represent particularly confounding variables in studies of effects of trophic factors in such preparations. J. Neurosci. Res. 65:455,462, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a prospective study on the incidence, platelet-activating capacity and clinical significance of antiplatelet factor 4/heparin antibodies of the IgG, IgM, and IgA classes

Summary.,Introduction:,Platelet-activating antiplatelet factor 4/heparin (anti-PF4/heparin) antibodies are the major cause of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). However, the relative utility of functional (platelet activation) vs. antigen [enzyme-immunoassay (EIA)] assays, and the significance of assay discrepancies remain unresolved.Methods:,Consecutive patient sera (n = 1650) referred for diagnostic HIT testing were screened prospectively by both the heparin-induced platelet activation (HIPA) test and anti-PF4/heparin EIA , including individual classes (IgG, IgA, IgM) , with clinical correlations studied. Platelet microparticle and annexin-V-binding properties of the sera were also investigated.Results:,Only 205 (12.4%) sera tested positive in either the HIPA and/or EIA: 95 (46.3%) were positive in both, 109 (53.1%) were only EIA-positive, and, notably, only one serum was HIPA-positive/EIA-negative. Of 185 EIA-positive sera, only 17.6% had detectable IgM and/or IgA without detectable IgG. Among sera positive for EIA IgG, optical density values were higher when the sera were HIPA-positive (1.117 vs. 0.768; P < 0.0001), with widely overlapping values. Two HIPA-positive but EIA-IgG-negative sera became HIPA-negative following IgG depletion, suggesting platelet-activating antibodies against non-PF4-dependent antigens. Clinical correlations showed that HIPA-negative/EIA-positive patients did not develop thrombosis and had reasons other than HIT to explain thrombocytopenia. IgM/A antibodies did not increase microparticle penetration, but increased annexin-V binding.Conclusions:,The anti-PF4/heparin EIA has high (,99%) sensitivity for HIT. However, only about half of EIA-positive patients are likely to have HIT. Anti-PF4/heparin antibodies of IgM/A class and non-PF4-dependent antigens have only a minor role in HIT. [source]