Individual Children (individual + child)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Reproducibility evaluation of gross and net walking efficiency in children with cerebral palsy

DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 1 2007
Merel-Anne Brehm MSc
In evaluating energy cost (EC) of walking, referred to as walking efficiency, the use of net measurement protocols (i.e. net=gross-resting) has recently been recommended. However, nothing is known about the comparative reproducibility of net protocols and the commonly used gross protocols. Ten minutes of resting and 5 minutes of walking at a self-selected speed were used to determine gross and net EC in 13 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; seven males, six females; mean age 8y 7mo [SD 3y 4mo], range 4y 1mo,13y) and in 10 children (three males, seven females) with typical development. In the former, their Gross Motor Function Classification System levels ranged from Level I to Level III; and seven had hemiplegia and six diplegia. There were four repeated sessions on different days, with periods of 1 week between sessions. Reproducibility was assessed for speed, and gross and net EC, by using the standard error of measurement. The results of this preliminary study showed that EC measurements were more variable for children with CP than for children with typical development. Furthermore, in both groups there was considerably more variability in the net measurements than in the gross measurements. We conclude that, on the basis of the methodology used, the use of gross EC, rather than net EC, seems a more sensitive measure of walking efficiency to detect clinically relevant changes in an individual child with CP. [source]


Understanding Inner City Child Mental Health Need and Trauma Exposure: Implications for Preparing Urban Service Providers

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 2 2005
Mary M. McKay PhD
This article presents the results of a study documenting the complex mental health needs of 95 inner city youth consecutively referred for mental health care. An ecological perspective of mental health need guides the presentation of issues and stressors that occur at the level of the individual child; within the family, school, and community; and within the larger service system context. Findings related to the intersection between child mental health needs and trauma exposure are described. In addition, the level of service involvement of these children is presented. Results reveal low rates of ongoing service involvement despite multiple, complex presenting mental health issues and significant levels of trauma exposure. Implications for urban service delivery and recommendations to prepare service providers are drawn. [source]


Identifying problematic severe asthma in the individual child , does lung function matter?,

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2010
AM Lang
Abstract Aim:, Measures of lung function (usually FEV1 <80% predicted) are used to classify asthma severity in both adults and children, despite evidence that lung function impairment is less pronounced in the paediatric asthma population. The present study assesses the relevance of lung function measurements as discriminators of severe childhood asthma. Methods:, Fifty-one school-aged children with problematic severe asthma, 37 mild-to-moderate asthmatics and 29 healthy controls underwent a comprehensive clinical work-up. Problematic severe asthma was defined in patients exhibiting poor asthma control despite high-dose inhaled corticosteroid treatment and at least one other asthma controller drug. Mild-to-moderate asthmatic children used low-dose inhaled steroids and reported minimal asthma symptoms. Results:, Baseline FEV1 values were significantly reduced in children with problematic severe asthma, yet FEV1 <80% predicted showed a low sensitivity (41%) for discriminating severe vs. mild-to-moderate asthma. Receiver-operated characteristic analysis estimated the optimal cut-off of FEV1 to be 90% predicted in this population (sensitivity 61%, specificity 83%). Baseline FEV1/FVC and FEF25,75 values were not superior to FEV1 in discriminating problematic severe asthma, and neither exhaled nitric oxide levels nor bronchial hyperresponsiveness differentiated between the two asthmatic study populations. Conclusion:, Spirometric measurements are insensitive discriminators of problematic severe asthma in childhood. [source]


Diagnostic approaches for immunocompromised paediatric patients with pulmonary infiltrates

CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTION, Issue 3 2006
K. Bochennek
Abstract Pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised children often pose problems in terms of deciding on further diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, but few studies have evaluated the value of non-invasive and invasive diagnostic methods in paediatric populations. Both galactomannan ELISA and PCR protocols appear to be less useful in children than in adults. Invasive procedures, such as bronchoalveolar lavage or lung biopsy, can yield a pathohistological diagnosis and/or the isolation of a pathogen. Prospective studies in paediatric patients are needed urgently to assess the value of different diagnostic procedures and to define an effective and safe diagnostic strategy for the individual child. [source]


Insulin treatment in children and adolescents

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2004
RM Williams
The management of diabetes in children presents a number of challenges. The ideal is to achieve optimal glycaemic control using an insulin regimen that is acceptable to the child and family, which improves glycaemic control, whilst avoiding hypoglycaemia. The paediatric population differ from their adult counterparts in several ways, such as variability of exercise and eating patterns, and the hormonal influences of puberty, which means that the insulin regimen must be tailored to suit an individual child and their family. Conclusion: This review will focus on the particular difficulties of managing diabetes in children and, in particular, the problem of avoiding hypoglycaemia while maintaining adequate glycaemic control. [source]


Reference values for change in body mass index from birth to 18 years of age

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 6 2003
J Karlberg
Body mass index (BMI) has become the measure of choice for determination of nutritional status during the paediatric years, as in adults. Recently, several cross-sectional BMI childhood reference values standards have been published. In order precisely to evaluate childhood nutritional interventions, reference values allowing for the evaluation of changes in BMI values are also needed. For the first time, such reference values can be presented based on 3650 longitudinally followed healthy Swedish children born full term. The reference values for the change in BMI are given as the change in BMI standard deviation scores. The reference values are given as means of mathematical functions adjusting for gender, age of the child and the length of the interval between two measurements for interval lengths of 0.25 to 1.0 y before 2y of age and of 1 to 5 y between birth and 18 y. The usefulness of the reference values is proved by a graph that forms a part of a clinical computer program; the -2 to +2 standard deviation range of the predicted change in BMI can be computed for an individual child and drawn in the graph as an extended support for clinical decision-making. Conclusion: For the first time this communication gives access to BMI growth rate values that can be used both in research and in the clinic to evaluate various interventions, be they nutritional, surgical or therapeutic. [source]


Current Approaches to the Assessment and Management of Anger and Aggression in Youth: A Review

JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC NURSING, Issue 4 2007
APRN-BC, Christie S. Blake RN
BACKGROUND:,Anger and its expression represent a major public health problem for children and adolescents today. Prevalence reports show that anger-related problems such as oppositional behavior, verbal and physical aggression, and violence are some of the more common reasons children are referred for mental health services. METHODS:,An extensive review of the literature was conducted using the following online search engines: Cochrane, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PubMed. Published and unpublished articles that met the following criteria were included in the review: (a) experimental or quasi-experimental research designs; (b) nonpharmacologic, therapy-based interventions; and (c) study participants between 5 and 17 years of age. RESULTS:,Cognitive-behavioral and skills-based approaches are the most widely studied and empirically validated treatments for anger and aggression in youth. Commonly used therapeutic techniques include affective education, relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills, social skills training, and conflict resolution. These techniques, tailored to the individual child's and/or family's needs, can foster the development of more adaptive and prosocial behavior. [source]


Vagus Nerve Stimulation Therapy Induces Changes in Heart Rate of Children during Sleep

EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2007
Boubker Zaaimi
Summary:,Purpose: This study analyzed changes in the heart rates of children receiving vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Methods: Changes in the heart rates of ten children receiving VNS therapy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy were evaluated with polysomnographic recordings, including electrocardiogram (ECG), EEG, thoraco-abdominal distension, nasal airflow, and VNS artifacts. Measurements during stimulation were compared with those at baseline for each patient. Result: While the VNS therapy pulse generator was delivering stimulation, the heart rates of four children increased significantly (p < 0.01), decreased for one child, and increased at the end of the stimulation for one child. The heart rates of four children did not change. Changes in heart rate varied during VNS, within stimulation cycles for individual children and from one child to another. Changes in heart rate differed between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep states. Respiratory changes (increases in frequency and decreases in amplitude) were concomitant with the changes in heart rate. Conclusion: In this case series of children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, cardiorespiratory variations occurred while the VNS therapy pulse generator was delivering stimulation. Understanding these variations may allow further optimization of VNS parameters. [source]


Urinary fluoride excretion in children drinking fluoridated school milk

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, Issue 4 2000
C.E. Ketley
Summary.Objective. To determine fluoride excretion under various conditions of fluoride intake and to estimate the fractional urinary excretion of fluoride in individual children participating in a school milk fluoridation scheme. Design. In the first part of the study, individual urine samples were collected from each of eight 4 to 5-year-old children for a continuous period of 55 h. For each child (n = 8) and for each day (n = 3) the maximum urinary fluoride concentration (p.p.m.F), the maximum fluoride excretion rate (,gF/h) and the total daily fluoride excretion (mg) were calculated. The second part of the study was carried out to determine the 24 h fractional percentage of fluoride excreted following administration of a known dose of fluoride in the absence of other sources. Results. Under usual conditions of fluoride intake (i.e. milk containing 0·5 mg fluoride, customary diet and toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste) the children's daily fluoride excretion was 0·33 mg. The fractional urinary fluoride excretion of a 0·5-mg fluoride tablet was 30%. Conclusions. It is concluded that the children's mean 24 h fluoride excretion was somewhere between that reported in low fluoride conditions and that reported in optimally fluoridated areas. The fractional urinary fluoride excretion was found to be in agreement with the findings of other workers. [source]


Behavioural and emotional problems of children by type of out-of-home care in Croatia

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WELFARE, Issue 3 2005
Marina Ajdukovi
The aim of this article is to compare the kinds of behavioural and emotional problems of youth in relation to type of out-of-home placement in Croatia. Children living in children's homes manifest significantly more behavioural and emotional problems than other groups of children in out-of-home care or children living in their primary families. Children living in foster families or in family-type homes integrated in the community do not differ from a comparative group of children living in primary families. Regardless of differences among sub-samples regarding behavioural and emotional problems, the current problems of individual children in all groups of children in out-of-home placement were connected more to currently experienced stressors than to unfavourable circumstances before their removal. This indicates that there are benefits to be gained by improving services in the children's present care environment. [source]


Apgar scores reported in personal child health records: Validity for epidemiological studies?

JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 11 2008
Pénélope Troude
Aim: In epidemiological studies on children, information in the neonatal period that might affect children's long-term health could be extracted from the personal child health record (PCHR), because the booklet exists in most countries. We aimed to assess, in individual children, the validity of Apgar scores reported in the PCHR using maternity medical records as the gold standard. Methods: In two French hospitals, 435 women who had a child in January 2006 were recruited and 90% filled in a postal questionnaire 6 weeks after delivery, copying neonatal information (including Apgar scores) from the PCHR. This information was compared with data independently recorded at birth by physicians in maternity medical records. Results: We found that the proportion of missing Apgar scores in the PCHR was higher when scores in the medical records were lower. Moreover, Apgar scores reported in the PCHR were overestimated when scores in the medical records were low. Using medical records as the gold standard, specificity for PCHR-reported 1-min Apgar score was 100% and sensitivity 33%. Similar trends were found for the 5-min score. This supports the hypothesis that information considered as ,socially sensitive' by physicians may be intentionally altered in PCHRs. Conclusions: Apgar scores reported in PCHRs may not yield reliable information for epidemiological studies. When the PCHR is the only source of information for the neonatal period in an epidemiological study, it would be preferable to use a composite neonatal indicator rather than the Apgar score. [source]


Beyond the Dilemma of Difference: The Capability Approach to Disability and Special Educational Needs

JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, Issue 3 2005
Lorella Terzi
In her recent pamphlet Special Educational Needs: a new look (2005) Mary Warnock has called for a radical review of special needs education and a substantial reconsideration of the assumptions upon which the current educational framework is based. The latter, she maintains, is hindered by a contradiction between the intention to treat all learners as the same and that of responding adequately to the needs arising from their individual differences. The tension highlighted by Warnock, which is central to the debate in special and inclusive education, is also referred to as the ,dilemma of difference'. This consists in the seemingly unavoidable choice between, on the one hand, identifying children's differences in order to provide for them differentially, with the risk of labelling and dividing, and, on the other, accentuating the ,sameness' and offering common provision, with the risk of not making available what is relevant to, and needed by, individual children. In this paper, I argue that the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen provides an innovative and important perspective for re-examining the dilemma of difference in significant ways. In particular, I maintain that reconceptualising disability and special needs through the capability approach makes possible the overcoming of the tension at the core of the dilemma of difference, whilst at the same time inscribing the debate within an ethical, normative framework based upon justice and equality. [source]


Recurrent wheezing after respiratory syncytial virus or non-respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy: a 3-year follow-up

ALLERGY, Issue 9 2009
H. Valkonen
Background:, Recent studies have suggested that rhinovirus-associated early wheezing is a greater risk factor for development of recurrent wheezing in children than is early wheezing associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We determined the development of recurrent wheezing in young children within 3 years after hospitalization for RSV or non-RSV bronchiolitis. Methods:, We identified retrospectively all children <2 years of age who were admitted to Turku University Hospital because of bronchiolitis in the months of August,December during 1988,2001. The primary outcome was recurrent wheezing that required long-term asthma medication. Data on asthma medications of the individual children were derived from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Results:, Within the first year after hospitalization, 36 of 217 (16.6%) children with non-RSV bronchiolitis developed recurrent wheezing, compared with five of 199 (2.5%) children with RSV bronchiolitis [relative risk (RR) 6.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6,16.5]. The rates of recurrent wheezing were significantly increased in the non-RSV group also within 2 years (RR 2.9; 95% CI 1.7,5.1) and 3 years (RR 3.4; 95% CI 2.0,5.7) after hospitalization. The increased risk of recurrent wheezing in children with non-RSV-associated bronchiolitis was observed both in boys and girls at all time points of the 3-year follow-up, and it was not explained by the age difference between the RSV and non-RSV groups or any confounding seasonal factors. Conclusion:, Children hospitalized with bronchiolitis caused by other viruses than RSV develop recurrent wheezing at substantially higher rates during a 3-year follow-up period than do children with RSV-induced bronchiolitis. [source]


Reproducibility of tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity measurements in children and young adults with sickle cell disease undergoing screening for pulmonary hypertension,

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 10 2010
Robert I. Liem
The reproducibility of tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRJV) measurements by Doppler echocardiography has not been subjected to systematic evaluation among individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing screening for pulmonary hypertension. We examined sources of disagreement associated with peak TRJV in children and young adults with SCD. Peak TRJV was independently measured and interpreted a week apart by separate sonographers and readers, respectively, in 30 subjects (mean age, 15.8 ± 3.3 years) who provided 120 observations. We assessed intra-/inter-reader, intra-/inter-sonographer, sonographer-reader, and within subject agreement using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's kappa (,). Agreement was examined graphically using Bland-Altman plots. Although sonographers could estimate and measure peak TRJV in all subjects, readers designated tricuspid regurgitation nonquantifiable in 10,17% of their final interpretations. Intra-reader agreement was highest (ICC = 0.93 [95% CI 0.86, 0.97], P = 0.0001) and within subject agreement lowest (ICC = 0.36 [95% CI 0.02, 0.64], P = 0.021) for single TRJV measurements. Similarly, intra-reader agreement was highest (, = 0.74 [95% CI 0.53, 0.95], P = 0.0001) and within subject lowest (, = 0.14 [95% CI ,0.17, 0.46], P = 0.38) when sonographers and readers categorized TRJV measurements. On Bland-Altman plots, absolute differences in observations increased with higher mean TRJV readings for intra-/inter-reader agreement. Peak TRJV measurements in individual children and young adults with SCD are affected by several sources of disagreement, underscoring the need for methodological improvements that ensure reproducibility of this screening modality for making clinical decisions in this population. Am. J. Hematol., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Do early childhood immunizations influence the development of atopy and do they cause allergic reactions?

PEDIATRIC ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
C. Grüber
Concerns about allergic side-effects of vaccines and about a possible promotion of allergic diseases contribute to incomplete vaccination rates in childhood. This article reviews the current understanding of these issues. There is evidence that pertussis and diphtheria/tetanus antigens elicit immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody formation as part of the immune response. In murine models, pertussis toxin is an effective adjuvant for IgE formation against simultaneously administered antigens. In children, however, sensitization to unrelated antigens or development of allergic diseases do not seem to be augmented. In contrast, bacille Calmette,Guérin (BCG) and measles vaccination have been proposed as suppressors of allergy because of their T helper 1 (Th1)-fostering properties. In the murine system, BCG inhibits allergic sensitization and airway hyper-reactivity. Some epidemiological studies in humans suggest an inhibitory effect of tuberculosis on allergy. BCG vaccination in children, however, has no or merely a marginal suppressive effect on atopy. Other vaccine components such as egg proteins, gelatin, and antibiotics are a potential hazard to children with severe clinical reactions to these allergens. These rare children should be vaccinated under special precautions. In conclusion, vaccination programs do not explain the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases, but individual children may uncommonly develop an allergic reaction to a vaccine. The risks of not vaccinating children, however, far outweigh the risk for allergy. Therefore, childhood vaccination remains an essential part of child health programs and should not be withheld, even from children predisposed for allergy. [source]


Skeletal age, dental age, and the maturation of KNM-WT 15000

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
Shelley L. Smith
Abstract The skeleton of the Homo erectus boy from West Lake Turkana, Kenya (KNM-WT 15000), is remarkably complete, and this individual has thus provided a case study for several researchers examining Homo erectus growth. Using data from a longitudinal study of Montreal French-Canadian children, it is shown that while dental and skeletal ages match reasonably well at the level of a sample of children, individuals can display differences between skeletal and dental ages of 2 years or more. Furthermore, the relationship between these two markers may change over time in individual children. It is also possible to find children with patterns of dental maturation similar to KNM-WT 15000's pattern in the Montreal sample. Therefore, neither the discrepancy between skeletal age and dental age alone nor the pattern of dental maturation as assessed by dental stages precludes a human-like pattern of growth, including an adolescent growth spurt, for this individual. Some indicators (e.g., estimated body size for predicted age, and enamel formation) do suggest possible growth-patterning differences from modern humans, and therefore earlier maturation is a reasonable hypothesis, but caution is warranted, given the large degree of modern human variation in developmental markers and the inherent uncertainty in precise estimation of KNM-WT 15000's maturational parameters. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


The development of arithmetical abilities

THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 1 2005
Brian Butterworth
Background:, Arithmetical skills are essential to the effective exercise of citizenship in a numerate society. How these skills are acquired, or fail to be acquired, is of great importance not only to individual children but to the organisation of formal education and its role in society. Method:, The evidence on the normal and abnormal developmental progression of arithmetical abilities is reviewed; in particular, evidence for arithmetical ability arising from innate specific cognitive skills (innate numerosity) vs. general cognitive abilities (the Piagetian view) is compared. Results:, These include evidence from infancy research, neuropsychological studies of developmental dyscalculia, neuroimaging and genetics. The development of arithmetical abilities can be described in terms of the idea of numerosity , the number of objects in a set. Early arithmetic is usually thought of as the effects on numerosity of operations on sets such as set union. The child's concept of numerosity appears to be innate, as infants, even in the first week of life, seem to discriminate visual arrays on the basis of numerosity. Development can be seen in terms of an increasingly sophisticated understanding of numerosity and its implications, and in increasing skill in manipulating numerosities. The impairment in the capacity to learn arithmetic , dyscalculia , can be interpreted in many cases as a deficit in the concept in the child's concept of numerosity. The neuroanatomical bases of arithmetical development and other outstanding issues are discussed. Conclusions:, The evidence broadly supports the idea of an innate specific capacity for acquiring arithmetical skills, but the effects of the content of learning, and the timing of learning in the course of development, requires further investigation. [source]


The experiences of disabled pupils and their families

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, Issue 4 2007
Ann Lewis
In this article, Ann Lewis, Professor of Education at the University of Birmingham, and Ian Davison, Jean Ellins, Louise Niblett, Sarah Parsons, Christopher Robertson and Jeremy Sharpe from the research team provide a summary of discussions and selected recommendations arising from four linked projects run between 2004 and 2006. The projects were funded by the Disability Rights Commission (DRC) and looked into the experiences of disabled pupils and their families across England, Scotland and Wales. A central aim of the research was to identify the key concerns and priorities in relation to their experiences of education for children and young people with special educational needs (SEN) or disabilities and their families in the UK. The research encompassed a UK-wide parent survey (N=1776); in-depth case studies of individual children and young people (N=36); group case studies (of, for example, school councils) (N=3); and a series of project advisory groups involving disabled people. Underlying these aspects was an emphasis on the importance and validity of hearing directly from (potentially all) children and young people themselves. Thus the work meshes closely with initiatives worldwide concerning the recognition of children's,voice'in matters that concern them. The authors are not aware of any comparable evidence which focuses in-depth on a wide cross-section of pupils with disabilities or special needs and their families in the UK-wide educational context and which is located alongside concurrent authoritative data concerning the views of parents and carers. [source]


Disabled Children and Residential Schools: The Implications for Local Education Professionals

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2003
Jenny Morris
Jenny Morris, freelance researcher, David Abbott, research associate at the Norah Fry Research Centre at the University of Bristol, and Linda Ward, Director of the Norah Fry Research Centre at the University of Bristol, carried out research to look at whether the current system of legislation and regulation is adequately protecting and promoting the interests of disabled children placed at residential schools. This article summarises some findings from the research which investigated the decision-making processes leading to residential special school placements and explored the involvement of education and social services authorities after placements have been made. The research found that the needs of individual children are not central to these decision-making processes; and that the local authorities who make such placements do not pay sufficient attention to protecting and promoting children's educational or care needs once they have gone away to school. Jenny Morris, David Abbott and Linda Ward indicate some of the ways in which current practice could be improved; make recommendations for future developments; and call for further research into the role of special residential schools in the context of policy on educational and social inclusion. [source]


Foster fathers: their experiences and contributions to fostering

CHILD & FAMILY SOCIAL WORK, Issue 1 2007
Kate Wilson
ABSTRACT The paper reports some of the findings of an exploratory study that looks at foster fathers' experiences of fostering and discusses their routes into foster care and their perspectives on their roles and tasks. The study collected quantitative and qualitative data by approaching all foster fathers registered with a single independent fostering agency based in south-east England. They were asked about their personal and professional attributes, and their experiences of and views concerning the role of a foster father. The study discusses the foster fathers' motivation to foster, and argues that what they see as the benefits and drawbacks of fostering, and how it fits into their own family lives, are all relevant to improving service recruitment, delivery and retention. The study produced some evidence about the distinctive and positive contribution that foster fathers see themselves making to the lives of the children they foster. Further research is needed to refine our knowledge of what this contribution may be. Such knowledge could potentially develop our understanding of the roles of fathers in child development more generally as well as fine-tuning practice in matching what particular placements have to offer to the needs of individual children. [source]


Helping parents by working with their children in individual child therapy

CHILD & FAMILY SOCIAL WORK, Issue 3 2001
Kate Wilson
ABSTRACT The paper describes a small scale pilot process and outcome study that was undertaken at the University of York. The study is based on accounts of treatment interventions with children conducted by trainee play therapists studying on the University's programme in non-directive play therapy. These are being used to develop a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of non-directive play therapy as an intervention for distressed and maltreated children. The focus of this paper is on one finding of the study, namely that play therapy undertaken with individual children, in addition to bringing about improvements in the children's problems, may improve their parents' parenting behaviour if they are appropriately involved in the therapy. The paper describes the cases and their outcomes at a 6-month follow-up. It illustrates the finding of changes in parenting behaviour through three case studies, and discusses the kinds of changes, possible reasons for them, and necessary practice requirements if these changes are to take place. The paper concludes that engaging parents in a broadly collaborative effort may be facilitated by a primary initial focus on their children. [source]


A Unified Theory of Development: A Dialectic Integration of Nature and Nurture

CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2010
Arnold Sameroff
The understanding of nature and nurture within developmental science has evolved with alternating ascendance of one or the other as primary explanations for individual differences in life course trajectories of success or failure. A dialectical perspective emphasizing the interconnectedness of individual and context is suggested to interpret the evolution of developmental science in similar terms to those necessary to explain the development of individual children. A unified theory of development is proposed to integrate personal change, context, regulation, and representational models of development. [source]


Measurement Properties of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories at Ages One and Two Years

CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2000
Heidi M. Feldman
In a prospective study of child development in relation to early-life otitis media, we administered the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) to a large (N = 2,156), sociodemographically diverse sample of 1- and 2-year-old children. As a prerequisite for interpreting the CDI scores, we studied selected measurement properties of the inventories. Scores on the CDI/Words and Gestures (CDI-WG), designed for children 8 to 16 months old, and on the CDI/Words and Sentences (CDI-WS), designed for children 16 to 30 months old, increased significantly with months of age. On several scales of both CDI-WG and CDI-WS, standard deviations approximated or exceeded mean values, reflecting wide variability in results. Statistically significant differences in mean scores were found according to race, maternal education, and health insurance status as an indirect measure of income, but the directionality of differences was not consistent across inventories or across scales of the CDI-WS. Correlations between CDI-WG and CDI-WS ranged from .18 to .39. Our findings suggest that the CDI reflects the progress of language development within the age range 10 to 27 months. However, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution in using results of the CDI to identify individual children at risk for language deficits, to compare groups of children with different sociodemographic profiles, or to evaluate the effects of interventions. [source]