Individual Channels (individual + channel)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Diffractive imaging for periodic samples: retrieving one-dimensional concentration profiles across microfluidic channels

Oliver Bunk
A technique has been developed that allows determination of the concentration profiles of colloidal solutions or any kind of fluid under confinement. Currently, submicrometre-wide channels are sampled with a resolution in the 10,nm range. The method comprises regular arrays of microfluidic channels and one-dimensional X-ray phase-retrieval techniques for the analysis of small-angle X-ray diffraction from the array structures. Recording the X-ray diffraction data requires a low dose on each individual channel since the sum of the signals from all channels is detected. The determined concentration profiles represent the ensemble average rather than individual entities and are obtained in a model-independent way. As an example, amplitude and phase of the exit field and concentration profiles for a colloidal fluid within confining channels of different widths are shown. [source]

Tidal estuary width convergence: Theory and form in North Australian estuaries

Gareth Davies
Abstract In order to better understand the relations between tidal estuary shape and geomorphic processes, the width profiles of 79 tidal channels from within 30 estuaries in northern Australia have been extracted from LANDSAT 5 imagery using GIS. Statistics describing the shape and width convergence of individual channels and entire estuaries (which can contain several channels) are analysed along with proxies for the tidal range and fluvial inputs of the estuaries in question. The width profiles of most individual channels can be reasonably approximated with an exponential curve, and this is also true of the width profiles of estuaries. However, the shape of this exponential width profile is strongly related to the mouth width of the system. Channels and estuaries with larger mouths generally exhibit a more pronounced ,funnel shape' than those with narrower mouths, reflecting the hydrodynamic importance of the distance over which the channel or estuarine width converges. At the estuarine scale, this ,convergence length' also tends to be higher in estuaries which have larger catchments relative to their size. No clear relation between the estuarine width convergence length and tidal range could be discerned within the Northern Australian estuaries although, when these data are combined with data from other studies, a weak relationship emerges. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A new technique for angle-dispersive powder diffraction using an energy-dispersive setup and synchrotron radiation

Yanbin Wang
A new diffraction technique for combined angle- and energy-dispersive structural analysis and refinement (CAESAR), by collecting angle-dispersive data using a solid-state detector (SSD) and white synchrotron radiation, is introduced. By step scanning a well calibrated SSD over a limited 2, range, a series of one-dimensional energy-dispersive data (intensity versus energy) are obtained as a function of 2,. The entire intensity (Int) data set consists of several thousand channels covering a range of photon energies, E (up to ,150,keV), at each of the ,1000 2, steps, forming a 2,4 mega-element two-dimensional array, Int(E, 2,). These intensity data are then regrouped according to photon energies, which are defined in the multichannel SSD as individual channels, yielding a large number of intensity versus 2, (angle-dispersive) data sets, Int(E = const., 2,), each of which corresponds to a given photon energy or wavelength. The entire data set, selected subsets or composite scans can be used for multiple data set Rietveld refinement. Data collected both on ,-Al2O3 (a NIST diffraction standard) at ambient conditions and on a mixture of MgO and Au at high pressure were analyzed using the Rietveld technique, with varying schemes of data treatment. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that data within certain energy bands (,E/E = ±10%) may be binned together to improve counting statistics in a composite angle-dispersive scan, even when collected with much coarser scan steps of 0.1 or 0.2°. This technique is useful for high-pressure as well as general purpose powder diffraction studies that have limited X-ray access to the sample using synchrotron radiation. Several advantages are discussed. [source]

Reversal of Atrial Remodeling after Cardioversion of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Measured with Magnetocardiography

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes electrical, functional, and structural changes in the atria. We examined electrophysiologic remodeling caused by AF and its reversal noninvasively by applying a new atrial signal analysis based on magnetocardiography (MCG). Methods: In 26 patients with persistent AF, MCG, signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG), and echocardiography were performed immediately after electrical cardioversion (CV), and repeated after 1 month in 15 patients who remained in sinus rhythm (SR). Twenty-four matched subjects without history of AF served as controls. P-wave duration (Pd) and dispersion (standard deviation of Pd values in individual channels) and root mean square amplitudes of the P wave over the last 40 ms portions (RMS40) were determined. Results: In MCG Pd was longer (122.8 ± 18.2 ms vs 101.5 ± 14.6 ms, P < 0.01) and RMS40 was higher (60.4 ± 28.2 vs 46.9 ± 19.1 fT) in AF patients immediately after CV as compared to the controls. In SAECG Pd dispersion was increased in AF patients. Mitral A-wave velocity and left atrial (LA) contraction were decreased and LA diameter was increased (all P < 0.01). After 1 month, Pd in MCG still remained longer and LA diameter greater (both P < 0.05), while RMS40 in MCG, Pd dispersion in SAECG, mitral A-wave velocity, and LA contraction were recovered. Conclusions: Magnetocardiographically detected atrial electrophysiologic alterations in persistent AF diminish rapidly although incompletely during maintained SR after CV. This might be related to the known early high and late lower, but still existent tendency to AF relapses. [source]

Electronic structure and transport properties of quantum dots

M. Tews
Abstract The subject of this paper are electronic properties of isolated quantum dots as well as transport properties of quantum dots coupled to two electronic reservoirs. Thereby special focus is put on the effects of Coulomb interaction and possible correlations in the quantum dot states. First, the regime of sequential tunneling to the reservoirs is investigated. It is shown that in case degenerate states participate in transport, the resonance positions in the differential conductance generally depend on temperature and the degree of degeneracy. This effect can be used to directly probe degeneracies in a quantum dot spectrum. A further effect, characteristic for sequential tunneling events, is the complete blocking of individual channels for transport. A generalisation of the well known spin blockade is found for correlated dot states transitions through which are not directly spin-forbidden. In the second part, the electronic structure of spherical quantum dots is calculated. In order to account for correlation effects, the few-particle Schrödinger equation is solved by an exact diagonalization procedure. The calculated electronic structure compares to experimental findings obtained on colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals by Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy. It is found that the electric field induced by the tunneling tip is gives rise to a Stark effect which can break the spherical symmetry of the electronic ground state density which is in agreement with wave-function mapping experiments. The symmetry breaking depends on the competition between exchange energy and the Stark energy. Moreover, a systematic dependence on particle number is found for the excitation energies of optical transitions which explains recent experimental findings on self-organized quantum dots. In the last part, co-tunneling in the Coulomb blockade regime is studied. For this end the tunneling current is calculated up to the forth order perturbation theory in the tunnel coupling by a real-time Green's function approach for the non-equilibrium case. The differential conductance calculated for a quantum dot containing up to two interacting electrons shows complex signatures of the excitation spectrum which are explained by a combination of co-tunneling and sequential tunneling processes. Thereby the calculations show a peak structure within the Coulomb blockade regime which has also been observed in experiment. [source]