Individual Capabilities (individual + capability)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

An innovative approach to the theory and practice of organizational analysis: my journey with Elliott Jaques

Aldo Schlemenson
Abstract This article highlights the author's experience working with Elliott Jaques and his theory for over 35 years in Argentina. It examines the development of Jaques' theoretical approach to organizational theory over two decades, transforming from a psychological to a social theoretical framework. Emphasis is put in the notions of the organizational structure, the hierarchical managerial system, stratification, and the managerial accountability in a manner that allows for a systematic analysis. The "time-span of discretion" instrument is the means for evaluating jobs and for having access to extant organization. This approach allows a process of change combining effectiveness with a humanistic democratization of the workplace and ethics. This article provides examples of projects implemented in the public administration area, verifying the consistency of the theory and its practical applications, in particular concerning individual capabilities, the talent pool, and their evaluation. It contains a Foreword by Dr Carlos Silvani, International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The dietetic treatment of obesity

Alison H. Beattie BSc Hons, SRD Senior Dietitian
Abstract Obesity has a direct, proportional link to morbidity and mortality, and despite the proven medical benefits of weight loss treatment failure rates are high. Historical approaches to weight management within the health service have focused solely on dietary issues. It is now widely accepted that dietary advice given in isolation is ineffective in inducing and sustaining significant weight loss. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disease and any successful weight management programme should provide tailored dietary advice and facilitate permanent behavioural and lifestyle change. In addition, realistic goals (10% body weight loss) should be recommended. Exercise and physical activity suggested should be geared to individual capabilities. This article addresses how dietitians are treating obesity and what factors other than traditional diet sheets are essential components of a weight management programme. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Causes of near misses in critical care of neonates and children

O Tourgeman-Bashkin
Abstract Aim: The primary goal of this study was to examine the nature and causes of medical errors known as almost adverse events (AAEs) and potential adverse events (PAEs) in intensive care units. Methods: Observations were conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in a large hospital in Israel. The AAEs and PAEs were classified into three main categories: environmental, system and human factors. Data encoding and analysis was based on a Bayesian model previously developed to analyse causes of traffic accidents, and the categories were based on systems and ergonomics approaches. Results: ,Workload' (a system factor) was the main cause of AAEs and ,communication failures' (a human factor) was the second main cause of AAEs. Among the environmental factors, ,failures in medical devices' was the most cited cause of AAEs. Environmental factors accounted for most of PAEs and among them ,form failures' was the most ,AAE'-prone factor. Conclusions: Environmental factors (mainly ,failures in medical device') and system factors (mainly ,workload') accounted for most of AAEs in the intensive care units studied. The systems and the ergonomics approaches to error analysis can be useful in creating a comprehensive error management programme in order to minimize the gap between work demands and individual capabilities. [source]

XPC genetic polymorphisms correlate with the response to imatinib treatment in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia,

Vicent M. Guillem
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is driven by the BCR-ABL protein, which promotes the proliferation and viability of the leukemic cells. Moreover, BCR-ABL induces genomic instability that can contribute to the emergence of resistant clones to the ABL kinase inhibitors. It is currently unknown whether the inherited individual capability to repair DNA damage could affect the treatment results. To address this, a comprehensive analysis of single nucleotide polimorfisms (SNPs) on the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes (ERCC2-ERCC8, RPA1-RPA3, LIG1, RAD23B, XPA, XPC) was performed in 92 chronic phase CML patients treated with imatinib upfront. ERCC5 and XPC SNPs correlated with the response to imatinib. Haplotype analysis of XPC showed that the wild-type haplotype (499C-939A) was associated with a better response to imatinib. Moreover, the 5-year failure free survival for CA carriers was significantly better than that of the non-CA carriers (98% vs. 73%; P = 0.02). In the multivariate logistic model with genetic data and clinical covariates, the hemoglobin (Hb) level and the XPC haplotype were independently associated with the treatment response, with patients having a Hb ,11 g/dl (Odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5,16.1) or a non-CA XPC haplotype (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.6,10.6) being at higher risk of suboptimal response/treatment failure. Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the NER pathway may influence the results to imatinib treatment in CML. Am. J. Hematol., 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Gauging the societal impacts of natural disasters using a capability approach

DISASTERS, Issue 3 2010
Paolo Gardoni
There is a widely acknowledged need for a single composite index that provides a comprehensive picture of the societal impact of disasters. A composite index combines and logically organizes important information policy-makers need to allocate resources for the recovery from natural disasters; it can also inform hazard mitigation strategies. This paper develops a Disaster Impact Index (DII) to gauge the societal impact of disasters on the basis of the changes in individuals' capabilities. The DII can be interpreted as the disaster impact per capita. Capabilities are dimensions of individual well-being and refer to the genuine opportunities individuals have to achieve valuable states and activities (such as being adequately nourished or being mobile). After discussing the steps required to construct the DII, this article computes and compares the DIIs for two earthquakes of similar magnitude in two societies at different levels of development and of two disasters (earthquake and wind storm) in the same society. [source]