Individual Cancers (individual + cancers)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Dietary risk factors for upper aerodigestive tract cancers

Christine M. Kasum
Abstract We examined the association between whole-grain intake and incident upper aerodigestive tract cancer in a cohort of 34,651 postmenopausal, initially cancer-free women. We also studied established risk factors for upper aerodigestive cancers, including fruit and vegetable intake, smoking and alcohol intake. A mailed questionnaire at baseline in 1986 included a food-frequency questionnaire and assessment of other cancer risk factors. During the 14-year follow-up period, 169 women developed cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract. For all upper aerodigestive cancers together, significant inverse associations were observed for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of whole grains [relative risk (RR) = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34,0.81] and yellow/orange vegetables (RR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.39,0.87). In addition, those in the highest compared to lowest tertile of fiber intake from whole grain were less likely to develop upper aerodigestive tract cancer (RR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.37,0.84); fiber intake from refined grain was not significantly associated with upper aerodigestive tract cancer. Findings were generally similar for oropharyngeal (n = 53), laryngeal (n = 21), nasopharyngeal/salivary (n = 18), esophageal (n = 21) and gastric (n = 56) cancers, though numbers of cases were too small for statistical testing within individual cancers. These findings confirm previous observations that high intake of fruits and vegetables and that intake of whole grains and the fiber derived from them may reduce risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Estrogen signaling pathway and its imaging in human breast cancer

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 10 2009
Shin-ichi Hayashi
Recent remarkable progress in hormonal therapy has provided great benefit to breast cancer patients, but it also evokes novel issues: how accurately can the efficacy of each hormonal therapy be predicted and how can hormonal therapy,resistant patients be treated? These clinically important issues must be closely related to the biological events in each cancer, such as the alteration of intracellular multiple estrogen signaling pathways and the estrogen-related cancer microenvironment, which has recently revealed by molecular biological studies on estrogen and its receptors. However, the estrogen signaling status in individual breast cancers has not been clarified yet. Here we present the context of these issues and introduce our study of new tools which enable the visualization of estrogen signals in individual cancers. The assessment of estrogen receptor (ER)-, activity in individual cancers or ER-activating ability of the cancer microenvironment in each breast cancer patient revealed several new findings and interesting observations. We hope that these approaches provide new clues about the estrogen-dependent mechanisms of breast cancer development, and will be useful to advance the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer patients. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 1773,1778) [source]

Search for new biomarkers of gastric cancer through serial analysis of gene expression and its clinical implications

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2004
Wataru Yasui
Gastric cancer is one of the most common human cancers and is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death in the world. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful technique to allow genome-wide analysis of gene expression in a quantitative manner without prior knowledge of the gene sequences. SAGE on 5 samples of gastric cancer with different histology and clinical stages have created large SAGE libraries of gastric cancer that enable us to identify new cancer biomarkers. Commonly up-regulated genes in gastric cancer in comparison with normal gastric epithelia included CEACAM6, APOC1 and YF13H12. By comparing gene expression profiles of gastric cancers at early and advanced stages, several genes differentially expressed by tumor stage were also identified, including FUS, CDH17, COL1A1 and COL1A2, which should be novel genetic markers for high-grade malignancy. Regenerating gene type IV (REGIV) is one of the most up-regulated genes in a SAGE library of a scirrhous-type gastric cancer. In vitro studies using RegIV-transfected cells revealed that RegIV is secreted by cancer cells and inhibits apoptosis, suggesting that RegIV may serve as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for gastric cancer. Production of RNA aptamers could be a useful approach to establish a detection system in blood. A custom-made array, named Ex-STO-MACHIP, consisting of 395 genes, including highly differentially expressed genes identified by our SAGE and other known genes related to carcinogenesis and chemosensitivity, is useful to study the molecular pathogenesis of gastric cancer and to obtain information about biological behavior and sensitivity to therapy in the clinical setting. Combined analyses of gene expression profile, genetic polymorphism and genetic instability will aid not only cancer detection, but also characterization of individual cancers and patients, leading to personalized medicine and cancer prevention. [source]

Stem cells and gastric cancer: Role of gastric and intestinal mixed intestinal metaplasia

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2003
Masae Tatematsu
All of the different types of stomach epithelial cells are known to be derived from a single progenitor cell in each gland. Similarly, cancers develop from single cells, based on data from clonality analysis in C3H/HeN , BALB/c chimeric mice. Using gastric and intestinal epithelial cell markers, intestinal metaplasia (IM) can be divided into two major types: a gastric and intestinal (GI) mixed type, and a solely intestinal (I) type. Ectopic expression of Cdx genes and down-regulation of Sox2 in isolated single GI mixed IM glands suggests abnormal differentiation of stem cells that can produce both gastric (G) and I type cells. Similarly, phenotypic expression of gastric cancer cells of each histological type can be clearly classified into G and I type epithelial cells. The heterogeneity of phenotypic expression of gastric cancer cells in individual cancers is assumed to reflect this intrinsic potential for differentiation in two directions. Gastric cancers at early stages, independent of the histological type, mainly consist of G type cells, and phenotypic shift from G to I type expression is clearly observed with progression. The data thus suggest IM may not be a preneoplastic change in gastric carcinoma, but rather that cells of the I type may appear independently in the gastric mucosa in IM and in gastric cancers. Intestinalization of gastric mucosa and cancer cells may represent a kind of homeotic transformation. Whether disturbance of the regulation of Sox2 and Cdx genes may be of importance to the biological behavior of gastric cancers should therefore be clarified in future studies. (Cancer Sci 2003; 94: 135,141) [source]