Individual Branches (individual + branch)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Preventing crown collisions increases the crown cover and leaf area of maturing lodgepole pine

JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
SHAWN X. MENG
Summary 1Crown collisions induced by tree sway are hypothesized to reduce crown closure and leaf area in maturing cold temperate forests. These declines are thought to lead to the decline in productivity when a stand ages. 2We tethered groups of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. Ex Loud. Var. latifolia Engelm.) trees in a web pattern at 10 m height, in four 15-m tall stands in western Alberta, Canada, to determine whether preventing crown collisions would increase crown cover and leaf area. 3The stands all had less than 65% crown closure at the beginning of study. Photographs of the canopy were taken in each control and webbed plot in 1998 and at the same point in 2004. Six years after webbing, crown cover had increased by 14.4%, compared to a 2.1% increase for the control plots. 4Webbing also resulted in significant increases in mean branch length, leaf area per branch and foliage density of individual branches from top and middle sections of the crown. Polishing of branches, caused by chronic contact with adjacent trees, was three times as common on control trees compared to webbed trees. The mean leaf area per tree was larger for the webbed trees. 5Crowns of webbed trees were more symmetrical than those of control trees. Trees from webbed plots, however, had a decline in leaf area density. The branches of control trees were typically curved upward with twigs pointed inward, making the crowns more compact compared to the outwardly expanding crowns of trees from the webbed plots. 6The fact that crowns expanded laterally after webbing, despite little change in light regime, provides strong evidence against the hypothesis that loss of crown closure in maturing stands is caused by a lack of light. 7The study indicates that the decline in crown closure and leaf area in maturing and tall stands is at least partly related to wind-induced sway of trees abrading the edges of crowns. [source]


Crown development in a pioneer tree, Rhus trichocarpa, in relation to the structure and growth of individual branches

NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 4 2006
Noriyuki Osada
Summary ,,Based on an allometric reconstruction, the structure and biomass-allocation patterns of branches and current-year shoots were investigated in branches of various heights in the pioneer tree Rhus trichocarpa, to evaluate how crown development is achieved and limited in association with height. Path analysis was conducted to explore the effects of light availability, basal height and size of individual branches on branch structure and growth. ,,Branch angle was affected by basal height, whereas branch mass was influenced primarily by light availability. This result suggests that branch structure is strongly constrained by basal height, and that trees mediate such constraints under different light environments. ,,Previous-year leaf area and light availability showed positive effects on current-year stem mass. In contrast, branch basal height and mass negatively affected current-year stem mass. Moreover, the length of stems of a given diameter decreased with increasing branch height. Therefore the cost of biomass investment for a unit growth in length is greater for branches of larger size and at upper positions. ,,Vertical growth rate in length decreased with increasing height. Height-dependent changes in stem allometry and angle influenced the reduction in vertical growth rate to a similar degree. [source]


Do individual branches of immune defence correlate?

OIKOS, Issue 2 2003
A comparative case study of scavenging, non-scavenging birds
Costs of immunity are widely believed to play an important role in life history evolution, but most studies of ecological immunology have considered only single aspects of immune function. It is unclear whether we should expect correlated responses in other aspects of immune function not measured, because individual branches of immune defence may differ in their running costs and thus may compete unequally for limiting resources, resulting in negatively correlated evolution. In theory such selection pressure may be most intense where species are hosts to more virulent parasites, thus facing a higher potential cost of parasitism. These issues are relatively unstudied, but could influence the efficacy of attempting to estimate the scale and cost of host investment in immune defence. Here, in a comparative study of birds we found that species that scavenge at carcasses, that were hypothesised to be hosts to virulent parasites, had larger spleens for their body size and higher blood total leukocyte concentrations (general measures of immune function) than non-scavengers. These results support the hypothesis that scavengers are subject to strong parasite-mediated selection on immune defences. However, measures of specific branches of immune function revealed that scavengers had a relatively lower proportion of lymphocytes than phagocytic types of leukocytes, suggesting robust front line immune defences that could potentially reduce the need for mounting relatively energetically costly lymphocyte-dependent immune responses. Following experimental inoculation, scavengers produced significantly larger humoral immune responses, but not cell-mediated immune responses, than non-scavengers. However, the sizes of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses were not correlated across species. These results suggest that single measures of immune defence may not characterise the overall immune strategy, or reveal the likely costs involved. [source]


Structure of intraglomerular dendritic tufts of mitral cells and their contacts with olfactory nerve terminals and calbindin-immunoreactive type 2 periglomerular neurons

THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 3 2001
Katsuko Kosaka
Abstract Intraglomerular dendritic tufts of Golgi-impregnated and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA)-labeled mitral cells in the rat main olfactory bulb were analyzed in detail. In particular, the relationships of BDA-labeled tufts with olfactory nerve (ON) terminals and processes of calbindin D-28K-immunoreactive (CB-IR) cells were investigated with confocal laser-scanning light microscopic (CLSM) and electron microscopic (EM) analyses. CB-IR cells were type 2 periglomerular cells that restricted their processes in the ON-free (non-ON) zone of the glomerulus and received few synapses from ON terminals. The mitral tufts varied in complexity, but individual branches were rather simple, smooth processes that bore some branchlets and spines and extended more or less in a straight line or a gentle curve rather than winding tortuously within glomeruli as though they did not consider the compartmental organization, which consisted of ON and non-ON zones that interdigitated in a complex manner with one another. Conventional EM analysis revealed that both thin and thick, presumed proximal branches of mitral/tufted cell dendritic tufts received asymmetrical synapses from ON terminals. Correlated CLSM-EM analysis confirmed direct contacts between the BDA- and CB-labeled processes detected in the CLSM examinations, and synapses were recognized at some of those sites. Furthermore, ON terminals and CB-IR processes were distributed on both proximal and distal dendritic branches in a more or less mosaic pattern. These findings revealed that, on the mitral dendritic tufts, ON terminals and processes of type 2 periglomerular neurons were not clearly segregated proximodistally but, rather, were arranged in a mosaic pattern, which may be important in fine tuning the output from individual glomeruli. J. Comp. Neurol. 440:219,235, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Transforming a Trade Union?

BRITISH JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, Issue 1 2009
An Assessment of the Introduction of an Organizing Initiative
In 1995 Unison implemented a National Recruitment Plan, and, in 1997, a National Organizing and Recruitment Strategy, with the objective of reversing the decline in union density in the public sector. This article traces the development of these initiatives and assesses their results. The article shows that there is limited involvement of lay representatives in the National Organizing and Recruitment Plan, but that there is a positive relationship between participation in union programmes intended to promote organizing and the performance of individual branches. [source]