Individual Birth (individual + birth)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Genetic parameters for individual birth and weaning weight and for litter size of Large White pigs

D. Kaufmann
Summary Data from a French experimental herd recorded between 1990 and 1997 were used to estimate genetic parameters for individual birth and weaning weight, as well as litter size of Large White pigs using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methodology applied to a multivariate animal model. In addition to fixed effects the model included random common environment of litter, direct and maternal additive genetic effects. The data consisted of 1928 litters including individual weight observations from 18151 animals for birth weight and from 15360 animals for weaning weight with 5% of animals transferred to a nurse. Estimates of direct and maternal heritability and proportion of the common environmental variance for birth weight were 0.02, 0.21 and 0.11, respectively. The corresponding values for weaning weight were 0.08, 0.16 and 0.23 and for litter size 0.22, 0.02 and 0.06, respectively. The direct and the maternal genetic correlations between birth and weaning weight were positive (0.59 and 0.76). Weak positive (negative) genetic correlations between direct effects on weight traits and maternal effects on birth weight (weaning weight) were found. Negative correlations were found between direct genetic effect for litter size and maternal genetic effects on all three traits. The negative relationship between litter size and individual weight requires a combined selection for litter size and weight. Zusammenfassung Daten einer französischen Versuchsherde aus den Jahren 1990 bis 1997 wurden für die Schätzung von genetischen Parametern für individuelles Geburts-, Absetzgewicht und Wurfgrösse bei französischen Large White verwendet. Die Schätzung der Parameter erfolgte mit der Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methode (REML) angewandt auf ein multivariates Tiermodell. Neben fixen Effekten berücksichtigte das Modell die zufällige gemeinsame Wurfumwelt und direkte und maternale additiv genetische Effekte. Der Datensatz bestand aus 1928 Wurfaufzeichnungen mit Angaben zum individuellen Geburtsgewicht von 18151 Tieren und zum Absetzgewicht von 15360 Tieren. Nach der Geburt wurden 5% der Ferkel in einen anderen Wurf versetzt. Die geschätzten Werte für die direkte, die maternale Heritabilität und den Varianzanteil der Wurfumwelt waren für das Geburtsgewicht 0.02, 0.21 und 0.11. Die entsprechenden Werte für das Absetzgewicht waren 0.08, 0.16 und 0.23 und für die Wurfgrösse 0.22, 0.02 und 0.06. Die direkten und die maternalen genetischen Korrelationen zwischen Geburts-und Absetzgewicht waren positiv (0.59 und 0.76). Schwache positive (negative) genetische Korrelationen wurden zwischen den direkten genetischen Effekten auf die Gewichtsmerkmale und dem maternalen genetischen Effekt auf das Geburtsgewicht (Absetzgewicht) gefunden. Negative Korrelationen gab es zwischen dem direkten genetischen Effekt auf die Wurfgrösse und den maternalen genetischen Effekten auf alle drei Merkmale. Die negative Beziehung zwischen Wurfgrösse und individuellem Gewicht verlangt nach einer kombinierten Selektion für Wurfgrösse und Gewicht. [source]

The Impact of Medicaid Managed Care on Pregnant Women in Ohio: A Cohort Analysis

Embry M. Howell
Objective. To examine the impact of mandatory HMO enrollment for Medicaid-covered pregnant women on prenatal care use, smoking, Cesarean section (C-section) use, and birth weight. Data Sources/Study Setting. Linked birth certificate and Medicaid enrollment data from July 1993 to June 1998 in 10 Ohio counties, 6 that implemented mandatory HMO enrollment, and 4 with low levels of voluntary enrollment (under 15 percent). Cuyahoga County (Cleveland) is analyzed separately; the other mandatory counties and the voluntary counties are grouped for analysis, due to small sample sizes. Study Design. Women serve as their own controls, which helps to overcome the bias from unmeasured variables such as health beliefs and behavior. Changes in key outcomes between the first and second birth are compared between women who reside in mandatory HMO enrollment counties and those in voluntary enrollment counties. County of residence is the primary indicator of managed care status, since, in Ohio, women are allowed to "opt out" of HMO enrollment in mandatory counties in certain circumstances, leading to selection. As a secondary analysis, we compare women according to their HMO enrollment status at the first and second birth. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Linked birth certificate/enrollment data were used to identify 4,917 women with two deliveries covered by Medicaid, one prior to the implementation of mandatory HMO enrollment (mid-1996) and one following implementation. Data for individual births were linked over time using a scrambled maternal Medicaid identification number. Principal Findings. The effects of HMO enrollment on prenatal care use and smoking were confined to Cuyahoga County, Ohio's largest county. In Cuyahoga, the implementation of mandatory enrollment was related to a significant deterioration in the timing of initiation of care, but an improvement in the number of prenatal visits. In that county also, women who smoked in their first pregnancy were less likely to smoke during the second pregnancy, compared to women in voluntary counties. Women residing in all the mandatory counties were less likely to have a repeat C-section. There were no effects on infant birth weight. The effects of women's own managed care status were inconsistent depending on the outcome examined; an interpretation of these results is hampered by selection issues. Changes over time in outcomes, both positive and negative, were more pronounced for African American women. Conclusions. With careful implementation and attention to women's individual differences as in Ohio, outcomes for pregnant women may improve with Medicaid managed care implementation. Quality monitoring should continue as Medicaid managed care becomes more widespread. More research is needed to identify the types of health maintenance organization activities that lead to improved outcomes. [source]

Hospitalizations of infants and young children with Down syndrome: evidence from inpatient person-records from a statewide administrative database

S. A. So
Abstract Background Although individuals with Down syndrome are increasingly living into the adult years, infants and young children with the syndrome continue to be at increased risk for health problems. Using linked, statewide administrative hospital discharge records of all infants with Down syndrome born over a 3-year period, this study ,follows forward' over 200 infants with Down syndrome from each individual's birth until they turn 3 years of age. By utilizing this procedure, we were able to assess the amount, reasons for, and timing of inpatient hospitalization and to investigate how congenital heart defects (CHDs) relate to hospitalization for young children with Down syndrome. Method This population-based, retrospective study used statewide administrative hospital discharge data. Subject inclusion criteria included residents of Tennessee, born between 1997 and 1999, and diagnosed with Down syndrome at birth. Inpatient records were linked to create person-record histories of hospitalization from birth to age 3. Main outcomes included the number of Non-birth Hospitalizations, length of stay, principal and other diagnosis codes to indicate reason(s) for hospitalization, and patient's age at first (non-birth) hospitalization. Procedure codes were added to determine if children with CHD were hospitalized primarily for operations on the heart. Results Of 217 births, 213 children survived birth; 54% (115) had CHDs. Almost half (49.8%) of all children were hospitalized before age 3; these 106 children were admitted 245 times. Children with CHDs were 2.31 times more likely to be hospitalized than children without CHDs. Respiratory illnesses affected 64.9% of all hospitalized children with CHD, were the principal diagnoses in 38.3% of their hospitalizations, and were the main principal diagnoses for non-CHD children. Thirty-three (of 77) hospitalized children with CHD underwent cardiac surgeries, accounting for 19.3% of all admissions. Median time to first hospitalization was 96 days (CI: 78,114) for CHD infants, 197 days (CI: 46,347) for non-CHD infants. Conclusions Children with Down syndrome are at high risk for early hospitalization. Prevention and treatment of respiratory illnesses require more attention. Down syndrome is associated with early, serious, physical health problems and substantial inpatient care use. [source]