Individual Behaviour (individual + behaviour)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Density-mediated responses of bark beetles to host allelochemicals: a link between individual behaviour and population dynamics

Kimberly F. Wallin
Abstract ,1. Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) accept or reject host conifers based partly on concentrations of phloem monoterpenes. They colonise trees in aggregations, in response to pheromones that attract flying beetles to trees undergoing colonisation. A series of entry and gallery construction assays was conducted to determine whether responses by individual beetles to monoterpenes are altered by pheromones and/or the presence of other beetles. 2. Entry into the amended media by Ips pini and the length of time until entry were not influenced by the presence of aggregation pheromones. 3. Entry into amended media was influenced by the presence of other beetles on the surface of, or constructing galleries in, the substrate. The effects of alpha-pinene and limonene on host entry behaviour were mediated by the density of beetles on the surface of the assay arena, and by the density of beetles constructing galleries within the medium. 4. The percentage of beetles entering medium amended with higher concentrations of monoterpenes increased with increased density of beetles on the surface of the assay arena, until a threshold density of three or four beetles per assay arena, after which entrance rate declined. 5. The presence of other beetles constructing galleries elicited more rapid entry by the test beetles. 6. Gallery lengths were generally higher in the presence of aggregation pheromones. 7. Gallery lengths increased with increased density of beetles within the assay arena. 8. These results suggest a link between the density of bark beetles and responses of individuals. This linkage may partially explain behavioural changes observed during population eruptions. [source]

Linking habitat selection, emigration and population dynamics of freshwater fishes: a synthesis of ideas and approaches

T. E. McMahon
Abstract,,, The consequences of individual behaviour to dynamics of populations has been a critical question in fish ecology, but linking the two has proven difficult. A modification of Sale's habitat selection model provides a conceptual linkage for relating resource availability and individual habitat selection to exploratory behaviour, emigration and population-level responses. Whole-population experiments with pupfish Cyprinodon macularius that linked all factors along this resource to population continuum lend support to this conceptual model, and illustrate that emigration may be much more common in fish populations than considered in most individual- or population-based models. Accommodating emigration can enhance the ecological appropriateness of behavioural experiments and increase confidence in extrapolation of experimental observations to population-level effects. New experimental designs and advancing technologies offer avenues for assessing population consequences of habitat selection and emigration by individual fish. Emigration often is the key linkage between individual behaviour and population responses, and greater understanding of the underlying factors affecting this often-overlooked demographic parameter could offer new approaches for management and conservation of fishes. [source]

The necessity of observing real life situations: Palestinian-Israeli violence as a laboratory for learning about social behaviour

Dr Daniel Bar-Tal
Social psychology emerged in the early part of the last century as a distinct discipline that focused on the study of social behaviour of individuals and collectives. Over time, however, social psychology has relatively ignored the ,social' part of the equation and has become mainly concerned with individual behaviour. The major part of social psychological research was carried out in the artificial context of the experimental laboratory. Studying social behaviour in real life contexts is essential, not only to return social psychology to its roots, but also to ensure that our contributions are both theoretically rich and socially valuable. Observation of real life situations is essential if we want to advance our understanding of how individuals and collectives behave. To illustrate the importance of a contextually rich social psychology and the usefulness of natural observations, the recent violent confrontation between the Israelis and the Palestinians is described and analysed, focusing on social behaviours of Israeli Jews. In conclusion, it is argued that social psychology should strive towards equilibrium between natural and experimental approaches, between personal and contextual emphases and between micro and macro perspectives. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Attitude-behaviour consistency: the role of group norms, attitude accessibility, and mode of behavioural decision-making

Joanne R. Smith
The interplay between two perspectives that have recently been applied in the attitude area,the social identity approach to attitude-behaviour relations (Terry & Hogg, 1996) and the MODE model (Fazio, 1990a),was examined in the present research. Two experimental studies were conducted to examine the role of group norms, group identification, attitude accessibility, and mode of behavioural decision-making in the attitude-behaviour relationship. In Study 1 (N,=,211), the effects of norms and identification on attitude-behaviour consistency as a function of attitude accessibility and mood were investigated. Study 2 (N,=,354) replicated and extended the first experiment by using time pressure to manipulate mode of behavioural decision-making. As expected, the effects of norm congruency varied as a function of identification and mode of behavioural decision-making. Under conditions assumed to promote deliberative processing (neutral mood/low time pressure), high identifiers behaved in a manner consistent with the norm. No effects emerged under positive mood and high time pressure conditions. In Study 2, there was evidence that exposure to an attitude-incongruent norm resulted in attitude change only under low accessibility conditions. The results of these studies highlight the powerful role of group norms in directing individual behaviour and suggest limited support for the MODE model in this context. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The influence of predatory fish on mayfly drift: extrapolating from experiments to nature

1.,A knowledge of how individual behaviour affects populations in nature is needed to understand many ecologically important processes, such as the dispersal of larval insects in streams. The influence of chemical cues from drift-feeding fish on the drift dispersal of mayflies has been documented in small experimental channels (i.e. < 3 m), but their influence on dispersal in natural systems (e.g. 30 m stream reaches) is unclear. 2.,Using surveys in 10 Rocky Mountain streams in Western Colorado we examined whether the effects of predatory brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) on mayfly drift, that were apparent in stream-side channels, could also be detected in natural streams. 3.,In channel experiments, the drift of Baetis bicaudatus (Baetidae) was more responsive to variation in the concentration of chemical cues from brook trout than that of another mayfly, Epeorus deceptivus (Heptageniidae). The rate of brook trout predation on drifting mayflies of both species in a 2-m long observation tank was higher during the day (60,75%) but still measurable at night (5,10%). Epeorus individuals released into the water column were more vulnerable to trout predation by both day and night than were Baetis larvae treated similarly. 4.,Drift of all mayfly taxa in five fishless streams was aperiodic, whereas their drift was nocturnal in five trout streams. The propensity of mayflies to drift was decreased during the day and increased during the night in trout streams compared with fishless streams. In contrast to the channel experiments, fish biomass and density did not alter the nocturnal nature nor magnitude of mayfly drift in natural streams. 5.,In combination, these results indicate that mayflies respond to subtle differences in concentration of fish cues in experimental channels. However, temporal and spatial variation in fish cues available to mayflies in natural streams may have obscured our ability to detect responses at larger scales. [source]

Perceptions of Effectiveness of Responses to Sexual Harassment in the US Military, 1988 and 1995

Juanita M. Firestone
This analysis compares patterns of response to the harassment experiences that had the greatest effect on the respondents to the ,1988 Department of Defense (DoD) Survey of Sex Roles in the Active-Duty Military' and Form A of the ,1995 Armed Forces Sexual Harassment Survey'. We analyse the respondents' perceptions about effectiveness of their responses, and respondents' opinions about the efforts of senior military leadership, and their own immediate supervisors' efforts to ,make honest and reasonable efforts to stop sexual harassment in the active-duty military' (DoD, 1988; Bastian et al., 1996). Results indicate that while the military has been somewhat successful in attempts to lower actual incidence of sexual harassment, the percentage of those experiencing such uninvited and unwanted behaviours remains high. Similar patterns of responses in both years, with most employing personal solutions and few filing complaints with officials, may reflect the fact that official DoD policy focuses on individual behaviour and does not address the masculine environmental context that promotes such behaviours (see also Harrell and Miller, 1997). Findings also suggest that the ,no tolerance' policies adopted by the military may concentrate on the military image but ignore the wishes of the complainants who fear reprisals. If the rights and wishes of all parties involved are not taken into account, policies are unlikely to be successful (see, for example, Rowe, 1996). [source]

Training as a vehicle to empower carers in the community: more than a question of information sharing

MSc (Econ), Nicholas Clarke BSc MSc
Abstract Much confusion still surrounds the concept of empowerment and how it is to be translated into practice within the context of community care for service users and carers. A major limitation has been the tendency to treat empowerment as synonymous with participation in decision-making with little attention given to the ,ecological' model of empowerment where linkages have been found between community participation and measures of psychological empowerment. Training has been suggested as a means through which carers might become empowered, yet to date little empirical evidence has appeared within the literature to support this proposition. This study investigated whether attendance on a training programme to empower carers resulted in improvements in carers' levels of perceived control, self-efficacy and self-esteem as partial measures of psychological empowerment. The findings demonstrated that whereas carers' knowledge of services and participation increased as a result of the programme, no changes were found in measures of carer empowerment. The failure to consider how training needs to be designed in order to achieve changes in individual competence and self-agency are suggested as the most likely explanation for the lack of change observed in carers' psychological empowerment. It is suggested that community care agencies should focus greater energies in determining how the policy objectives of empowerment are to be achieved through training, and in so doing make far more explicit the supposed linkages between training content, design, and its posited impact on individual behaviour or self-agency. [source]

Nest predators affect spatial dynamics of breeding red-backed shrikes (Lanius collurio)

Staffan Roos
Summary 1Predation may be a strong selective factor affecting individual behaviour and life histories. However, few studies have investigated whether predators affect breeding habitat selection of prey species. 2We tested whether breeding habitat selection and reproduction of a tropical migrant, the red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio L.), was related to the presence of breeding pairs of its potential nest predators, magpie (Pica pica L.), hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix L.) and jackdaw (C. monedula L.). 3Only magpie and hooded crow territories were associated with an elevated risk of predation based on an artificial nest experiment with nests mimicking red-backed shrike nests. Predation risk on real red-backed shrike nests was also higher close to nests of hooded crow and magpie than elsewhere in the landscape. 4Occupation frequency of known red-backed shrike territory sites during 3 years of study increased with increasing mean distance to the nearest magpie nest. 5Changes in spatial distribution of corvids affected the spatial distribution of red-backed shrikes. Vacant red-backed shrike territory sites were more likely to become occupied in the next year when magpie and hooded crows had moved away from the site, while occupied sites were more likely to be abandoned in the next year when at least hooded crows had moved closer. 6Our results suggest that breeding territories of nest predators may affect breeding habitat selection of prey species. Thus, a large part of an observed spatial dynamics of prey species may be caused by a corresponding spatial dynamics of predators. Because sink territories are occupied more irregularly than source territories, we suggest that the dynamics in predator sinks may be the driving force of the spatial dynamics of prey species. [source]

Privacy and Commercial Use of Personal Data: Policy Developments in the United States

Priscilla Regan
In the online and offline worlds, the value of personal information , especially information about commercial purchases and preferences , has long been recognised. Exchanges and uses of personal information have also long sparked concerns about privacy. Public opinion surveys consistently indicate that overwhelming majorities of the American public are concerned that they have lost all control over information about themselves and do not trust organisations to protect the privacy of their information. Somewhat smaller majorities favour federal legislation to protect privacy. Despite public support for stronger privacy protection, the prevailing policy stance for over thirty years has been one of reluctance to legislate and a preference for self-regulation by business to protect privacy. Although some privacy legislation has been adopted, policy debates about the commercial uses of personal information have been dominated largely by business concerns about intrusive government regulation, free speech and the flow of commercial information, costs, and effectiveness. Public concerns about privacy, reflected in public opinion surveys and voiced by a number of public interest groups, are often discredited because individuals seem to behave as though privacy is not important. Although people express concern about privacy, they routinely disclose personal information because of convenience, discounts and other incentives, or a lack of understanding of the consequences. This disconnect between public opinion and public behaviour has been interpreted to support a self-regulatory approach to privacy protections with emphasis on giving individuals notice and choice about information practices. In theory the self-regulatory approach also entails some enforcement mechanism to ensure that organisations are doing what they claim, and a redress mechanism by which individuals can seek compensation if they are wronged. This article analyses the course of policy formulation over the last twenty years with particular attention on how policymakers and stakeholders have used public opinion about the commercial use of personal information in formulating policy to protect privacy. The article considers policy activities in both Congress and the Federal Trade Commission that have resulted in an emphasis on "notice and consent." The article concludes that both individual behaviour and organisational behaviour are skewed in a privacy invasive direction. People are less likely to make choices to protect their privacy unless these choices are relatively easy, obvious, and low cost. If a privacy protection choice entails additional steps, most rational people will not take those steps. This appears logically to be true and to be supported by behaviour in the physical world. Organisations are unlikely to act unilaterally to make their practices less privacy invasive because such actions will impose costs on them that are not imposed on their competitors. Overall then, the privacy level available is less than what the norms of society and the stated preferences of people require. A consent scheme that is most protective of privacy imposes the largest burden on the individual, as well as costs to the individual, while a consent scheme that is least protective of privacy imposes the least burden on the individual, as well as fewer costs to the individual. Recent experience with privacy notices that resulted from the financial privacy provisions in Gramm-Leach-Bliley supports this conclusion. Finally, the article will consider whether the terrorist attacks of 11 September have changed public opinion about privacy and what the policy implications of any changes in public opinion are likely to be. [source]

Ethical control and cultural change (in cultural dreams begin organizational responsibilities)

Slawomir Magala
Ethical control is based on transparent access to the accounts of responsible behaviour on the part of individual and organizational actors. It is usually linked to the idea of a checkpoint: where celibate rules, no sexual interaction can be allowed. However, organizing and managing climates in professional bureaucracies have always led towards the empowerment of the operatives (regional bishops and local parish priests in the case of the Catholic Church). History of the church is repeated by corporate bureaucracies in the wake of the globalized and individualized multimedia communications, ushering in the era of hyper-connectivity and traceability of individual behaviour. From industrial camera records at the parking lot or building entrance to the Google analysis of surfing behaviour, all of us generate public confessions and see more private acts subjected to the public ethical clearings. Universities, like hospitals, airlines and armies before them, had to enter the game of cognitive and institutional conscience game with codes of conduct and other digital tablets with 10 or more commandments. What about the gravest capital and collective sins of our societies translated daily into millions of unethical behaviours? Inequalities and injustices usually circle around gender, race, poverty and nature. Charity begins in heart and mind, but requires cultural change and a humanist coefficient in educational and socializing interactions. Stock options of arts and humanities as the prime suppliers of applied ethical procedures in educational settings should/will go up. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A critical analysis of UK public health policies in relation to diet and nutrition in low-income households

Pamela Attree phd
Abstract Diet and nutrition, particularly among low-income groups, is a key public health concern in the UK. Low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption, and obesity, especially among children, have potentially severe consequences for the future health of the nation. From a public health perspective, the UK government's role is to help poorer families make informed choices within healthy frameworks for living. However, the question is , to what extent are such policies in accordance with lay experiences of managing diet and nutrition on a low-income? This paper critically examines contemporary public health policies aimed at improving diet and nutrition, identifying the underlying theories about the influences on healthy eating in poor families, and exploring the extent to which these assumptions are based on experiential accounts. It draws on two qualitative systematic reviews , one prioritizing low-income mothers' accounts of ,managing' in poverty; and the other focusing on children's perspectives. The paper finds some common ground between policies and lay experiences, but also key divergencies. Arguably, the emphasis of public health policy on individual behaviour, coupled with an ethos of empowered consumerism, underplays material limitations on ,healthy eating' for low-income mothers and children. Health policies fail to take into account the full impact of structural influences on food choices, or recognize the social and emotional factors that influence diet and nutrition. In conclusion, it is argued that while health promotion campaigns to improve low-income families' diets do have advantages, these are insufficient to outweigh the negative effects of poverty on nutrition. [source]

Cultural competence: a conceptual framework for teaching and learning

Conny Seeleman
Objectives, The need to address cultural and ethnic diversity issues in medical education as a means to improve the quality of care for all has been widely emphasised. Cultural competence has been suggested as an instrument with which to deal with diversity issues. However, the implementation of culturally competent curricula appears to be difficult. We believe the development of curricula would profit from a framework that provides a practical translation of abstract educational objectives and that is related to competencies underlying the medical curriculum in general. This paper proposes such a framework. Methods, The framework illustrates the following cultural competencies: knowledge of epidemiology and the differential effects of treatment in various ethnic groups; awareness of how culture shapes individual behaviour and thinking; awareness of the social context in which specific ethnic groups live; awareness of one's own prejudices and tendency to stereotype; ability to transfer information in a way the patient can understand and to use external help (e.g. interpreters) when needed, and ability to adapt to new situations flexibly and creatively. Discussion, The framework indicates important aspects in taking care of an ethnically diverse patient population. It shows that there are more dimensions to delivering high-quality care than merely the cultural. Most cultural competencies emphasise a specific aspect of a generic competency that is of extra importance when dealing with patients from different ethnic groups. We hope our framework contributes to the further development of cultural competency in medical curricula. [source]

Intraspecific variation in movement patterns: modeling individual behaviour in a large marine predator

OIKOS, Issue 1 2004
Deborah Austin
In large marine predators, foraging entails movement. Quantitative models reveal how behaviours can mediate individual movement, such that deviations from a random pattern may reveal specific search tactics or behaviour. Using locations for 52 grey seals fitted with satellite-linked recorders on Sable Island; we modeled movement as a correlated random walk (CRW) for individual animals, at two temporal scales. Mean move length, turning angle, and net squared displacement (R2n: the rate of change in area over time) at successive moves over 3 to 10 months were calculated. The distribution of move lengths of individual animals was compared to a Lévy distribution to determine if grey seals use a Lévy flight search tactic. Grey seals exhibited three types of movement as determined by CRW model fit: directed movers , animals displaying directed long distance travel that were significantly underpredicted by the CRW (23% of animals); residents , animals remaining in the area surrounding Sable Island that were overpredicted by the model (29% of animals); and correlated random walkers , those (48% of animals) in which movement was predicted by the CRW model. Kernel home range size differed significantly among all three movement types, as did travel speed, mean move length, mean R2n and total distance traveled. Sex and season of deployment were significant predictors of movement type, with directed movers more likely to be male and residents more likely to be female. Only 30% of grey seals fit a Lévy distribution, which suggests that food patches used by the majority of seals are not randomly distributed. Intraspecific variation in movement behaviour is an important characteristic in grey seal foraging ecology, underscoring the need to account for such variability in developing models of habitat use and predation. [source]

The Sequential Prisoner's Dilemma: Evidence on Reciprocation

Kenneth Clark
We investigate how fairness concerns influence individual behaviour in social dilemmas. Using a Sequential Prisoner's Dilemma experiment we analyse the extent to which co-operation is conditional on first-mover co-operation, repetition, economic incentives, subject pool (United Kingdom vs. United States) and gender. We find the most important variable influencing co-operation is the first-mover's choice, supporting the argument that co-operative behaviour in social dilemmas reflects reciprocation rather than unconditional altruism. However, we also find that co-operation decreases with repetition, and reciprocation falls as its material cost rises. [source]

Theories in anthropology and ,anthropological theory'

Roy Ellen
What makes a theory ,anthropological' beyond it being a theory that anthropologists use? Assuming a framework that understands anthropology in its broadest sense, this article invites us to remind ourselves what theories are actually supposed to do. Distinguishing theories in terms of the scale of presumption in their claims, it argues for a pyramid of nested levels of explanation. As we move from the base to the tip of the pyramid, so our explanations and interpretation of data must become increasingly simple to accommodate the forms of measurement that each level demands. Given this model, how can evolutionary theories based on individual behaviour geared to immediate survival and reproduction be reconciled with theories that best explain the uncertainties of ,emergent systems', or that consider how individual actions are in turn constrained by the systems of which they are part? It is concluded that anthropology has always acquired its vitality by being critically ,conjunctural', and must be ultimately and necessarily a strategic cross-disciplinary theoretical compromise. Résumé Qu'est-ce qui rend une théorie « anthropologique », en dehors du fait que les anthropologues l'utilisent ? En posant une acception aussi large que possible de l'anthropologie, l'article invite à se rappeler à quoi servent en réalité les théories. En distinguant les théories par le niveau de conjecture de leurs affirmations, l'auteur propose une pyramide de niveaux d'explication imbriqués. En progressant de la base au sommet de la pyramide, les attentes et l'interprétation des données doivent devenir de plus en plus simples, afin de prendre en compte les formes de mesure exigées à chaque niveau. Sur la base de ce modèle, comment les théories évolutionnistes, basées sur des comportements individuels visant la survie et la reproduction immédiates, peuvent-elles être conciliées avec celles qui expliquent, au mieux, les incertitudes des « systèmes émergents » ou qui examinent la façon dont les actions individuelles sont contraintes par les systèmes dans lesquels elles s'inscrivent ? L'auteur conclut que l'anthropologie a toujours acquis sa vitalité par une approche « conjoncturelle » critique et qu'elle doit être en fin de compte, par nécessité, un compromis théorique stratégique transdisciplinaire. [source]


This article deals with how business cycles can occur, in light of character traits which influence individual behaviour in an economy. We assume an overlapping generations model in which every consumer has identical instantaneous utility which is additively separable with respect to time. The parameters of utility here include character traits which influence the choice between consumption and savings. In this situation, young individuals choose between current consumption and current savings which lead to future consumption in their old age. Individual character traits, which appear both in the shape of utility functions and in evaluations about utility in the future, affect these choices. And since these choices determine savings, individual character traits can eventually determine how our economy moves. Focusing on the relationship between individual character traits and savings formation, we demonstrate that endogenous business cycles with two periods can occur, in an economy comprised of individuals who opt for current consumption and who are careless in relation to future events, like Aesopian grasshoppers, and in other cases they do not. [source]

Causes and consequences of animal dispersal strategies: relating individual behaviour to spatial dynamics

Diana E. Bowler
ABSTRACT Knowledge of the ecological and evolutionary causes of dispersal can be crucial in understanding the behaviour of spatially structured populations, and predicting how species respond to environmental change. Despite the focus of much theoretical research, simplistic assumptions regarding the dispersal process are still made. Dispersal is usually regarded as an unconditional process although in many cases fitness gains of dispersal are dependent on environmental factors and individual state. Condition-dependent dispersal strategies will often be superior to unconditional, fixed strategies. In addition, dispersal is often collapsed into a single parameter, despite it being a process composed of three interdependent stages: emigration, inter-patch movement and immigration, each of which may display different condition dependencies. Empirical studies have investigated correlates of these stages, emigration in particular, providing evidence for the prevalence of conditional dispersal strategies. Ill-defined use of the term ,dispersal', for movement across many different spatial scales, further hinders making general conclusions and relating movement correlates to consequences at the population level. Logistical difficulties preclude a detailed study of dispersal for many species, however incorporating unrealistic dispersal assumptions in spatial population models may yield inaccurate and costly predictions. Further studies are necessary to explore the importance of incorporating specific condition-dependent dispersal strategies for evolutionary and population dynamic predictions. [source]

Institutions, Inequality and Social Norms: Explaining Variations in Participation

Michael Lister
This article seeks to explain why electoral participation varies over time and space. It develops a hypothesis that one factor is the nature of social citizenship rights, which relates to welfare state provision. The article argues that institutions shape and influence social norms and, in so doing, affect individual behaviour. Rights which are more universal in nature encourage norms of solidarity and participation in ways that more residual systems do not. Therefore, where welfare states are more universalist in nature, we should see higher levels of participation. I use inequality rates as a measure of welfare state outputs to investigate this and find a significant negative relationship between inequality and electoral turnout. This suggests that the nature of welfare state institutions has an effect upon individuals' political behaviour. [source]

Tax credits, insurance, and the use of medical care

Michael Smart
Little is known about the effects of such tax measures on individual behaviour, in contrast to the extensive research on the tax exemption for employer-provided health insurance. In this paper, we exploit variation in the after-tax cost of health expenditures under the tax law to estimate the tax price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs, health insurance, and other eligible expenditures. We find evidence of moderate to large tax price elasticities, compared with traditional point-of-service price elasticity estimates , despite the apparent differences in the way tax subsidies are experienced by consumers. In contrast, we find no evidence the tax subsidy affects demand for health insurance on the intensive margin, which we show is consistent with the theory of optimal self-insurance. We discuss the implications of our results for recent proposals to reform public and private health insurance systems. JEL classification: I1, H2 Crédits d'impôt, assurance et l'utilisation des soins médicaux., Les systèmes d'impôt sur le revenu des particuliers au Canada, aux Etats-Unis et ailleurs permettent des déductions ou crédits d'impôt pour les dépenses directes en soins de santé assumées par les particuliers ou pour les primes d'assurance privée. On connaît mal les effets de ces mesures fiscales sur le comportement des personnes par comparaison avec les résultats extensifs de la recherche sur les effets des exemptions fiscales pour l'assurance santé fournie par les employeurs. Dans ce texte, on utilise la variation dans le fardeau des dépenses pour la santé après impôt selon les diverses juridictions pour évaluer l'élasticité de la demande de médicaments d'ordonnance, de l'assurance santé, et d'autres dépenses éligibles en réponse à des différences de prix fiscaux. On découvre que l'ordre de grandeur des élasticité se situe entre modérée et grande quand on les compare aux évaluations des élasticités traditionnelles de la demande aux points de service par rapport aux prix , et ce malgré les différences apparentes dans les expériences de ces subventions fiscales pour les consommateurs. D'autre part, on ne trouve pas de support pour l'hypothèse que les subventions fiscales affectent la demande d'assurance santéà la marge intensive , ce qui concorde bien avec ce que nous enseigne la théorie de l'auto-assurance optimale. On discute les implications de ces résultats pour certaines réformes récentes proposées aux systèmes d'assurance santé privés et publics. [source]

Public-service values and ethics: Dead end or strong foundation?

Ralph Heintzman
This article reconsiders Langford's arguments. It suggests that public-service renewal requires ongoing attention to public-service values but also a widening of perspectives. It is now necessary to give more attention to the organizational, professional and institutional conditions for sound individual behaviour. Renewed attention to public-service values did not seek to supplant traditional approaches to individual decision-making but rather to re-frame them, grounded in the principles without which they cannot make sense of the world. The research literature on values and ethics contradicts the critique's main contentions. The critique is also based on a mistaken premise, false dichotomies, and inadequate and contradictory assumptions about the nature of individual decision-making. Three points that are useful contributions to the ongoing dialogue on public-service values and ethics are noted. But an individual perspective must now be augmented by a focus on organizational performance. Far from being a "dead end," public-service values remain the strong foundation , the only possible foundation , for the public service of the future. Sommaire: Le présent article réexamine celui de John Langford, publié dans le numéro d'hiver 2004, dans lequel il prononqait un verdict négatif sur la préoccupation au sujet des valeurs du service public qui a été un élément de la réforme de la fonction publique au cours de la dernière décennie. Une nouvelle attention portée aux valeurs du service public n'a pas cherchéà remplacer les approches traditionnelles concernant la prise de décisions, mais plutôt à les recadrer, à les faire reposer sur des principes sans lesquels le monde n'a pas de sens. La littérature de recherche sur les valeurs et l'éthique conrredit les principales allégations du critique et est également fondée sur des assomptions erronées et contradictoires au sujet de la nature de la prise de décision individuelle. Trois points qui représentent des contributions utiles au dialogue actuel sur les valeurs et l'éthique du service public sont mentionnés. Mais la perspective individuelle doit aussi avoir pour objectif la performance organisarionnelle. Loin d'être une « voie sans issue », les valeurs du service public restent le fondement solide , et en fait le seul fondement possible , du service public de l'avenir. [source]

Discussion on ,Personality psychology as a truly behavioural science' by R. Michael Furr

Article first published online: 14 JUL 200
Yes We Can! A Plea for Direct Behavioural Observation in Personality Research MITJA D. BACK and BORIS EGLOFF Department of Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany Furr's target paper (this issue) is thought to enhance the standing of personality psychology as a truly behavioural science. We wholeheartedly agree with this goal. In our comment we argue for more specific and ambitious requirements for behavioural personality research. Specifically, we show why behaviour should be observed directly. Moreover, we illustratively describe potentially interesting approaches in behavioural personality research: lens model analyses, the observation of multiple behaviours in diverse experimentally created situations and the observation of behaviour in real life. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Categories of Behaviour Should be Clearly Defined PETER BORKENAU Department of Psychology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany The target paper is helpful by clarifying the terminology as well as the strengths and weaknesses of several approaches to collect behavioural data. Insufficiently considered, however, is the clarity of the categories being used for the coding of behaviour. Evidence is reported showing that interjudge agreement for retrospective and even concurrent codings of behaviour does not execeed interjudge agreement for personality traits if the categories being used for the coding of behaviour are not clearly defined. By contrast, if the behaviour to be registered is unambiguously defined, interjudge agreement may be almost perfect. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviour Functions in Personality Psychology PHILIP J. CORR Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Furr's target paper highlights the importance, yet under-representation, of behaviour in published articles in personality psychology. Whilst agreeing with most of his points, I remain unclear as to how behaviour (as specifically defined by Furr) relates to other forms of psychological data (e.g. cognitive task performance). In addition, it is not clear how the functions of behaviour are to be decided: different behaviours may serve the same function; and identical behaviours may serve different functions. To clarify these points, methodological and theoretical aspects of Furr's proposal would benefit from delineation. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. On the Difference Between Experience-Sampling Self-Reports and Other Self-Reports WILLIAM FLEESON Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Furr's fair but evaluative consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of behavioural assessment methods is a great service to the field. As part of his consideration, Furr makes a subtle and sophisticated distinction between different self-report methods. It is easy to dismiss all self-reports as poor measures, because some are poor. In contrast, Furr points out that the immediacy of the self-reports of behaviour in experience-sampling make experience-sampling one of the three strongest methods for assessing behaviour. This comment supports his conclusion, by arguing that ESM greatly diminishes one the three major problems afflicting self-reports,lack of knowledge,and because direct observations also suffer from the other two major problems afflicting self-reports. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What and Where is ,Behaviour' in Personality Psychology? LAURA A. KING and JASON TRENT Department of Psychology, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA Furr is to be lauded for presenting a coherent and persuasive case for the lack of behavioural data in personality psychology. While agreeing wholeheartedly that personality psychology could benefit from greater inclusion of behavioural variables, here we question two aspects of Furr's analysis, first his definition of behaviour and second, his evidence that behaviour is under-appreciated in personality psychology. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Naturalistic Observation of Daily Behaviour in Personality Psychology MATTHIAS R. MEHL Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA This comment highlights naturalistic observation as a specific method within Furr's (this issue) cluster direct behavioural observation and discusses the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) as a naturalistic observation sampling method that can be used in relatively large, nomothetic studies. Naturalistic observation with a method such as the EAR can inform researchers' understanding of personality in its relationship to daily behaviour in two important ways. It can help calibrate personality effects against act-frequencies of real-world behaviour and provide ecological, behavioural personality criteria that are independent of self-report. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Measuring Behaviour D. S. MOSKOWITZ and JENNIFER J. RUSSELL Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada Furr (this issue) provides an illuminating comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of various methods for assessing behaviour. In the selection of a method for assessing behaviour, there should be a careful analysis of the definition of the behaviour and the purpose of assessment. This commentary clarifies and expands upon some points concerning the suitability of experience sampling measures, referred to as Intensive Repeated Measurements in Naturalistic Settings (IRM-NS). IRM-NS measures are particularly useful for constructing measures of differing levels of specificity or generality, for providing individual difference measures which can be associated with multiple layers of contextual variables, and for providing measures capable of reflecting variability and distributional features of behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviours, Non-Behaviours and Self-Reports SAMPO V. PAUNONEN Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada Furr's (this issue) thoughtful analysis of the contemporary body of research in personality psychology has led him to two conclusions: our science does not do enough to study real, observable behaviours; and, when it does, too often it relies on ,weak' methods based on retrospective self-reports of behaviour. In reply, I note that many researchers are interested in going beyond the study of individual behaviours to the behaviour trends embodied in personality traits; and the self-report of behaviour, using well-validated personality questionnaires, is often the best measurement option. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. An Ethological Perspective on How to Define and Study Behaviour LARS PENKE Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK While Furr (this issue) makes many important contributions to the study of behaviour, his definition of behaviour is somewhat questionable and also lacks a broader theoretical frame. I provide some historical and theoretical background on the study of behaviour in psychology and biology, from which I conclude that a general definition of behaviour might be out of reach. However, psychological research can gain from adding a functional perspective on behaviour in the tradition of Tinbergens's four questions, which takes long-term outcomes and fitness consequences of behaviours into account. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What is a Behaviour? MARCO PERUGINI Faculty of Psychology, University of Milan,Bicocca, Milan, Italy The target paper proposes an interesting framework to classify behaviour as well as a convincing plea to use it more often in personality research. However, besides some potential issues in the definition of what is a behaviour, the application of the proposed definition to specific cases is at times inconsistent. I argue that this is because Furr attempts to provide a theory-free definition yet he implicitly uses theoretical considerations when applying the definition to specific cases. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Is Personality Really the Study of Behaviour? MICHAEL D. ROBINSON Department of Psychology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA Furr (this issue) contends that behavioural studies of personality are particularly important, have been under-appreciated, and should be privileged in the future. The present commentary instead suggests that personality psychology has more value as an integrative science rather than one that narrowly pursues a behavioural agenda. Cognition, emotion, motivation, the self-concept and the structure of personality are important topics regardless of their possible links to behaviour. Indeed, the ultimate goal of personality psychology is to understanding individual difference functioning broadly considered rather than behaviour narrowly considered. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Linking Personality and Behaviour Based on Theory MANFRED SCHMITT Department of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany My comments on Furr's (this issue) target paper ,Personality as a Truly Behavioural Science' are meant to complement his behavioural taxonomy and sharpen some of the presumptions and conclusions of his analysis. First, I argue that the relevance of behaviour for our field depends on how we define personality. Second, I propose that every taxonomy of behaviour should be grounded in theory. The quality of behavioural data does not only depend on the validity of the measures we use. It also depends on how well behavioural data reflect theoretical assumptions on the causal factors and mechanisms that shape behaviour. Third, I suggest that the quality of personality theories, personality research and behavioural data will profit from ideas about the psychological processes and mechanisms that link personality and behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Apparent Objectivity of Behaviour is Illusory RYNE A. SHERMAN, CHRISTOPHER S. NAVE and DAVID C. FUNDER Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA It is often presumed that objective measures of behaviour (e.g. counts of the number of smiles) are more scientific than more subjective measures of behaviour (e.g. ratings of the degree to which a person behaved in a cheerful manner). We contend that the apparent objectivity of any behavioural measure is illusory. First, the reliability of more subjective measures of behaviour is often strikingly similar to the reliabilities of so-called objective measures. Further, a growing body of literature suggests that subjective measures of behaviour provide more valid measures of psychological constructs of interest. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Personality and Behaviour: A Neglected Opportunity? LIAD UZIEL and ROY F. BAUMEISTER Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Personality psychology has neglected the study of behaviour. Furr's efforts to provide a stricter definition of behaviour will not solve the problem, although they may be helpful in other ways. His articulation of various research strategies for studying behaviour will be more helpful for enabling personality psychology to contribute important insights and principles about behaviour. The neglect of behaviour may have roots in how personality psychologists define the mission of their field, but expanding that mission to encompass behaviour would be a positive step. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Corporate Domesticity and Idealised Masculinity: Royal Naval Officers and their Shipboard Homes, 1918,39

GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 3 2009
Quintin Colville
This article explores the interrelationship of masculine identity and corporate domesticity through the example of Royal Naval officers and the quarters they occupied on board ship during the 1920s and 1930s. Through a case study of a surviving warship, it establishes the linkages of this environment to a wider upper-middle-class world of public school common rooms, gentlemen's clubs and family homes. It analyses the role of this shipboard domesticity in defining the idealised and class-specific persona of the naval officer: constructed through foregrounding approved qualities (such as dutifulness, restraint and self-discipline), and suppressing characteristics considered problematic (for instance, introspection, individualism and intellectualism). The article also evaluates the tensions generated by these impersonal and unreachable standards, and the simultaneous ability of the naval home to support corporate and individual behaviours at odds with the officer ideal. The final section explores the gendered nature of these spaces. It argues that while the shipboard home was essentially a male one, the dynamic it engineered between rival ,male' and ,female' domesticities was invariably relational. Officers' communal quarters were routinely used to support and intensify oppositional understandings of masculinity and femininity. Nonetheless, attempts to dispute these boundaries and to internalise feminised qualities of sentiment, attachment and dependency can be detected in the privatised domesticity of the cabin. [source]

Elevated metabolic costs while resting on water in a surface feeder: the Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla

IBIS, Issue 1 2007
Measurements of the energy costs of individual behaviours provide insights into how animals trade-off resource allocation and energy acquisition decisions. The energetic costs while resting on water are poorly known for seabirds but could comprise a substantial proportion of their daily energy expenditure. We measured the cost of resting on water in Black-legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, a species which does not fly during the night and for which estimating energy expenditure while resting on the water is therefore important. Their resting metabolic rate on water at 12.5 °C was at least 40% higher compared with resting at the same temperature in air. This indicates that, at comparable temperatures, metabolic costs are elevated for birds resting at sea compared with on land. We argue that Kittiwakes meet much of this extra thermoregulatory demand by dedicated metabolic activity. During the winter months, their costs are likely to be even higher owing to lower sea temperatures. Accordingly, we suggest that migration to milder latitudes, following breeding, will provide enhanced benefits, particularly to seabirds such as Kittiwakes which rest on the sea surface during darkness. [source]

Lifestyle behaviours and weight among hospital-based nurses

Aims, The purpose of this study was to (i) describe the weight, weight-related perceptions and lifestyle behaviours of hospital-based nurses, and (ii) explore the relationship of demographic, health, weight and job characteristics with lifestyle behaviours. Background, The obesity epidemic is widely documented. Worksite initiatives have been advocated. Nurses represent an important part of the hospital workforce and serve as role models when caring for patients. Methods, A sample of 194 nurses from six hospitals participated in anthropometric measurements and self-administered surveys. Results, The majority of nurses were overweight and obese, and some were not actively involved in weight management behaviours. Self-reported health, diet and physical activity behaviours were low, although variable by gender, age and shift. Reports of co-worker norms supported low levels of healthy behaviours. Conclusions, Findings reinforce the need to address the hospital environment and culture as well as individual behaviours for obesity control. Implications for nursing management, Nurse managers have an opportunity to consider interventions that promote a climate favourable to improved health habits by facilitating and supporting healthy lifestyle choices (nutrition and physical activity) and environmental changes. Such efforts have the potential to increase productivity and morale and decrease work-related disabilities and improve quality of life. [source]

Gene therapy and enhancement for diabetes (and other diseases): the multiplicity of considerations

Marta Bertolaso
Abstract Gene therapy has reached the forefront of studies and research over the last 30 years because of its potential for curing, treating, and preventing diseases associated with DNA mutations. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are two examples of very common polygenic and multifactorial diseases. The huge amount of scientific literature on this topic reflects a growing general interest in the possibilities of altering our genetic heritage and thus controlling the onset of diseases associated with mutations and relative risk factors. We have focussed on the new treatment opportunities and possibility of enhancing an individual's health, physical well-being, and even an individual's behaviour through technologies specially designed for therapeutic purposes, which have been presented in literature. This historical perspective shows how this type of research, however, was immediately subjected to an ethical evaluation, especially regarding the decoding of the human genome and the questions raised by the alteration of our genetic heritage through new biotechnologies. Moreover, understanding the limitations of gene therapy protocol experiments and the multifactorial nature of many diseases, which have a genetic base, also contributes to these considerations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Trophic-dynamic considerations in relating species diversity to ecosystem resilience

ABSTRACT Complexity in the networks of interactions among and between the living and abiotic components forming ecosystems confounds the ability of ecologists to predict the economic consequences of perturbations such as species deletions in nature. Such uncertainty hampers prudent decision making about where and when to invest most intensively in species conservation programmes. Demystifying ecosystem responses to biodiversity alterations may be best achieved through the study of the interactions allowing biotic communities to compensate internally for population changes in terms of contributing to ecosystem function, or their intrinsic functional redundancy. Because individual organisms are the biologically discrete working components of ecosystems and because environmental changes are perceived at the scale of the individual, a mechanistic understanding of functional redundancy will hinge upon understanding how individuals' behaviours influence population dynamics in the complex community setting. Here, I use analytical and graphical modelling to construct a conceptual framework for predicting the conditions under which varying degrees of interspecific functional redundancy can be found in dynamic ecosystems. The framework is founded on principles related to food web successional theory, which provides some evolutionary insights for mechanistically linking functional roles of discrete, interacting organisms with the dynamics of ecosystems because energy is the currency both for ecological fitness and for food web commerce. Net productivity is considered the most contextually relevant ecosystem process variable because of its socioeconomic significance and because it ultimately subsumes all biological processes and interactions. Redundancy relative to productivity is suggested to manifest most directly as compensatory niche shifts among adaptive foragers in exploitation ecosystems, facilitating coexistence and enhancing ecosystem recovery after disturbances which alter species' relative abundances, such as extinctions. The framework further explicates how resource scarcity and environmental stochasticity may constitute ,ecosystem legacies' influencing the emergence of redundancy by shaping the background conditions for foraging behaviour evolution and, consequently, the prevalence of compensatory interactions. Because it generates experimentally testable predictions for a priori hypothesis testing about when and where varying degrees of functional redundancy are likely to be found in food webs, the framework may be useful for advancing toward the reliable knowledge of biodiversity and ecosystem function relations necessary for prudent prioritization of conservation programmes. The theory presented here introduces explanation of how increasing diversity can have a negative influence on ecosystem sustainability by altering the environment for biotic interactions - and there by changing functional compensability among biota - under particular conditions. [source]