Individual Assignment (individual + assignment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Genetic structure and gene flow in French populations of two Ostrinia taxa: host races or sibling species?

Abstract Most models of ecological speciation concern phytophagous insects in which speciation is thought to be driven by host shifts and subsequent adaptations of populations. Despite the ever-increasing number of studies, the current evolutionary status of most models remains incompletely resolved, as estimates of gene flow between taxa remain extremely rare. We studied the population genetics of two taxa of the Ostrinia genus , one feeding mainly on maize and the other on mugwort and hop , occurring in sympatry throughout France. The actual level of divergence of these taxa was unknown because the genetic structure of populations had been investigated over a limited geographical area and the magnitude of gene flow between populations had not been estimated. We used 11 microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic structure of populations throughout France and the extent of gene flow between the two Ostrinia taxa at several sites at which they are sympatric. We observed clear genetic differentiation between most populations collected on the typical respective hosts of each taxon. However, populations displaying intermediate allelic frequencies were found on hop plants in southern France. Individual assignments revealed that this result could be accounted for by the presence of both taxa on the same host. Gene flow, estimated by determining the proportion of hybrids detected, was low: probably < 1% per generation, regardless of site. This indicates that the two Ostrinia taxa have reached a high level of genetic divergence and should be considered sibling species rather than host races. [source]

Genetic variability of seven dog breeds based on microsatellite markers

C. Schelling
Summary The present study, compared the genetic variability of seven dog breeds and a test sample from Switzerland by means of 26 microsatellite markers. Five loci were excluded from further analyses because one was monomorphic, one not in Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium in all breeds and three in linkage disequilibrium with linked loci. The proportion of shared alleles at the individual level of the remaining 21 microsatellite markers combined with the neighbour-joining method allowed for the clustering of the large majority of the individuals in accordance to their breed. The results were confirmed by analyses using a Bayesian approach for clustering and a Monte Carlo re-sampling method for individual assignment or exclusion to a given population. [source]

Lacustrine spatial distribution of landlocked Atlantic salmon populations assessed across generations by multilocus individual assignment and mixed-stock analyses

C. Potvin
Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the spatiotemporal distribution of four landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations during their sympatric feeding phase in lake St-Jean (Québec, Canada). A total of 1100 fish captured over a period of 25 years was genotyped at six microsatellite loci in order to assess the temporal stability of the relative proportion of each population in different lake sectors using both individual-based assignment and mixed-stock analysis. Estimates of relative proportions obtained from both methods were highly correlated. A nonrandom spatial distribution of populations was observed for each period and, despite the fact that the overall proportion of each population varied over time, the pattern of differential distribution remained generally stable over time. Furthermore, there were indications that the extent of horizontal spatial overlap among populations was negatively correlated with that of their genetic differentiation at both microsatellites and a major histocompatibility complex locus, and independent of the geographical distance between the rivers of origin. We discuss the hypothesis that the temporal stability of spatial distribution, the lack of an association between spatial partitioning and geographical distance between rivers of origin, and the apparent negative correlation between spatial overlap and genetic differentiation, reflect the outcome of selective pressures driving behavioural differences for spatial niche partitioning among populations. [source]

Detecting introgressive hybridization between free-ranging domestic dogs and wild wolves (Canis lupus) by admixture linkage disequilibrium analysis

Abstract Occasional crossbreeding between free-ranging domestic dogs and wild wolves (Canis lupus) has been detected in some European countries by mitochondrial DNA sequencing and genotyping unlinked microsatellite loci. Maternal and unlinked genomic markers, however, might underestimate the extent of introgressive hybridization, and their impacts on the preservation of wild wolf gene pools. In this study, we genotyped 220 presumed Italian wolves, 85 dogs and 7 known hybrids at 16 microsatellites belonging to four different linkage groups (plus four unlinked microsatellites). Population clustering and individual assignments were performed using a Bayesian procedure implemented in structure 2.1, which models the gametic disequilibrium arising between linked loci during admixtures, aiming to trace hybridization events further back in time and infer the population of origin of chromosomal blocks. Results indicate that (i) linkage disequilibrium was higher in wolves than in dogs; (ii) 11 out of 220 wolves (5.0%) were likely admixed, a proportion that is significantly higher than one admixed genotype in 107 wolves found previously in a study using unlinked markers; (iii) posterior maximum-likelihood estimates of the recombination parameter r revealed that introgression in Italian wolves is not recent, but could have continued for the last 70 (± 20) generations, corresponding to approximately 140,210 years. Bayesian clustering showed that, despite some admixture, wolf and dog gene pools remain sharply distinct (the average proportions of membership to wolf and dog clusters were Qw = 0.95 and Qd = 0.98, respectively), suggesting that hybridization was not frequent, and that introgression in nature is counteracted by behavioural or selective constraints. [source]

High genetic divergence in miniature breeds of Japanese native chickens compared to Red Junglefowl, as revealed by microsatellite analysis

R. Tadano
Summary A wide diversity of domesticated chicken breeds exist due to artificial selection on the basis of human interests. Miniature variants (bantams) are eminently illustrative of the large changes from ancestral junglefowls. In this report, the genetic characterization of seven Japanese miniature chicken breeds and varieties, together with institute-kept Red Junglefowl, was conducted by means of typing 40 microsatellites located on 21 autosomes. We drew focus to genetic differentiation between the miniature chicken breeds and Red Junglefowl in particular. A total of 305 alleles were identified: 27 of these alleles (8.9%) were unique to the Red Junglefowl with high frequencies (>20%). Significantly high genetic differences (FST) were obtained between Red Junglefowl and all other breeds with a range of 0.3901,0.5128. Individual clustering (constructed from combinations of the proportion of shared alleles and the neighbour-joining method) indicated high genetic divergence among breeds including Red Junglefowl. There were also individual assignments on the basis of the Bayesian and distance-based approaches. The microsatellite differences in the miniature chicken breeds compared to the presumed wild ancestor reflected the phenotypic diversity among them, indicating that each of these miniature chicken breeds is a unique gene pool. [source]