Individual Approaches (individual + approach)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Approaches for Quantifying the Metabolism of Physical Economies: A Comparative Survey: Part II: Review of Individual Approaches

Peter L. Daniels
Summary This article is the second of a two-part series that describes and compares the essential features of nine "physical economy" approaches for mapping and quantifying the material demands of the human economy upon the natural environ-ment. These approaches are critical tools in the design and implementation of industrial ecology strategies for greater eco-efficiency and reduced environmental impacts of human economic activity. Part I of the series provided an overview, meth-odological classification, and comparison of a selected set of major materials flow analysis (MFA) and related techniques. This sequel includes a convenient reference and overview of the major metabolism measurement approaches in the form of a more detailed summary of the key specific analytical and other features of the approaches introduced in part I. The surveyed physical economy related environmental analysis ap-proaches include total material requirement and output mod-els, bulk MFA (IFF (Department of Social Ecology, Institute for Interdiscplinary Studies of Austrian Universities) material flow balance model variant), physical input-output tables, substance flow analysis, ecological footprint analysis, environmental space, material intensity per unit service, life-cycle assessment (LCA), the sustainable process index, and company-level MFA. [source]

Functional intravascular volume deficit in patients before surgery

Background: Stroke volume (SV) maximization with a colloid infusion, referred to as individualized goal-directed therapy, improves outcome in high-risk surgery. The fraction of patients who need intravascular volume to establish a maximal SV has, however, not been evaluated, and there are only limited data on the volume required to establish a maximal SV before the start of surgery. Therefore, we estimated the occurrence and size of the potential functional intravascular volume deficit in surgical patients. Methods: Patients scheduled for mastectomy (n=20), open radical prostatectomy (n=20), or open major abdominal surgery (n=20) were anaesthetized, and before the start of surgery, a 200 ml colloid fluid challenge was provided and repeated if a ,10% increment in SV estimated by oesophageal Doppler was established. The volume needed for SV maximization defined the intravascular volume deficit. Results: Forty-two (70%) of the patients needed volume to establish a maximal SV. For the patients needing volume, the required amount was median 200 ml (range 200,600 ml), with no significant difference between the three groups of patients. The required volume was ,400 ml in nine patients (15%). Conclusion: The majority of anaesthetized patients present with a functional intravascular volume deficit before surgery. Although the deficit in general was minor, a fraction of patients presented with a deficit that may be of clinical relevance, emphasizing the importance of the individual approach of goal-directed fluid therapy. [source]

Women and class structure in contemporary Japan1

Sawako Shirahase
ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study is to examine how to determine the class position of women, especially married women, in Japan. This study examines three different approaches to conceptualizing women's position in the class structure: the conventional approach, the individual approach, and the dominance approach. Since 1975, the overall rate of female labour force participation in Japan has increased, and given this growth, particularly of employees working outside home, I discuss whether the increased entry of women, particularly married women, into the labour market challenges the conventional way of assigning class positions to women by simply deriving them from their husband's class positions. The data set used in this study is derived from the 1995 Japanese Social Stratification and Mobility Survey. An examination of class distributions suggests that the pictures of macro-class structure provided by the conventional approach and the dominance approach show very little difference. Married women who belong to the female-dominant family still form a very small minority of all married women in the society. Furthermore, the male-dominant family shows the greatest stability over the life course whereas the female-dominant family, where the wife experiences with-drawal from the labour market, is least stable. The increasing number of married women in the labour market, thus, has not yet become a major threat to the conventional way of assigning women to a class position in contemporary Japan. Women, even among those working on a full-time basis, perceive their position in the stratification system using not only their own work, but also their husband's. In contrast, men's perception is determined by their own education and employment, not by their wives'. This asymmetry in the effect of the husband's class and of the wife's class on class identification is related not only to gender inequality within the labour market but also to the division of labour by gender within the household. [source]

Learning from others: the scope and challenges for participatory disaster risk assessment

DISASTERS, Issue 4 2007
Mark Pelling
This paper develops a framework based on procedural, methodological and ideological elements of participatory vulnerability and risk assessment tools for placing individual approaches within the wide range of work that claims a participatory, local or community orientation. In so doing it draws on relevant experience from other areas of development practice from which the disasters field can learn. Participatory disaster risk assessments are examined for their potential to be empowering, to generate knowledge, to be scaled up, to be a vehicle for negotiating local change and as part of multiple-methods approaches to disaster risk identification and reduction. The paper is a response to an international workshop on Community Risk Assessment organised by ProVention Consortium and the Disaster Mitigation for Sustainable Livelihoods Programme, University of Cape Town. The workshop brought together practitioners and academics to review the challenges and opportunities for participatory methodologies in the field of disaster risk reduction. In conclusion the contribution made by participatory methodologies to global disaster risk reduction assessment and policy is discussed. [source]

An exploration of the factors that influence the implementation of evidence into practice

Jo Rycroft-Malone PhD
Background., The challenges of implementing evidence-based practice are complex and varied. Against this background a framework has been developed to represent the multiple factors that may influence the implementation of evidence into practice. It is proposed that successful implementation is dependent upon the nature of the evidence being used, the quality of context, and, the type of facilitation required to enable the change process. This study sets out to scrutinize the elements of the framework through empirical enquiry. Aims and objectives., The aim of the study was to address the following questions: , What factors do practitioners identify as the most important in enabling implementation of evidence into practice? , What are the factors practitioners identify that mediate the implementation of evidence into practice? , Do the concepts of evidence, context and facilitation constitute the key elements of a framework for getting evidence into practice? Design and methods., The study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1: Exploratory focus groups (n = 2) were conducted to inform the development of an interview guide. This was used with individual key informants in case study sites. Phase 2: Two sites with on-going or recent implementation projects were studied. Within sites semi-structured interviews were conducted (n = 17). Results., A number of key issues in relation to the implementation of evidence into practice emerged including: the nature and role of evidence, relevance and fit with organizational and practice issues, multi-professional relationships and collaboration, role of the project lead and resources. Conclusions., The results are discussed with reference to the wider literature and in relation to the on-going development of the framework. Crucially the growing body of evidence reveals that a focus on individual approaches to implementing evidence-based practice, such as skilling-up practitioners to appraise research evidence, will be ineffective by themselves. Relevance to clinical practice., Key elements that require attention in implementing evidence into practice are presented and may provide a useful checklist for future implementation and evaluation projects. [source]

Nutrition in the genomics era: Cardiovascular disease risk and the Mediterranean diet

Jose M. Ordovas
Abstract The effect of dietary changes on phenotypes (i.e., plasma lipid measures, body weight and blood pressure) differs significantly between individuals. This phenomenon has been more extensively researched in relation to changes in dietary fat and plasma lipid concentrations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other pathological conditions. Although common knowledge associates low fat diets with reductions in total and plasma LDL cholesterol, the clinical evidence shows dramatic inter-individual differences in response that are partially due to genetic factors. The discovery of the cardioprotective and other healthy properties of the Mediterranean diet has popularized the consumption of Mediterranean products such as olive oil. Molecular, clinical, and epidemiological studies have begun to shed some light about how various components of this diet may protect the cardiovascular system and to decrease the risk of other diseases such as cancer. However, it is also possible that the right combination of genetic, cultural, socioeconomic factors is needed to achieve full benefit. It has been proposed that the Mediterranean diet may be closer to the ancestral foods that were part of human development and our metabolism may have evolved to work optimally on such a diet rather than with the current diets richer in saturated fat and highly refined and processed foods. Therefore, it is possible that alleles that are associated with increase disease risk may be silenced in the presence of that more ancestral and traditional diet and lifestyle. This knowledge may provide the basis for successful public health as well individual approaches for disease prevention. [source]

Psychological therapies for bipolar disorder: the role of model-driven approaches to therapy integration

Steven H Jones
Objectives:, The psychological and social aspects of bipolar disorder are receiving increasing recognition. Recently, there have been promising developments in psychological interventions, but there is scope for further improvement of therapeutic outcomes. This paper argues for the use of more detailed psychological models of bipolar disorder to inform the further development of therapeutic approaches. Method:, Evidence for psychological, family and social factors in bipolar disorder is reviewed. The efficacy of current individual and family interventions are discussed. A model, which has potential to synthesize group and individual approaches, is outlined. Results:, Psychological, social and family factors have important influences on the onset, course and outcome of bipolar disorder. Interventions based on vulnerability stress models have proved effective. However, to enhance efficacy future developments need to be based on models that integrate current understandings of the multiple levels at which mood fluctuations occur. A particular recent model is discussed which leads to specific proposals for future intervention research. Conclusions:, Psychological and family approaches to BD have much potential. They clearly have a role in conjunction with appropriate pharmacological treatment. If this potential is to be fully realized future developments need to be based on psychological models that can accommodate the complexity of this illness. [source]

Measurement of body size and abundance in tests of macroecological and food web theory

Summary 1Mean body mass (W) and mean numerical (N) or biomass (B) abundance are frequently used as variables to describe populations and species in macroecological and food web studies. 2We investigate how the use of mean W and mean N or B, rather than other measures of W and/or accounting for the properties of all individuals, can affect the outcome of tests of macroecological and food web theory. 3Theoretical and empirical analyses demonstrate that mean W, W at maximum biomass (Wmb), W when energy requirements are greatest (Wme) and the W when a species uses the greatest proportion of the energy available to all species in a W class (Wmpe) are not consistently related. 4For a population at equilibrium, relationships between mean W and Wme depend on the slope b of the relationship between trophic level and W. For marine fishes, data show that b varies widely among species and thus mean W is an unreliable indicator of the role of a species in the food web. 5Two different approaches, ,cross-species' and ,all individuals' have been used to estimate slopes of abundance,body mass relationships and to test the energetic equivalence hypothesis and related theory. The approaches, based on relationships between (1) log10 mean W and log10 mean N or B, and (2) log10 W and log10 N or B of all individuals binned into log10 W classes (size spectra), give different slopes and confidence intervals with the same data. 6Our results show that the ,all individuals' approach has the potential to provide more powerful tests of the energetic equivalence hypothesis and role of energy availability in determining slopes, but new theory and empirical analysis are needed to explain distributions of species relative abundance at W. 7Biases introduced when working with mean W in macroecological and food web studies are greatest when species have indeterminate growth, when relationships between W and trophic level are strong and when the range of species'W is narrow. [source]