Individual Antioxidants (individual + antioxidant)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Combined effects of thymol, carvacrol and grapefruit seed extract on lipid oxidation and colour stability of poultry meat preparations

Annalisa Lucera
Summary The combined effects of thymol, carvacrol and grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) on lipid oxidation and colour stability of poultry meat preparations packaged in air or modified atmospheres (MAP: 5% O2; 30% CO2; 65% N2) were investigated using a simplex centroid mixture design. Lipid oxidation was evaluated through measurement of secondary oxidation products (malonaldehyde, MDA) and general appearance with visual assessment and instrumental measurement of colour. Thymol and carvacrol, as individual antioxidants, retarded the oxidation process by maintaining MDA values below 2 mg kg,1 meat. The effect of GFSE was less than thymol and carvacrol. Redness (a*) decreased in all treatments during storage but this reduction was more evident in the control and in samples containing GFSE than in thymol and carvacrol. Although colour acceptability decreased with time, all meat preparations packaged in air maintained desirable appearance better than samples in MAP. Also, off-odours developed faster in the samples packaged in MAP than in aerobically packaged samples. [source]

Fatty acid composition, antioxidants and lipid oxidation in chicken breasts from different production regimes

Kishowar Jahan
Summary Chicken breast from nine products and from the following production regimes: conventional (chilled and frozen), organic and free range, were analysed for fatty acid composition of total lipids, preventative and chain breaking antioxidant contents and lipid oxidation during 5 days of sub-ambient storage following purchase. Total lipids were extracted with an optimal amount of a cold chloroform methanol solvent. Lipid compositions varied, but there were differences between conventional and organic products in their contents of total polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and n-6:n-3 ratio. Of the antioxidants, , -tocopherol content was inversely correlated with lipid oxidation. The antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase varied between products. Modelling with partial least squares regression showed no overall relationship between total antioxidants and lipid data, but certain individual antioxidants showed a relationship with specific lipid fractions. [source]

Lipids and antioxidants in groats and hulls of Swedish oats (Avena sativa L)

Susanne Bryngelsson
Abstract Concentrations and compositions of total lipids (TL), fatty acids, tocopherols and tocotrienols, avenanthramides and free hydroxycinnamic acids were determined in groats and hulls from single samples of seven Swedish oat cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using the radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl as substrate. Results were evaluated by principal component analysis. Consistent differences in value of the variables analysed in groats and hulls were found, groats having higher concentrations of all compounds analysed except free cinnamic acids. Concentrations of E-vitamers (especially tocotrienols) were high in both groat and hull samples with high TL. Avenanthramides were high in hull samples with high TL, but this was not found in groats. Free cinnamic acids did not follow TL in either groats or hulls. TAC was generally higher in groats than in hulls. The within-group variation in TAC was less pronounced than that in chemical composition, especially in groats. The results did not suggest any strong relationship between TAC and individual antioxidants. 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of antioxidants applied in lubricants,

Alexander Kassler
The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) in combination with the two desorption/ionization methods, electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (AP-MALDI), for the detection of antioxidants which are applied in lubricants. These experiments should form the base for future investigations of antioxidants in tribologically formed thin layers on the surface of frictional systems. Seventeen different antioxidants were selected out of the group of hindered phenolic and aromatic aminic compounds. Practically all antioxidants could be characterized by positive ion ESI- and AP-MALDI-ITMS, forming various types/species of molecular ions (e.g. [M]+., [M+H]+, [M+Na]+ or [M,2H+H]+). A few compounds could be analyzed by negative ion ESI-MS, too, but none by negative ion AP-MALDI-MS. The influence of target materials in AP-MALDI-MS (gold- and titanium nitride (TiN)-covered stainless steel, micro-diamond-covered hard metal, hand-polished and sand-blasted stainless steel targets) with respect to the molecular ion intensity and type of molecular ion of two selected antioxidants was evaluated. The surface properties are of particular interest because in friction tests different materials with different surface characteristics are used. However, the MS results indicate that optimal target surfaces have to be found for individual antioxidants in AP-MALDI-MS but in general smooth surfaces were superior to rough surfaces. Finally the gold-covered stainless steel MALDI target provided the best mass spectra and was selected for all the antioxidants investigated. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]