Individual Activities (individual + activity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Sexuality in children and adolescents with disabilities

Nancy Murphy MD
This review presents a discussion of the sexual development of children and adolescents with disabilities, described in the framework of body structure and function, individual activities, and societal perspectives presented in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Issues of sexual development, gynecological care and contraception, sexual functioning, societal barriers, sexual victimization, and sexuality education are presented. Overall, adolescents with disabilities seem to be participating in sexual relationships without adequate knowledge and skills to keep them healthy, safe, and satisfied. Although their sexual development may be hindered both by functional limitations and by intentional or unintentional societal barriers, the formal and informal opportunities for teenagers with disabilities to develop into sexually expressive and fulfilled persons do exist. Health care providers are urged to increase their awareness of this unmet need and to implement strategies that promote the physical, emotional, social, and psychosexual independence of children, teenagers, and young adults with disabilities. [source]

Addressing Three Common Issues in Research on Youth Activities: An Integrative Approach for Operationalizing and Analyzing Involvement

Michael A. Busseri
Youth activity involvement has been operationalized and analyzed using a wide range of approaches. Researchers face the challenges of distinguishing between the effects of involvement versus noninvolvement and intensity of involvement in a particular activity, accounting simultaneously for cumulative effects of involvement, and addressing multiple unique effects of individual activities. In the present work, we review and illustrate the conceptual and empirical implications of these issues using data from a study of activity involvement and successful development in early adolescence (N=537; M age=11.56, 52% female). An integrative solution is introduced based on a latent composite variable (LCV) model (Bollen & Lennox, 1991), which can be used to address all three issues simultaneously. Using this approach, we show that of the aggregate indices examined, breadth of involvement was uniquely and positively associated with multiple indices of successful development. Of the individual activities, a dichotomous score and residual frequency rating for involvement in out-of-school clubs were both uniquely associated with less positive development indicators. We concluded that an LCV approach provides a novel method for addressing several fundamental operational and analytic issues facing researchers who investigate youth activity involvement as a context for positive development. [source]

Salivary free radical-scavenging activity is affected by physical and mental activities

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 6 2008
T Atsumi
Objective and design:, Free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS) are related to inflammation, aging, and cancer. However, living systems have essential antioxidant mechanisms by which these harmful radicals can be scavenged, i.e., free radical-scavenging activity (FRSA). We measured the circadian rhythm of such activities by detecting salivary FRSA in healthy adults, and also examined how salivary FRSA is affected by physical and mental activities, which included (1) ingestion of beverage, (2) exercise, (3) comfortable/uncomfortable stimulation, and (4) smoking. Methods:, FRSA was determined by using the DPPH (1,1,-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method. Statistical analysis for experimentally obtained median values was carried out using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results:, In circadian rhythm, FRSA was increased by food ingestion and relaxation. As to the individual activities, green tea and coffee ingestion increased FRSA, whereas swimming (P < 0.05) and dance lessons (P < 0.01) decreased it. Watching an amusing video program (P < 0.001) or stimulation by a pleasant aroma (P < 0.01) increased FRSA. In contrast, an unpleasant odor had no effect on FRSA. FRSA decreased immediately after smoking (P < 0.05), but increased thereafter (P < 0.01). Conclusion:, Salivary FRSA was affected not only by physical activities, but also by mental activities. It may be a parameter for reflecting the health status of individuals. [source]

[13C]-pantoprazole breath test to predict CYP2C19 phenotype and efficacy of a proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole

Summary Background,13CO2 is produced on metabolism of 13C-labelled-pantoprazole ([13C]-pantoprazole) by CYP2C19. Aim, To investigate whether the [13C]-pantoprazole breath test can predict CYP2C19 status and efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in Japanese. Methods, We classified 110 healthy volunteers as rapid metabolizers (RM), intermediate metabolizers (IM) or poor metabolizers (PM) of CYP2C19 by genotyping. Breath samples were collected at 10-min intervals for 60 min after dosing with 100 mg [13C]-pantoprazole. Changes in the carbon isotope ratios (13CO2/12CO2) in carbon dioxide in breath samples were measured and expressed as a delta-over-baseline (DOB) ratio (,). Of the 110 subjects, twenty-two randomly selected subjects underwent intragastric pH monitoring on day 7 of dosing with 30 mg of lansoprazole. Results, The DOB values of RMs were the highest and those of PMs the lowest of the three groups. Statistically significant differences were observed in the area-under-the-curve (AUC)20,60 min of DOB among the three groups. The mean 24-h intragastric pHs attained by lansoprazole 30 mg for 7 days were inversely correlated with the AUC20,60 min of DOB. Conclusions, [13C]-pantoprazole breath test can easily estimate the individual activity of CYP2C19 and predict the efficacy of a PPI (i.e. lansoprazole). This test would be useful for individualized medicine with a PPI. [source]


This is a conceptual paper whose aim is to relate the development of ,individualization' (Beck and Beck-Gernsheim 2002) to organizational leadership. It does this by examining individualization alongside the implicit assumption on which orthodox approaches to leadership are founded, namely that leadership is an individualized phenomenon. Despite the expanding literature on these topics, particularly that on leadership, these concepts have not been examined in relation to one another. This paper seeks to do this in two ways. Firstly, it highlights the increased attention given to leadership in the UK public sector, locating leadership as a continuation of public sector managerialism. Secondly, it discusses the development of the trend of individualization more broadly. The paper's main discussion focuses on leadership as an individual activity and of the consequences of that approach. In particular, it argues that individualized leadership presents a restrictive perspective which does not allow for exploration of a broader range of leadership approaches, particularly that of distributed leadership, which have especial relevance for public sector organizations. [source]

Individual versus social complexity, with particular reference to ant colonies

ABSTRACT Insect societies , colonies of ants, bees, wasps and termites , vary enormously in their social complexity. Social complexity is a broadly used term that encompasses many individual and colony-level traits and characteristics such as colony size, polymorphism and foraging strategy. A number of earlier studies have considered the relationships among various correlates of social complexity in insect societies; in this review, we build upon those studies by proposing additional correlates and show how all correlates can be integrated in a common explanatory framework. The various correlates are divided among four broad categories (sections). Under ,polyphenism' we consider the differences among individuals, in particular focusing upon ,caste' and specialization of individuals. This is followed by a section on ,totipotency' in which we consider the autonomy and subjugation of individuals. Under this heading we consider various aspects such as intracolony conflict, worker reproductive potential and physiological or morphological restrictions which limit individuals' capacities to perform a range of tasks or functions. A section entitled ,organization of work' considers a variety of aspects, e.g. the ability to tackle group, team or partitioned tasks, foraging strategies and colony reliability and efficiency. A final section,,communication and functional integration', considers how individual activity is coordinated to produce an integrated and adaptive colony. Within each section we use illustrative examples drawn from the social insect literature (mostly from ants, for which there is the best data) to illustrate concepts or trends and make a number of predictions concerning how a particular trait is expected to correlate with other aspects of social complexity. Within each section we also expand the scope of the arguments to consider these relationships in a much broader sense of'sociality' by drawing parallels with other ,social' entities such as multicellular individuals, which can be understood as ,societies' of cells. The aim is to draw out any parallels and common causal relationships among the correlates. Two themes run through the study. The first is the role of colony size as an important factor affecting social complexity. The second is the complexity of individual workers in relation to the complexity of the colony. Consequently, this is an ideal opportunity to test a previously proposed hypothesis that ,individuals of highly social ant species are less complex than individuals from simple ant species' in light of numerous social correlates. Our findings support this hypothesis. In summary, we conclude that, in general, complex societies are characterized by large colony size, worker polymorphism, strong behavioural specialization and loss of totipotency in its workers, low individual complexity, decentralized colony control and high system redundancy, low individual competence, a high degree of worker cooperation when tackling tasks, group foraging strategies, high tempo, multi-chambered tailor-made nests, high functional integration, relatively greater use of cues and modulatory signals to coordinate individuals and heterogeneous patterns of worker-worker interaction. Key words: Ants, insect societies, individual complexity, social complexity, polyphenism, totitpotency, work organization, functional integration, sociality. [source]

Using Decision Tree Induction Systems for Modeling Space-Time Behavior

T. A. Arentze
Discrete choice models are commonly used to predict individuals' activity and travel choices either separately or simultaneously in activity-scheduling models. This paper investigates the possibilities of decision tree induction systems as an alternative approach. The ability of decision trees to represent heuristic decision rules is evaluated and a method of capturing interactions across decisions in a sequential decision model is outlined. Decision tree induction algorithms, such as C4.5, CART, and CHAID, are suited to derive the decision rules from empirical data. A case study to illustrate the approach considers decisions of individuals when they are faced with the choice to combine different out-of-home activities into a multipurpose, multistop trip or make a trip for each activity separately. Data from a large-scale activity diary survey are used to induce the decision rules. Possible directions of future research are identified. [source]