Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Individuals

  • HCV-infect individual
  • HIV-infect individual
  • active individual
  • additional individual
  • adult individual
  • affected individual
  • age individual
  • aged individual
  • alcohol dependent individual
  • alcohol-dependent individual
  • alcoholic individual
  • allergic individual
  • another individual
  • antisocial individual
  • anxious individual
  • asthmatic individual
  • asymptomatic individual
  • at-risk individual
  • atopic individual
  • average individual
  • black individual
  • captive individual
  • caucasian individual
  • certain individual
  • chinese individual
  • community-dwelling individual
  • comparing individual
  • control individual
  • dead individual
  • deceased individual
  • dentate individual
  • dependent individual
  • depressed individual
  • diabetic individual
  • different individual
  • disabled individual
  • diseased individual
  • dominant individual
  • ds individual
  • elderly individual
  • eligible individual
  • exposed individual
  • f2 individual
  • female individual
  • few individual
  • fewer individual
  • focal individual
  • growing individual
  • healthy control individual
  • healthy individual
  • heterozygous individual
  • high-risk individual
  • hiv positive individual
  • hiv+ individual
  • hiv-1-infected individual
  • hiv-positive individual
  • homeless individual
  • homozygous individual
  • host individual
  • human individual
  • hybrid individual
  • hypertensive individual
  • ill individual
  • immature individual
  • immunocompetent individual
  • immunocompromised individual
  • immunosuppressed individual
  • incarcerated individual
  • infected individual
  • isolated individual
  • japanese individual
  • key individual
  • korean individual
  • large individual
  • larger individual
  • low-income individual
  • male individual
  • many individual
  • marked individual
  • married individual
  • mature individual
  • modern individual
  • multiple individual
  • naive individual
  • negative individual
  • new individual
  • non-diabetic individual
  • normal healthy individual
  • normal individual
  • obese individual
  • old individual
  • older individual
  • one individual
  • only individual
  • only one individual
  • other individual
  • overweight individual
  • particular individual
  • periodontally healthy individual
  • plant individual
  • pollen-allergic individual
  • positive individual
  • predisposed individual
  • private individual
  • relate individual
  • released individual
  • remaining individual
  • resident individual
  • resistant individual
  • same individual
  • sampled individual
  • selected individual
  • sensitive individual
  • sensitized individual
  • several individual
  • similar individual
  • single individual
  • small individual
  • smaller individual
  • specific individual
  • stable individual
  • subordinate individual
  • susceptible individual
  • target individual
  • traumatized individual
  • twin individual
  • unaffected individual
  • unemployed individual
  • unfamiliar individual
  • uninfected individual
  • unrelated individual
  • untreated individual
  • vaccinated individual
  • vulnerable individual
  • way individual
  • white individual
  • wild individual
  • young individual
  • younger individual

  • Terms modified by Individuals

  • individual CNT
  • individual SNP
  • individual ability
  • individual abundance
  • individual accountability
  • individual action
  • individual activity
  • individual actor
  • individual age
  • individual agency
  • individual agent
  • individual allergen
  • individual amino acids
  • individual animals
  • individual antioxidant
  • individual approach
  • individual area
  • individual assessment
  • individual assignment
  • individual atom
  • individual attitude
  • individual attribute
  • individual autonomy
  • individual basis
  • individual behavior
  • individual behaviour
  • individual belief
  • individual bird
  • individual birth
  • individual body
  • individual branch
  • individual cage
  • individual cancers
  • individual capability
  • individual capacity
  • individual case
  • individual case report
  • individual category
  • individual cell
  • individual change
  • individual channel
  • individual character
  • individual characteristic
  • individual child
  • individual choice
  • individual chromosome
  • individual circumstance
  • individual citizen
  • individual class
  • individual client
  • individual clone
  • individual cluster
  • individual colony
  • individual column
  • individual company
  • individual comparison
  • individual competence
  • individual component
  • individual compound
  • individual condition
  • individual consumer
  • individual contribution
  • individual control
  • individual country
  • individual covariate
  • individual criterioN
  • individual data
  • individual day
  • individual decision
  • individual decision making
  • individual determinant
  • individual development
  • individual difference
  • individual difference measure
  • individual difference perspective
  • individual difference variable
  • individual dispersal
  • individual dna molecule
  • individual dog
  • individual domain
  • individual drug
  • individual effect
  • individual effects
  • individual effort
  • individual egg
  • individual element
  • individual employee
  • individual enantiomer
  • individual enzyme
  • individual episode
  • individual event
  • individual exhibiting
  • individual experience
  • individual experiment
  • individual exposure
  • individual expression
  • individual eye
  • individual factor
  • individual family
  • individual farmer
  • individual feature
  • individual fecundity
  • individual feedback
  • individual female
  • individual fiber
  • individual fibre
  • individual firm
  • individual fish
  • individual fish weight
  • individual fitness
  • individual flower
  • individual fly
  • individual forecast
  • individual fraction
  • individual freedom
  • individual gain
  • individual galaxy
  • individual gene
  • individual genome
  • individual genotype
  • individual glomeruli
  • individual grain
  • individual group member
  • individual groups
  • individual growth
  • individual growth rate
  • individual health
  • individual heterogeneity
  • individual heterozygosity
  • individual high
  • individual history
  • individual home range
  • individual homozygous
  • individual hospital
  • individual hosts
  • individual human being
  • individual identification
  • individual identity
  • individual image
  • individual inbreeding coefficient
  • individual incentive
  • individual income
  • individual initiative
  • individual insect
  • individual institution
  • individual interest
  • individual intervention
  • individual interview
  • individual investor
  • individual ion
  • individual isomer
  • individual item
  • individual knowledge
  • individual larva
  • individual layer
  • individual leaf
  • individual leaf area
  • individual learner
  • individual learning
  • individual lesion
  • individual level
  • individual liberty
  • individual life
  • individual life history
  • individual lifetime
  • individual locus
  • individual m
  • individual male
  • individual marker
  • individual measure
  • individual measurement
  • individual member
  • individual memory
  • individual merit
  • individual metabolism
  • individual methods
  • individual migrant
  • individual models
  • individual molecule
  • individual morality
  • individual motivation
  • individual mouse
  • individual movement
  • individual muscle
  • individual mutation
  • individual nation
  • individual nature
  • individual need
  • individual nest
  • individual nsaid
  • individual nurse
  • individual object
  • individual observation
  • individual offspring
  • individual older
  • individual only
  • individual organism
  • individual outcome
  • individual pair
  • individual parameter
  • individual parent
  • individual participant
  • individual particle
  • individual patient
  • individual patient data
  • individual patient level
  • individual patient need
  • individual pattern
  • individual peptide
  • individual perception
  • individual performance
  • individual person
  • individual personality
  • individual perspective
  • individual pharmacokinetic parameter
  • individual phase
  • individual phenolic acid
  • individual phenolic compound
  • individual phenotype
  • individual physician
  • individual plant
  • individual plant species
  • individual polymer
  • individual population
  • individual practice
  • individual practitioner
  • individual preference
  • individual problem
  • individual process
  • individual program
  • individual propensity
  • individual property
  • individual protein
  • individual psychology
  • individual psychotherapy
  • individual quality
  • individual question
  • individual rat
  • individual reaction
  • individual receptor
  • individual recognition
  • individual record
  • individual regions
  • individual report
  • individual reproductive success
  • individual requirement
  • individual researcher
  • individual resident
  • individual residue
  • individual response
  • individual responsibility
  • individual result
  • individual right
  • individual risk
  • individual risk factor
  • individual role
  • individual sample
  • individual section
  • individual seed
  • individual selection
  • individual sensitivity
  • individual session
  • individual site
  • individual size
  • individual skill
  • individual source
  • individual species
  • individual species distribution
  • individual specimen
  • individual stability
  • individual stage
  • individual star
  • individual state
  • individual states
  • individual step
  • individual stimulus
  • individual stock
  • individual strain
  • individual strategy
  • individual stream
  • individual strength
  • individual structure
  • individual student
  • individual studies
  • individual study
  • individual subject
  • individual subjectivity
  • individual subunit
  • individual support
  • individual susceptibility
  • individual symptom
  • individual taxa
  • individual teacher
  • individual team member
  • individual techniques
  • individual technology
  • individual tendency
  • individual test
  • individual therapy
  • individual threshold
  • individual tissue
  • individual tooth
  • individual trait
  • individual trajectory
  • individual transferable quota
  • individual treatment
  • individual tree
  • individual trials
  • individual tumor
  • individual type
  • individual unit
  • individual use
  • individual used
  • individual user
  • individual utility
  • individual value
  • individual variability
  • individual variable
  • individual variation
  • individual vessel
  • individual views
  • individual vs.
  • individual vulnerability
  • individual wage
  • individual weight
  • individual welfare
  • individual woman
  • individual word
  • individual work
  • individual worker
  • individual writer
  • individual year

  • Selected Abstracts

    Detection of pathogenic gene copy number variations in patients with mental retardation by genomewide oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization,,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 11 2007
    Yao-Shan Fan
    Abstract Genomic imbalance is a major cause of developmental disorders. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has revealed frequent imbalances associated with clinical syndromes, but also a large number of copy number variations (CNVs), which have complicated the interpretation of results. We studied 100 consecutive patients with unexplained mental retardation and a normal karyotype using several platforms of CGH arrays. A genomewide array with 44,290 oligonucleotide probes (OaCGH44K) detected imbalances in 15% of cases studied with sizes ranged from 459,kb to 19,Mb while revealing a small number of CNVs (0.72/individual). Another platform with ,240,000 oligonucleotide probes (OaCGH244K) revealed a large number of CNVs (20/individual) in selected cases and their normal parents. We used a comprehensive approach for interpreting the results of aCGH, including consideration of the size, inheritance and gene content of CNVs, and consultation with an online Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Men (OMIM) for information on the genes involved. Our study suggests that genomewide oligonucleotide arrays such as the OaCGH44K platform can be used as a powerful diagnostic tool for detection of genomic imbalances associated with unexplained mental retardation or syndromic autism spectrum disorders. It is interesting to note that a small number of common variants were revealed by OaCGH244K in some study subjects but not in their parents and that some inherited CNVs had altered breakpoints. Further investigations on these alterations may provide useful information for understanding the mechanism of CNVs. Hum Mutat 28(11),1124,1132, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2007
    Stephen C. Stearns
    First page of article [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2003
    Implications for Family Court Services
    The current study examines differences in demographic characteristics, parental conflict, and nonresidential father involvement between divorcing and unmarried fathers with young children. Participants were 161 families (36 unmarried) with children aged 0 to 6 years, involved in a larger longitudinal study of separating and divorcing families. Baseline data were gathered from parenting plans, court databases, and parent reports. Results indicated that unmarried fathers were younger, more economically disadvantaged, less well educated, less likely to have their children living with them, and had less influence on decision making. Unmarried fathers reported more conflict regarding their attempts to be involved with their children in their day-to-day activities. Understanding these unique characteristics and dynamics will help to maximize effective services in the legal system for unmarried couples. [source]


    ABSTRACT The present study aims to investigate the cytotoxic effect of the major aflatoxins (B1, B2, G2 and G2) and also aflatoxin combination, using a simple, rapid and cheap cytotoxicity test like MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay in three in vitro models (human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVEC], human lung fibroblasts [HFL] and A2780 cell line) and to extrapolate the data to in vivo situation using a prediction model. A difference in cell sensitivity has been observed for B1 and B1 + B2, in the following order A2789 > HFL > HUVEC, while for B2, G1, G2, Mix (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) the order was HFL > A2789 > HUVEC when comparing the IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values. We confirm that in vitro cytotoxicity test MTT assay is able to predict in vivo toxicity, at least for aflatoxins using the prediction model. The values of LD50 (lethal dose 50%) calculated from experiments are different for each cell line. This fact may indicate that some species are more resistant than other and target organs are not necessarily those predicted, because the A2780 ovarian cancer cells seem to be more sensitive to B1 than cells of endothelial or fibroblasts origin. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study is in concordance with the international tendency that refined the current techniques to lessen pain or distress, to reduce the number of animals necessary for a particular test or to replace animals with non-whole-animal models, such as in vitro cell cultures. The practical application of such methodologies may help solve the economic problem related to very expensive in vivo toxicology studies and implement preventive methods based on the calculated data and known mechanism of action of individual or combined toxins easily studied in vitro. The nature of coexistence of many types of mycotoxins in complex environmental samples, such as food and water, has been reported worldwide. How these mycotoxins might affect human health in combination is largely unknown. This study had, as a goal, to test the toxicity of the four aflatoxins and aflatoxin combination on human cells. Due to the lack of aflatoxins mixture data regarding the human cytotoxicity, the aim of this study was to specify, evaluate and predict the combined effects of mycotoxin mixtures. [source]


    Mark H. Bird
    In recent decades there has been an increase in literature regarding sexual addiction as well as a growing number of clients presenting in therapy with problems related to their sexual behaviors (including internet sexual addiction). This article (a) presents a synthesis of the research on the impact of sexual addiction on the addict, the partner, and the couple; (b) outlines the process of healing for each based on the research synthesis; and (c) discusses the role of marriage and family therapy in facilitating both individual and relationship healing from sexual addiction. Implications for future research in sexual addiction, generally, and in marriage and family therapy, specifically, are presented. [source]


    Abstract Individual-based models (IBMs) predict how animal populations will be affected by changes in their environment by modeling the responses of fitness-maximizing individuals to environmental change and by calculating how their aggregate responses change the average fitness of individuals and thus the demographic rates, and therefore size of the population. This paper describes how the need to develop a new approach to make such predictions was identified in the mid-1970s following work done to predict the effect of building a freshwater reservoir on part of the intertidal feeding areas of the shorebirds Charadrii that overwinter on the Wash, a large embayment on the east coast of England. The paper describes how the approach was developed and tested over 20 years (1976,1995) on a population of European oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus eating mussels Mytilus edulis on the Exe estuary in Devon, England. The paper goes on to describe how individual-based modeling has been applied over the last 10 years to a wide range of environmental issues and to many species of shorebirds and wildfowl in a number of European countries. Although it took 20 years to develop the approach for 1 bird species on 1 estuary, ways have been found by which it can now be applied quite rapidly to a wide range of species, at spatial scales ranging from 1 estuary to the whole continent of Europe. This can now be done within the time period typically allotted to environmental impact assessments involving coastal bird populations in Europe. The models are being used routinely to predict the impact on the fitness of coastal shorebirds and wildfowl of habitat loss from (i) development, such as building a port over intertidal flats; (ii) disturbance from people, raptors, and aircraft; (iii) harvesting shellfish; and (iv) climate change and any associated rise in sea level. The model has also been used to evaluate the probable effectiveness of mitigation measures aimed at ameliorating the impact of such environmental changes on the birds. The first steps are now being taken to extend the approach to diving sea ducks and farmland birds during the nonbreeding season. The models have been successful in predicting the observed behavior and mortality rates in winter of shorebirds on a number of European estuaries, and some of the most important of these tests are described. These successful tests of model predictions raise confidence that the model can be used to advise policy makers concerned with the management of the coast and its important bird populations. [source]


    ABSTRACT. In this paper we report the use of an individual-based model of predator-prey interaction to explore the effects of "within generational" and ,between generational' updating of a system level variable. We also report the importance of diversity within the simulated populations. Our findings support those of Grimm and Uchmánski [1994] in regard to the importance of the timing of system level variables, and support Grimm and Uchmañski and others in regard to the importance of the level of diversity across the population. The significance of these findings is emphasized by the fundamental differences between our model and that of Grimm and Uchmánski in regard to the assumptions made about resource flow in the system. This paper was presented at the 2004 Research Modeling Association World Conference on Natural Resource Modeling in Melbourne, Australia. [source]


    ABSTRACT. Software design is much more important for individual-based models (IBMs) than it is for conventional models, for three reasons. First, the results of an IBM are the emergent properties of a system of interacting agents that exist only in the software; unlike analytical model results, an IBMs outcomes can be reproduced only by exactly reproducing its software implementation. Second, outcomes of an IBM are expected to be complex and novel, making software errors difficult to identify. Third, an IBM needs ,systems software' that manages populations of multiple kinds of agents, often has nonlinear and multi-threaded process control and simulates a wide range of physical and biological processes. General software guidelines for complex models are especially important for IBMs. (1) Have code critically reviewed by several people. (2) Follow prudent release management prac-tices, keeping careful control over the software as changes are implemented. (3) Develop multiple representations of the model and its software; diagrams and written descriptions of code aid design and understanding. (4) Use appropriate and widespread software tools which provide numerous major benefits; coding ,from scratch' is rarely appropriate. (5) Test the software continually, following a planned, multi-level, exper-imental strategy. (6) Provide tools for thorough, pervasive validation and verification. (7) Pay attention to how pseudorandom numbers are generated and used. Additional guidelines for IBMs include: (a) design the model's organization before starting to write code,(b) provide the ability to observe all parts of the model from the beginning,(c) make an extensive effort to understand how the model executes how often different pieces of code are called by which objects, and (d) design the software to resemble the system being mod-eled, which helps maintain an understanding of the software. Strategies for meeting these guidelines include planning adequate resources for software development, using software professionals to implement models and using tools like Swarm that are designed specifically for IBMs. [source]


    Yunxiang Yan
    Drawing on data collected from longitudinal fieldwork, this article explores how the practice of bridewealth in a north China village has been transformed into a new form of property division within the groom's family and how the bride has replaced her parents as the recipient of bridewealth. At the individual level, this transformation has evolved through a long process during which individual brides and grooms negotiated with their parents over control of bridewealth. A misunderstanding about Western individualism provides village youths with a new ideological tool to justify their relentless extraction of money from their parents. At the level of family life, the changing norm of bridewealth has shaped and in turn has helped to re-shape mate choice, family division, and support for the elderly. These family changes occurred within the context of other social changes at the macro level and are closely linked to the role of the powerful state. While emphasizing the active role of the individual in transforming the practice of bridewealth, an important phenomenon that by and large has been overlooked in most studies of marriage transactions, the article also examines the specific strategies by which individuals exercise their agency, choosing to take advantage of the custom of bridewealth instead of abandoning it when it affords them greater autonomy in mate choice and marriage negotiations. [source]


    Bernadette Hood
    Objective: This paper explores the psychosocial outcomes for individuals and communities in rural Victoria who experienced the outbreak of Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD). Design: The study uses a qualitative methodology to analyse the minutes of evidence provided by the inquiry into the control of OJD to identify the psychosocial events, experiences and outcomes associated with the control of this outbreak. The inquiry was undertaken by the Environment and Natural Resources Committee of the Victorian State Government. Setting: Public hearings were undertaken by the committee across several rural Victorian communities and the state capital, Melbourne. Subjects: The transcripts detail 136 submissions from 98 individuals and 23 organisations. Outcome measures: The analysis aimed to provide insight into the impact of the disease on individuals and communities and also to explore the factors individuals perceived as associated with these outcomes. Results: While the paper identifies that aspects of stock loss associated with the outbreak caused substantial emotional and economic distress, for farmers the most significant finding was the impact of the government control program on individuals, families and rural communities. The control program was perceived as having very limited scientific credibility and its implementation was described as heartless, inflexible and authoritarian. Involvement with the program resulted in farmers reporting emotions, such as, trauma, shame, guilt and stigma. Families became discordant and the sense of community within rural townships fragmented. Psychological outcomes of grief, depression and anxiety emerged as prevalent themes within families and communities. Conclusions: These data highlight the need for significant attention to the management of rural disasters, such as, the OJD program. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 7 2009
    ABSTRACT Bioinformatics is a new field of study whose ethical implications involve a combination of bioethics, computer ethics and information ethics. This paper is an attempt to view some of these implications from the perspective of Buddhism. Privacy is a central concern in both computer/information ethics and bioethics, and with information technology being increasingly utilized to process biological and genetic data, the issue has become even more pronounced. Traditionally, privacy presupposes the individual self but as Buddhism does away with the ultimate conception of an individual self, it has to find a way to analyse and justify privacy that does not presuppose such a self. It does this through a pragmatic conception that does not depend on a positing of the substantial self, which is then found to be unnecessary for an effective protection of privacy. As it may be possible one day to link genetic data to individuals, the Buddhist conception perhaps offers a more flexible approach, as what is considered to be integral to an individual person is not fixed in objectivity but depends on convention. [source]


    R.D. HinshelwoodArticle first published online: 17 NOV 200
    ABSTRACT Psychoanalysis cannot explain social phenomena directly, but the human responses to social, economic and historical forces can be described. In this paper I want to look at the interaction between the underlying psychology of the unconscious of individuals in groups, and to theorize how that provides a basis upon which social forces may act. Certain aspects of racism and national identity serve as useful illustrations of how the social phenomena interact with the psychology of individuals. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2005
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2002
    Christian Peter Klingenberg
    Abstract., Morphometric studies often consider parts with internal left-right symmetry, for instance, the vertebrate skull. This type of symmetry is called object symmetry and is distinguished from matching symmetry, in which two separate structures exist as mirror images of each other, one on each body side. We explain a method for partitioning the total shape variation of landmark configurations with object symmetry into components of symmetric variation among individuals and asymmetry. This method is based on the Procrustes superimposition of the original and a reflected copy of each landmark configuration and is compatible with the two-factor ANOVA model customary in studies of fluctuating asymmetry. We show a fully multivariate framework for testing the effects in the two-factor model with MANOVA statistics, which also applies to shapes with matching symmetry. We apply the new methods in a small case study of pharyngeal jaws of the Neotropical cichlid fish Amphilophus citrinellus. The analysis revealed that the symmetric component of variation in the pharyngeal jaws is dominated by the contrast between two alternative trophic morphs in this species and that there is subtle but statistically significant directional asymmetry. Finally, we provide some general recommendations for morphometric studies of symmetric shapes. [source]


    Mitsuyoshi Yoshida DDS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Chang Xuan Mao
    Summary The problem of estimating population sizes has a wide range of applications. Although the size is non-identifiable when a population is heterogeneous, it is often useful to estimate the lower bounds and to construct lower confidence limits. A sequence of lower bounds, including the well-known Chao lower bound, is proposed. The bounds have closed-form expressions and are estimated by the method of moments or by maximum likelihood. Real examples from epidemiology, wildlife management and ecology are investigated. Simulation studies are used to assess the proposed estimators. [source]

    Individual, Population, Community, and Ecosystem Consequences of a Fish Invader in New Zealand Streams

    Colin R. Townsend
    But because invaders can have unexpected indirect effects in food webs, invasion ecologists need to integrate processes at the population level and other ecological levels. I describe a series of coordinated studies in New Zealand streams that address the effect of an exotic fish on individual behavior, population, community, and ecosystem patterns. Such case studies are important as an aid to the formulation of policy about invasions that are especially likely to become problematic. At the individual level, grazing invertebrates showed changes in behavior as a result of the introduction of brown trout ( Salmo trutta), a predator that exerts a very different selection pressure than do native fish. At the population level, trout have replaced nonmigratory galaxiid fish in some streams but not others, and have affected the distributions of crayfish and other large invertebrates. At the community level, trout have suppressed grazing pressure from invertebrates and are thus responsible for enhancing algal biomass and changing algal species composition. Finally, at the ecosystem level, essentially all annual production of invertebrates is consumed by trout ( but not by galaxiids), and algal primary productivity is six times higher in a trout stream. This leads, in turn, to an increased flux of nutrients from the water to the benthic community. The trout invasion has led to strong top-down control of community structure and ecosystem functioning via its effects on individual behavior and population distribution and abundance. Particular physiological, behavioral, and demographic traits of invaders can lead to profound ecosystem consequences that managers need to take into account. Resumen: Para desarrollar procedimientos y políticas de manejo efectivos a menudo será necesario conocer la biología de la población de especies invasoras. Sin embargo, debido a que los invasores pueden tener efectos indirectos inesperados en las redes alimenticias, ecólogos de invasión necesitan integrar procesos en la población y otros niveles ecológicos. Describo una serie de estudios coordinados en arroyos de Nueva Zelanda que enfocan el impacto de un pez exótico sobre los patrones de comportamiento individual, de la población, la comunidad y el ecosistema. Tales estudios de caso son importantes como un auxiliar para la formulación de políticas sobre invasiones que pueden ser especialmente problemáticas. Al nivel individual, los invertebrados que pastorean mostraron cambios de conducta como resultado de la introducción de la trucha café ( Salmo trutta), un depredador que ejerce una presión de selección muy diferente a la de los peces nativos. En el nivel de población, las truchas han reemplazado a peces galaxídos no migratorios en algunos arroyos pero no en otros y han afectado las distribuciones de cangrejos de río y otros invertebrados mayores. Al nivel de comunidad, las truchas han suprimido la presión de pastoreo por invertebrados y por lo tanto son responsables del incremento de la biomasa de algas y del cambio en la composición de especies de algas. Finalmente, a nivel de ecosistema, la producción anual de invertebrados esencialmente es consumida por las truchas ( pero no por galaxídos), y la productividad primaria de algas es seis veces mayor en arroyos con truchas. A su vez, esto conduce a incrementos en el flujo de nutrientes del agua hacia la comunidad béntica. La invasión de truchas ha conducido a un fuerte control de arriba hacia abajo de la estructura de la comunidad y del funcionamiento del ecosistema por medio de sus efectos sobre la conducta individual y la distribución y abundancia de la población. Las características fisiológicas, de conducta y demográficas particulares de los invasores pueden llevar a consecuencias profundas en los ecosistemas que los administradores necesitan tomar en consideración. [source]

    Individual-based Computational Modeling of Smallpox Epidemic Control Strategies

    Donald S. Burke MD
    In response to concerns about possible bioterrorism, the authors developed an individual-based (or "agent-based") computational model of smallpox epidemic transmission and control. The model explicitly represents an "artificial society" of individual human beings, each implemented as a distinct object, or data structure in a computer program. These agents interact locally with one another in code-represented social units such as homes, workplaces, schools, and hospitals. Over many iterations, these microinteractions generate large-scale macroscopic phenomena of fundamental interest such as the course of an epidemic in space and time. Model variables (incubation periods, clinical disease expression, contagiousness, and physical mobility) were assigned following realistic values agreed on by an advisory group of experts on smallpox. Eight response scenarios were evaluated at two epidemic scales, one being an introduction of ten smallpox cases into a 6,000-person town and the other an introduction of 500 smallpox cases into a 50,000-person town. The modeling exercise showed that contact tracing and vaccination of household, workplace, and school contacts, along with prompt reactive vaccination of hospital workers and isolation of diagnosed cases, could contain smallpox at both epidemic scales examined. [source]

    An Empirical Study of the Effect of Knowledge Management Processes at Individual, Group, and Organizational Levels,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 2 2003
    Rajiv Sabherwal
    ABSTRACT To enhance our understanding of knowledge management, this paper focuses on a specific question: How do knowledge management processes influence perceived knowledge management effectiveness? Prior literature is used to develop the research model, including hypotheses about the effects of four knowledge management processes (internalization, externalization, socialization, and combination) on perceived individual-level, group-level, and organizational-level knowledge management effectiveness. The study was conducted at the John F. Kennedy Space Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration using a survey of 159 individuals and two rounds of personal interviews. Structural equation modeling was performed to test measurement and structural models using the survey data. The emergent model suggests that internalization and externalization impact perceived effectiveness of individual-level knowledge management. Socialization and combination influence perceived effectiveness of knowledge management at group and organizational levels, respectively. The results also support the expected upward impact in perceived effectiveness of knowledge management, from individual to group level, as well as from group level to organizational level. The study's limitations and implications for practice and future research are described. [source]

    Journey into and through an early detection of psychosis service: the subjective experience of persons at risk of developing psychosis

    Kate V. Hardy
    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to explore how persons who have been assessed as being at risk of developing psychosis make sense of and understand their experiences, using a qualitative approach. Methods: The sample comprised six female and four male participants (n = 10), ranging in age from 16 to 30 years, with a mean age of 21.8 years. All the participants had entered into a National Health Service Early Detection service in the North of England, which provides interventions for persons assessed as being at a high risk of developing psychosis. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted to study how persons at risk of developing psychosis construct their understanding and perception of their experiences. Results: The analyses identified three central themes: (i) ,perception of needs', which highlighted how participants recognized the need to enter services and how they identified what they required from the service; (ii) participants' subjective journey; and (iii) participants' orientation to the future. Conclusions: The journey described by participants assessed as being at risk of developing psychosis provides further insight into how persons make sense of their experiences from a qualitative ,insider' perspective. The findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature relating to the early detection and intervention of psychosis and clinical implications are identified. [source]

    Individual, partner and relationship factors associated with non-medical use of prescription drugs

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2010
    Gregory G. Homish
    ABSTRACT Aims The objective of the current report was to examine individual, partner and relationship factors (e.g. relationship satisfaction) associated with the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) in a community sample of married adults. Design The current report used two waves of data from an ongoing study of couples who were recruited at the time they applied for their marriage license and are now in the 10th year of follow-up. Logistic regression models examined the relation between individual, partner and relationship factors and NMUPD. Participants This report is based on 273 couples. Measurements Participants completed questionnaires that assessed prescription drug use, alcohol use, other substance use, depression, marital satisfaction and socio-demographic factors. Findings Among wives, there was evidence that a partner's prescription drug use and relationship factors were associated with increased risk for NMUPD. There was some evidence suggesting that it was the increased access or availability, and not the partner's use per se, that was related to the NMUPD. These results persisted after controlling for other illicit drug use, heavy drinking, depressive symptomatology and socio-demographic factors. Among men, neither partner use nor relationship factors were associated with NMUPD after considering the impact of individual-level risk factors. Conclusion Prevention and intervention efforts directed at reducing the risk for NMUPD should consider the influence of partner and relationship factors in addition to individual-level risk factors. [source]

    The Theory of the Individual in Economics: Identity and Value

    ECONOMICA, Issue 286 2005
    Geoffrey M. Hodgson
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Simultaneous Determination of Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine and Uric Acid at Pt Nanoparticles Decorated Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Modified GCE

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 10 2010
    Zekerya Dursun
    Abstract A modified electrode was fabricated by electrochemically deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the multiwall carbon nanotube covered glassy carbon electrode (Pt nanoparticles decorated MWCNT/GCE). A higher catalytic activity was obtained to electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid due to the enhanced peak current and well-defined peak separations compared with both, bare and MWCNT/GCE. The electrode surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Individual and simultaneous determination of AA, DA, and UA were studied by differential pulse voltammetry. The detection limits were individually calculated for ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid as being 1.9×10,5,M, 2.78×10,8,M, and 3.2×10,8,M, respectively. In simultaneous determination, LODs were calculated for AA, DA, and UA, as of 2×10,5,M, 4.83×10,8,M, and 3.5×10,7,M, respectively. [source]

    Shrimp,a dynamic model of heavy-metal uptake in aquatic macrofauna

    Teresa Castro Simas
    Abstract A dynamic model for prediction of bioaccumulation in aquatic macrofauna is described. The model, entitled SHRIMP (Simulation of Heavy-metal Rate of Intake for Macrofaunal sPecies), consists of five coupled submodels, which simulate individual growth, population dynamics, metal transport in the abiotic part of the system, metal bioaccumulation at the organism level, and upscaling of individual contamination to the population scale. The sublethal effects of metal toxicity on individual and population levels are shown to act through the reduction of individual growth rates. The model was tested for cadmium and mercury using epibenthic crustacea from an estuarine system. Individual and population patterns of bioaccumulation were analyzed by comparing the simulated results of five different scenarios of dissolved metal concentrations. Model results suggest that the subtle effect of growth reduction due to metal toxicity is sufficient to cause a decrease on population numbers simply by affecting the growth of the mature females and males. [source]

    Automated normalized FLAIR imaging in MRI-negative patients with refractory focal epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2009
    Niels K. Focke
    Summary Background:, Patients with focal epilepsy that is refractory to medical treatment are often considered candidates for resective surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a very important role in the presurgical work-up of these patients, but is unremarkable in about one-third of cases. These patients are often deferred from surgery or have a less positive outcome if surgery is eventually undertaken. The aim of this study was to evaluate our recently described voxel-based technique using routine T2-FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery) scans in MRI-negative patients and to compare the results with video-EEG (electroencephalography) telemetry (VT) findings. Methods:, We identified 70 epilepsy patients with refractory focal seizures who underwent VT and had a normal routine MRI. T2-FLAIR scans were bias-corrected, and intensity and spatially normalized (nFSI) using Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 (SPM5) as previously described. Individual scans were then compared against a set of 25 normal controls using a voxel-based method. Results:, SPM5 identified 10 patients with suprathreshold clusters (14.3%). In 50% of these there was concordance between the lobe of the most significant cluster and the presumed lobe of seizure onset, as defined by VT. All cases were concordant with respect to lateralization of the putative focus. Conclusion:, Using nFSI we identified focal structural cerebral abnormalities in 11.4% of patients with refractory focal seizures, and normal conventional MRI, that were fully or partially concordant with scalp VT. This voxel-based analysis of FLAIR scans, which are widely available, could provide a useful tool in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients. Ongoing work is to compare these imaging findings with the results of intracranial EEG and histology of surgical resections. [source]

    Factorial and Construct Validity of the Revised Short Form Integrative Psychotherapy Alliance Scales for Family, Couple, and Individual Therapy

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 3 2008
    The Integrative Psychotherapy Alliance model brought an interpersonal and systemic perspective to bear on theory, research, and practice on the psychotherapeutic alliance. Questions have been raised about the independence of the theoretical factors in the model and their operationalization in the Individual, Couple, and Family Therapy Alliance Scales. This paper presents results of a confirmatory factor analysis of the scales that delineated at least three distinct interpersonal factors as well as shorter versions of the three scales to facilitate their use in research and practice. The paper also presents the results of a study testing each factor's association with client retention and progress over the first eight sessions in individual and couple therapy. At least two of the interpersonal factors were uniquely associated with progress in individual and couple functioning. Implications of the results for theory, research, practice, and training in individual, couple, and family therapy are elaborated. RESUMEN Validez de constructo y factorial de las versiones cortas revisadas de las escalas de alianza en psicoterapia integradora para la terapia familiar, de pareja e individual El modelo de alianza psicoterapéutica integradora aplicó una perspectiva sistémica e interpersonal en la teoría, la investigación y la práctica de la alianza psicoterapéutica. Se cuestionó la independencia de los factores teóricos en el modelo y su operacionalización en las escalas de alianza en terapia individual, de pareja y familiar. Este artículo presenta resultados de un análisis factorial confirmativo de las escalas que delinearon por lo menos tres factores interpersonales distintos, como también versiones más cortas de las tres escalas para facilitar su uso en la investigación y la práctica. El artículo también presenta los resultados de un estudio que analiza la asociación de cada factor con la fidelización de clientes y la evolución durante las primeras ocho sesiones en terapia individual y de pareja. Por lo menos dos de los factores interpersonales estuvieron asociados exclusivamente con la evolución en el funcionamiento individual y de pareja. Se elaboran las implicancias de los resultados para la teoría, la investigación, la práctica y la capacitación en terapia individual, de pareja y familiar. Palabras clave: alianza, análisis factorial, validez de constructo, evolución/resultado, integración [source]

    Processes of Sibling Influence in Adolescence: Individual and Family Correlates,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2008
    Shawn D. Whiteman
    Abstract: This study examined the nature and correlates of adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence. Participants included 2 siblings (firstborn age M= 17.34; second-born age M= 14.76 years) from 191 maritally intact families. Adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence were measured via coded responses to open-ended questions about whether their sibling had an influence on them. Analyses revealed that older and younger siblings reported different patterns of influence. Differentiation influence and being a role model were more prevalent for firstborns, whereas modeling and modeling plus differentiation were more prevalent for second-borns. First- and second-borns' reports of influence were linked differentially to their relational and personal qualities. Discussion focuses on the need to refine the measurement of sibling influence processes. [source]

    Books and Materials Reviews

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2001
    Article first published online: 19 FEB 200
    Baumeister, R. F. (Ed.). (1999). The Self in Social Psychology. Carter, B., & McGoldrick, M. (1999). The Expanded Family Life Cycle: Individual, Family, and Social Perspectives. Dwyer, D. (2000). Interpersonal Relationships. Knauer, S. (2000). No Ordinary Life: Parenting the Sexually Abused Child and Adolescent. McNair-Blatt, S. (2000). A Guidebook for Raising Foster Children. Stafford-Upshaw, F., & Myers-Walls, J. A. (1999). Learning Centers in Child Care Settings. Seymour, S. C. (1999). Women, Family and Child Care in India: A World in Transition. Berger, R. (1998). Stepfamilies: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective. [source]

    DNA methylation variation in cloned mice

    Jun Ohgane
    Abstract Summary: Mammalian cloning has been accomplished in several mammalian species by nuclear transfer. However, the production rate of cloned animals is quite low, and many cloned offspring die or show abnormal symptoms. A possible cause of the low success rate of cloning and abnormal symptoms in many cloned animals is the incomplete reestablishment of DNA methylation after nuclear transfer. We first analyzed tissue-specific methylation patterns in the placenta, skin, and kidney of normal B6D2F1 mice. There were seven spots/CpG islands (0.5% of the total CpG islands detected) methylated differently in the three different tissues examined. In the placenta and skin of two cloned fetuses, a total of four CpG islands were aberrantly methylated or unmethylated. Interestingly, three of these four loci corresponded to the tissue-specific loci in the normal control fetuses. The extent of aberrant methylation of genomic DNA varied between the cloned animals. In cloned animals, aberrant methylation occurred mainly at tissue-specific methylated loci. Individual cloned animals have different methylation aberrations. In other words, cloned animals are by no means perfect copies of the original animals as far as the methylation status of genomic DNA is concerned. genesis 30:45,50, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]