Increasing Survival Rates (increasing + survival_rate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The oral health needs of children after treatment for a solid tumour or lymphoma

Background., With increasing survival rates for childhood cancer, late effects are of growing importance. Oral health is central to general health, level of nutrition, quality of life, and is significant in the holistic care of children during cancer therapy. Hypothesis., The oral health needs of children treated for solid tumours/lymphoma will be greater than the general population, groups will differ according to tumour and treatment. Design., One hundred and twenty patients, 0,17 years, under follow-up from 01/07/06 to 07/02/07 were investigated for caries, opacities, microdontia, and gingivitis. Analysis was performed with stratification according to tumour and treatment. Comparisons made with the UK 2003 Child Dental Health Survey. Results., The neuroblastoma group and high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell rescue (HDCSCR) therapy group had increased caries of the primary teeth. Chi-squared analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship (P < 0.03) between the age at receipt of chemotherapy (<3.5 years) and the presence of microdont teeth. Conclusion., Oral health care is important for all patients particularly those with a neuroblastoma, or who received HDCSCR. Patients should be advised about the possibility of microdontia in the permanent dentition following chemotherapy under 3.5 years. [source]

Spatial viability analysis of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica in the Russian Far East: the role of protected areas and landscape matrix in population persistence

Summary 1The Amur or Siberian tiger Panthera tigris altaica forms a relatively small and disjunct population of less than 600 individuals in the Russian Far East. Because tigers in this region require large territories to acquire sufficient prey, current strictly protected areas, comprising 34% (10 300 km2) of the region, are unlikely to prevent extirpation of the subspecies in the face of expanding forestry and external demand for tiger parts. 2We used resource selection function models and spatially explicit population models to analyse the distribution and predict the demographic structure of the population to identify policy options that may enhance population viability. 3A resource selection function model developed from track distribution data predicted that tigers were most likely to occur in lower altitude valley bottoms with Korean pine forest and low human impacts. 4The results from the spatially explicit population model suggested that current tiger distribution is highly dependent on de facto refugia with low human impacts but without statutory protection, and that small increases in mortality in these areas will result in range fragmentation. Although an expanded reserve network only marginally increases tiger viability under current conditions, it dramatically enhances distribution under potential future scenarios, preventing regional extirpation despite a more hostile landscape matrix. 5The portion of tiger range most resistant to extirpation connects a large coastal reserve in the central portion of the region with largely unprotected watersheds to the north. A southern block of habitat is also important but more severely threatened with anthropogenic disturbances. The results suggest that preserving source habitat in these two zones and ensuring linkages are retained between blocks of habitat in the north and south will be critical to the survival of the tiger population. 6Synthesis and applications. Conservation priorities identified in this analysis differ from those suggested by a conservation paradigm focusing only on sustaining and connecting existing protected areas that has been applied to tiger conservation in more developed landscapes with higher prey densities. An alternative paradigm that assesses population viability in a whole-landscape context and develops priorities for both protected area expansion and increasing survival rates in the landscape matrix may be more appropriate in areas where tigers and other large carnivores coexist with low-density human populations. Although landscape connectivity merits increased emphasis in conservation planning, identification of landscape linkages should be tied to broad-scale recommendations resulting from spatial viability analyses in order to prevent misdirection of resources towards protecting corridors that add little to population persistence. [source]

Transition in chronic illness: Who is going where?

Katharine S Steinbeck
Aim: With increasing survival rates for chronic childhood illness, there has been an increasing focus on the transition of clinical care from paediatric to adult services. Data regarding patient numbers are essential for strategic planning and for optimal management. We report on a data collection exercise from the New South Wales Greater Metropolitan Clinical Taskforce Transition Program. Methods: Data were collected between August 2004 and October 2005 through face-to-face interviews with over 200 clinicians in 68 clinical services in tertiary paediatric hospitals in New South Wales, providing information on approximately 4200 patients. Results: Sixty-eight services kept a database on patients with chronic illness but less than half were electronic. Eight services (12%) could specifically identify patients in the active phase of transition on their databases. The five most prevalent clinical groups requiring transition to adult specialist health care (excluding cerebral palsy and developmental disability) were diabetes, other endocrinology, neurology, spina bifida and gastroenterology. Conclusions: There are large numbers of young people with chronic illness and disability who need effective transition to long-term adult care. This study has enabled the identification of paediatric aspects of the transition process that require attention. [source]

Is Anywhere Stuck in a Malthusian Trap?

Charles Kenny
SUMMARY The key features of the Malthusian model are that (i) income determines population growth, with rising wages increasing survival rates and (ii) there is a vital factor of production (land) which is fixed, implying decreased returns to scale for all other factors. The equilibrium state in such a model is a population living on subsistence incomes. The country-level analysis in this paper suggests that (i) the link between income and population growth is (almost) everywhere broken and (ii) there is little evidence of declining returns to scale because of constraints imposed by land carrying capacity anywhere. Population dynamics are being driven by non-income factors in a manner that is reducing population growth rates everywhere. At the same time, output is increasing everywhere, in a manner inconsistent with significantly declining returns to scale based on land being a vital factor of production. [source]