Increasing Stiffness (increasing + stiffness)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Modelling of earth and water pressure development during diaphragm wall construction in soft clay

R. Schäfer
Abstract The influence of a diaphragm wall construction on the stress field in a soft clayey soil is investigated by the use of a three-dimensional FE-model of seven adjacent wall panels. The installation procedure comprises the excavation and the subsequent pouring of each panel taking into account the increasing stiffness of the placed fresh concrete. The soft clay deposit is described by a visco-hypoplastic constitutive model considering the rheological properties and the small-strain stiffness of the soil. The construction process considerably affects the effective earth and pore water pressures adjacent to the wall. Due to concreting, a high excess pore water pressure arises, which dissipates during the following construction steps. The earth pressure finally shows an oscillating, distinct three-dimensional distribution along the retaining wall which depends on the installation sequence of the panels and the difference between the fresh concrete pressure and the total horizontal earth pressure at rest. In comparison to FE-calculations adopting the earth pressure at rest as initial condition, greater wall deflections and surface ground settlements during the subsequent pit excavation can be expected, as the average stress level especially in the upper half of the wall is increased by the construction procedure of the retaining structure. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Close dependence of fibroblast proliferation on collagen scaffold matrix stiffness

E. Hadjipanayi
Abstract Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) in free-floating collagen matrices show minimal proliferation, although this may increase when the matrix is ,under tension'. We have investigated the detailed mechanics underlying one of the possible controls of this important cell behaviour, in particular the hypothesis that this is a response to substrate stiffness. Hyperhydrated collagen gels were plastic-compressed (PC) to give a predetermined collagen density and stiffness. Mechanical properties were tested using a dynamic mechanical analyser; cell number by Alamar blue assay. In the stiffest PC matrices, cell proliferation was rapid and seeding density-dependent, with a population doubling time of 2 days. In contrast, compliant attached matrices showed a 4 day lag period and a doubling time of 6 days. HDF growth was directly related to matrix stiffness, such that increasing stiffness using a range of compression levels (0,75% fluid removal) supported increasing proliferation rate, doubling times and matrix elastic modulus. HDF quiescence in compliant matrices was reversible, such that increasing stiffness in situ by compression at 1 and 5 days initiated proliferation. We conclude that collagen matrix stiffness regulates proliferation of fibroblasts (a duro-response), with important implications for understanding fibroblast,matrix feedback controls during wound healing and the design and regulation of engineered connective tissues based on collagen and other hydrogel-based scaffolds. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Biomechanics of Diabetic Bladders

LUTS, Issue 2009
Chung Cheng WANG
Objectives: Biomechanics is the mechanics applied to biology and we hereby review bladder biomechanics in diabetic bladder dysfunction. Methods: The important mechanical properties of bladder tissue include the stress-strain relationship, viscoelasticity and active contraction. Using biaxial mechanical testing methods, the diabetic bladders exhibited non-linear stress-strain mechanical relationships with increasing stiffness at higher stretches in both circumferential and longitudinal directions. Results: The diabetic bladders showed mechanical anisotropy with a greater compliance in the circumferential direction than in the longitudinal direction. The time-course study suggested that diuresis mainly contributed to the "early" changes of the mechanical properties with "late" changes induced by other diabetic effects. Conclusion: The biomechanical study of the urinary bladder has offered a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetic cystopathy and we believe the collaboration of urology and engineering will contribute greatly to the treatment of diabetic bladder dysfunction in the future. [source]

Loss of cartilage structure, stiffness, and frictional properties in mice lacking PRG4

Jeffrey M. Coles
Objective To assess the role of the glycoprotein PRG4 in joint lubrication and chondroprotection by measuring friction, stiffness, surface topography, and subsurface histology of the hip joints of Prg4,/, and wild-type (WT) mice. Methods Friction and elastic modulus were measured in cartilage from the femoral heads of Prg4,/, and WT mice ages 2, 4, 10, and 16 weeks using atomic force microscopy, and the surface microstructure was imaged. Histologic sections of each femoral head were stained and graded. Results Histologic analysis of the joints of Prg4,/, mice showed an enlarged, fragmented surface layer of variable thickness with Safranin O,positive formations sometimes present, a roughened underlying articular cartilage surface, and a progressive loss of pericellular proteoglycans. Friction was significantly higher on cartilage of Prg4,/, mice at age 16 weeks, but statistically significant differences in friction were not detected at younger ages. The elastic modulus of the cartilage was similar between cartilage surfaces of Prg4,/, and WT mice at young ages, but cartilage of WT mice showed increasing stiffness with age, with significantly higher moduli than cartilage of Prg4,/, mice at older ages. Conclusion Deletion of the gene Prg4 results in significant structural and biomechanical changes in the articular cartilage with age, some of which are consistent with osteoarthritic degeneration. These findings suggest that PRG4 plays a significant role in preserving normal joint structure and function. [source]