Increasing Severity (increasing + severity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Neurodevelopmental impairment: Predictors of its impact on the families of extremely low birth weight infants at 18 months,

Bonnie E. Stephens
Effects on a family of a child with chronic illness have been described. The Impact on Family Scale (IOF) was developed to measure these effects. The impact of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with neurodevelopmental impairment on families is unknown. This study determined IOF scores for families of ELBW infants with increasing degree of impairment at 18 months and identified factors that increase vulnerability to impact. A total of 3,849 ELBW infant survivors born at the 16 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network between January 1993 and February 2001 were assessed at 18 to 22 months. Infants were divided into four groups by degree of impairment. IOF scores were analyzed by impairment group. Multivariate analyses assessed effects of impairment, social/demographic factors, unmet service needs, and resource utilization on the IOF. A total of 1,624 (42.2%) infants had moderate/severe impairment. Increasing severity of impairment was associated with higher IOF scores. Severity of impairment contributed 6% of variance to the IOF scores. Twenty-one percent of variance was contributed by additional medical needs, low socioeconomic status (SES), and lack of social support. Although increasing severity of impairment impacts families of ELBW infants, significantly more impact is contributed by additional medical needs, low SES, and lack of social support. [source]

Decreasing myelin density reflected increasing white matter pathology in Alzheimer's disease,a neuropathological study

Martin Sjöbeck
Abstract Background White matter disease (WMD) is frequently seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) at neuropathological examination. It is defined as a subtotal tissue loss with a reduction of myelin, axons and oligodendrocytes as well as astrocytosis. Studies quantitatively defining the myelin loss in AD are scarce. The aim was to develop a method that could provide numerical values of myelin density in AD. The purpose was to compare the myelin contents in increasing grades of pathology of WMD, with age and cortical AD pathology as well as in different regions of the brain in AD. Material and methods Sixteen cases with AD and concomitant WMD were investigated with an in-house developed image analysis technique to determine the myelin attenuation with optical density (OD) in frontoparietal, parietal, temporal and occipital white matter on whole brain coronal sections stained for myelin with Luxol Fast Blue (LFB). The OD values in LFB were compared grouped according to Haematoxylin/Eosin (HE) evaluated mild, moderate and severe WMD or normal tissue. The OD values were also correlated with age and cortical AD pathology and compared between the different studied white matter regions. Results Increasing severity of WMD was associated with a statistically significant OD reduction. No correlation was seen between age and OD or overall cortical AD pathology. The OD values were significantly lower in frontoparietal-compared to occipital white matter. Conclusions Myelin loss in AD with WMD is a marked morphologic component of the disease and it is possible to determine the reduction objectively in neuropathological specimens with quantitative measures. This may be of use for clinical diagnostics including brain imaging. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and suicide: a review of possible associations

A. James
Objective:, To review the evidence of a possible association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and suicide. Design:, We searched the electronic data bases: Medline, Psych LIT, between 1966 and March 2003 looking for articles on ADHD, attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity and suicide. Results:, An association of ADHD and completed suicide was found, especially for younger males. However, the evidence for any direct or independent link was modest with an overall suicide rate from long-term follow-up studies of ADHD of 0.63,0.78%. The estimated relative risk ratio, compared with US national suicide rates (males 5,24 years) is 2.91 (95% confidence interval 1.47,5.7, ,2 = 9.3, d.f. = 1, P = 0.002). ADHD appears to increase the risk of suicide in males via increasing severity of comorbid conditions, particularly conduct disorder (CD) and depression. Conclusion:, Identification of those at risk, particularly males with comorbid ADHD, depression and CD, may represent a useful clinical means of reducing completed suicide. [source]

Degradation in insulin sensitivity with increasing severity of the metabolic syndrome in obese postmenopausal women

A. D. Karelis
Aim:, We investigated the relationship between insulin sensitivity and the graded increase in the number of features of the metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional sample of obese postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that insulin sensitivity would deteriorate with an increased number of metabolic syndrome phenotypes. Methods:, Insulin sensitivity was measured in 75 obese postmenopausal women (age: 57.3 ± 5.3 years; BMI: 32.8 ± 4.5 kg/m2) by using both the hyperinsulinaemic,euglycaemic clamp and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Features of the metabolic syndrome included visceral fat (>130 cm2), HDL-cholesterol (<1.29 mmol/l), fasting triglycerides (,1.7 mmol/l), blood pressure (,130/,85 mmHg) and fasting glucose (,6.1 mmol/l). Participants were classified into three categories based on the presence of metabolic syndrome phenotypes: 0,1 vs. 2 vs. ,3 features of the metabolic syndrome. Results:, We found that insulin sensitivity decreased in a graded fashion (12.19 ± 3.2 vs. 11.80 ± 2.3 vs. 9.29 ± 2.6 mg/min/FFM) and HOMA-IR increased in a similar manner (2.95 ± 1.1 vs. 3.28 ± 1.3 vs. 4.65 ± 2.2), as the number of features of the metabolic syndrome increased from 0,1 to ,3. When insulin sensitivity was statistically adjusted for visceral fat (as measured by computed tomography) and plasma triglycerides, the differences among groups were abolished. Conclusions:, These findings suggest that a decreased insulin sensitivity is associated with increased features of the metabolic syndrome in obese postmenopausal women and that visceral fat as well as plasma triglyceride accumulation might be potential mediators of this relationship. [source]

Medical Error Identification, Disclosure, and Reporting: Do Emergency Medicine Provider Groups Differ?

Cherri Hobgood MD
Abstract Objectives: To determine if the three types of emergency medicine providers,physicians, nurses, and out-of-hospital providers (emergency medical technicians [EMTs]),differ in their identification, disclosure, and reporting of medical error. Methods: A convenience sample of providers in an academic emergency department evaluated ten case vignettes that represented two error types (medication and cognitive) and three severity levels. For each vignette, providers were asked the following: 1) Is this an error? 2) Would you tell the patient? 3) Would you report this to a hospital committee? To assess differences in identification, disclosure, and reporting by provider type, error type, and error severity, the authors constructed three-way tables with the nonparametric Somers' D clustered on participant. To assess the contribution of disclosure instruction and environmental variables, fixed-effects regression stratified by provider type was used. Results: Of the 116 providers who were eligible, 103 (40 physicians, 26 nurses, and 35 EMTs) had complete data. Physicians were more likely to classify an event as an error (78%) than nurses (71%; p = 0.04) or EMTs (68%; p < 0.01). Nurses were less likely to disclose an error to the patient (59%) than physicians (71%; p = 0.04). Physicians were the least likely to report the error (54%) compared with nurses (68%; p = 0.02) or EMTs (78%; p < 0.01). For all provider and error types, identification, disclosure, and reporting increased with increasing severity. Conclusions: Improving patient safety hinges on the ability of health care providers to accurately identify, disclose, and report medical errors. Interventions must account for differences in error identification, disclosure, and reporting by provider type. [source]

Circulating levels of copeptin, a novel biomarker, in lower respiratory tract infections

B. Müller
Abstract Background, Vasopressin has haemodynamic as well as osmoregulatory effects, and reflects the individual stress response. Copeptin is cosynthesized with vasopressin, directly mirroring vasopressin levels, but is more stable in plasma and serum. Both levels are increased in patients with septic shock. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a precursor of sepsis. Thus, we investigated circulating levels and the prognostic use of copeptin for the severity and outcome in patients with LRTI. Materials and methods, Five hundred and forty-five consecutive patients with LRTI and 50 healthy controls were evaluated. Serum copeptin levels were measured with a new chemiluminescens sandwich immunoassay. Results, Of the 545 patients, 373 had community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), 60 acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 59 acute bronchitis, 13 exacerbations of asthma and 40 other final diagnoses. Copeptin levels were significantly higher in patients with LRTI as compared to controls (P < 0·001) with highest levels in patients with CAP. Copeptin levels increased with increasing severity of CAP, as classified by the pneumonia severity index (PSI) (P < 0·001). In patients who died, copeptin levels on admission were significantly higher as compared to levels in survivors [70·0 (28·8,149·0) vs. 24·3 (10·8,43·8) pmol L,1, P < 0·001]. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for survival was 0·75 for copeptin, which was significantly higher as compared to C-reactive protein (AUC 0·61, P = 0·01), leukocyte count (AUC 0·59, P = 0·01) and similar to procalcitonin (AUC 0·68, P = 0·21). Conclusions, Copeptin levels are increased with increasing severity of LRTI namely in patients with CAP and unfavourable outcome. Copeptin levels, as a novel biomarker, might be a useful tool in the risk stratification of patients with LRTI. [source]

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of white matter lesions , cross-sectional results from the LADIS study

M. Jonsson
Background and purpose:, White matter lesions (WMLs) caused by small vessel disease are common in elderly people and contribute to cognitive impairment. There are no established biochemical markers for WMLs. We aimed to study the relation between degree of WMLs rated on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of structural biomarkers associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia. Methods:, Fifty-three non-demented elderly individuals with WMLs were subjected to lumbar puncture. Degree of WMLs was rated using the Fazekas scale. Volumetric assessment of WMLs was performed. CSF samples were analyzed for the 40 and 42 amino acid fragments of amyloid ,, ,- and ,-cleaved soluble amyloid precursor protein, total tau (T-tau), hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau181), neurofilament light protein (NFL), sulfatide and CSF/Serum-albumin ratio. Results:, Fifteen subjects had mild, 23 had moderate and 15 had severe degree of WMLs. CSF-NFL levels differed between the groups (P < 0.001) and correlated with the volume of WMLs (r = 0.477, P < 0.001). CSF sulfatide concentration displayed similar changes but less strongly. T-tau, P-tau181 and the different amyloid markers as well as CSF/S-albumin ratio did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions:, The association of increased CSF-NFL levels with increasing severity of WMLs in non-demented subjects suggests that NFL is a marker for axonal damage in response to small vessel disease in the brain. This manifestation may be distinct from or earlier than the neurodegenerative process seen in AD, as reflected by the lack of association between WMLs and AD biomarkers. [source]

Contrasts in cortical magnesium, phospholipid and energy metabolism between migraine syndromes.

HEADACHE, Issue 4 2003
MD Boska
Neurology. 2002;58:1227-1233. BACKGROUND: Previous single voxel (31)P MRS pilot studies of migraine patients have suggested that disordered energy metabolism or Mg(2+) deficiencies may be responsible for hyperexcitability of neuronal tissue in migraine patients. These studies were extended to include multiple brain regions and larger numbers of patients by multislice (31)P MR spectroscopic imaging. METHODS: Migraine with aura (MWA), migraine without aura (MwoA), and hemiplegic migraine patients were studied between attacks by (31)P MRS imaging using a 3-T scanner. RESULTS: Results were compared with those in healthy control subjects without headache. In MwoA, consistent increases in phosphodiester concentration [PDE] were measured in most brain regions, with a trend toward increase in [Mg(2+)] in posterior brain. In MWA, phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) was decreased to a minor degree in anterior brain regions and a trend toward decreased [Mg(2+)] was observed in posterior slice 1, but no consistent changes were found in phosphomonoester concentration [PME], [PDE], inorganic phosphate concentration ([Pi]), or pH. In hemiplegic migraine patients, [PCr] had a tendency to be lower, and [Mg(2+)] was significantly lower than in the posterior brain regions of control subjects. Trend analysis showed a significant decrease of brain [Mg(2+)] and [PDE] in posterior brain regions with increasing severity of neurologic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results support no substantial or consistent abnormalities of energy metabolism, but it is hypothesized that disturbances in magnesium ion homeostasis may contribute to brain cortex hyperexcitability and the pathogenesis of migraine syndromes associated with neurologic symptoms. In contrast, migraine patients without a neurologic aura may exhibit compensatory changes in [Mg(2+)] and membrane phospholipids that counteract cortical excitability. Comment: If the theory of hyperexcitability of migraine brain is correct, basic scientists will need to find clear markers for the neuronal abnormalities that underlie this excitability. Using their techniques, these researchers could not find such markers. SJT [source]

Neurodevelopmental impairment: Predictors of its impact on the families of extremely low birth weight infants at 18 months,

Bonnie E. Stephens
Effects on a family of a child with chronic illness have been described. The Impact on Family Scale (IOF) was developed to measure these effects. The impact of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with neurodevelopmental impairment on families is unknown. This study determined IOF scores for families of ELBW infants with increasing degree of impairment at 18 months and identified factors that increase vulnerability to impact. A total of 3,849 ELBW infant survivors born at the 16 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network between January 1993 and February 2001 were assessed at 18 to 22 months. Infants were divided into four groups by degree of impairment. IOF scores were analyzed by impairment group. Multivariate analyses assessed effects of impairment, social/demographic factors, unmet service needs, and resource utilization on the IOF. A total of 1,624 (42.2%) infants had moderate/severe impairment. Increasing severity of impairment was associated with higher IOF scores. Severity of impairment contributed 6% of variance to the IOF scores. Twenty-one percent of variance was contributed by additional medical needs, low socioeconomic status (SES), and lack of social support. Although increasing severity of impairment impacts families of ELBW infants, significantly more impact is contributed by additional medical needs, low SES, and lack of social support. [source]

Prevalence and cognitive impact of cerebrovascular findings in Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective, naturalistic study

N. Tabet
Summary Aims:, Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a major risk factor for cognitive decline associated with progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia. The objective of this study was to retrospectively assess the prevalence of CVD and its cognitive impact in patients with AD in everyday clinical practice. Methods:, Medical notes were retrospectively reviewed for all individuals who presented at East Sussex Memory Clinic (2004,2008) for investigation of cognitive impairment and had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of their clinical work-up. Global cognitive status was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Cambridge Cognitive Examination. The extent of cerebrovascular abnormalities was qualitatively evaluated with MRI. Results:, Notes were reviewed for 232 patients (109 males, 123 females), mean age 76 years (range 62,93), who underwent MRI. Of these, 167 (72%) patients were diagnosed with AD. CVD was present in 89% of AD patients and 47% of patients had moderate to severe cerebrovascular abnormalities. The majority of patients (57%) had MMSE scores in the 21,26 range, indicative of mild AD. There was a trend towards worse cognitive status in patients with more severe CVD, which did not reach significance. Hachinski Ischaemic score indicated these patients did not have vascular dementia (VaD) (mean ± standard deviation 1.1 ± 1.3). Conclusion:, These findings, based on qualitative MRI, indicate that cerebrovascular pathology is a very common associated feature in patients with mild to moderate AD, without VaD. Although the study suggests that CVD does not contribute to cognitive decline, and is not associated with the development of VaD, a non-significant trend was observed towards worsening cognitive status with increasing severity of CVD. The finding of this trend suggests a need for additional research, especially a prospective quantitative method of assessing CVD, to improve our understanding of how CVD contributes to cognitive impairment in AD. [source]

Effect of Psychiatric and Other Nonmotor Symptoms on Disability in Parkinson's Disease

Daniel Weintraub MD
Objectives: To examine the effect of depression and other nonmotor symptoms on functional ability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Design: A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of PD patients receiving specialty care. Setting: The Parkinson's Disease Research, Education and Clinical Center at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants: One hundred fourteen community-dwelling patients with idiopathic PD. Measurements: The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS); Hoehn and Yahr Stage; Mini-Mental State Examination; Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, depression module; probes for psychotic symptoms; Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; Geriatric Depression Scale,Short Form; Apathy Scale; and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Disability was rated using the UPDRS activity of daily living (ADL) score and the Schwab and England ADL score. Multivariate analysis determined effect of depression and other nonmotor symptoms on disability. Results: The presence of psychosis, depressive disorder, increasing depression severity, age, duration of PD, cognitive impairment, apathy, sleepiness, motor impairment, and percentage of time with dyskinesias were related to greater disability in bivariate analyses. Entering these factors into two multiple regression analyses, only the increasing severity of depression and worsening cognition were associated with greater disability using the UPDRS ADL score, accounting for 37% of the variance in disability (P<.001). These two factors plus increasing severity of PD accounted for 54% of the variance in disability using the Schwab and England ADL score (P<.001). Conclusion: Results support and extend previous findings that psychiatric and other nonmotor symptoms contribute significantly to disability in PD. Screening for nonmotor symptoms in PD is necessary to more fully explain functional limitations. Further study is required to determine whether identifying and treating these symptoms will improve function and quality of life. [source]

Impact of Tricuspid Regurgitation and Prior Coronary Bypass Surgery on the Geometry of the Coronary Sinus: A Rotational Coronary Angiography Study

Coronary Venous Geometry in Patients Undergoing CRT.,Introduction: The coronary sinus (CS) is often distorted in patients with advanced cardiomyopathy, making CS cannulation difficult. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the underlying cardiac pathology on the variability of the CS anatomy, using rotational coronary venous angiography (RCVA). Methods and Results: Seventy-nine patients undergoing RCVA for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) were evaluated: age 63 ± 15 years, 43% with prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Aspects of the CS anatomy which could impact cannulation were examined: the CS ostial angle, the posterior displacement of the CS away from the atrioventricular groove, a measure of CS curvature, and the presence of stenoses and aneurysmal dilatations. The CS ostial angle was variable (65,151°, mean 119 ± 19°, <90° in 8 patients) and decreased significantly (P = 0.0022) with increasing severity of tricuspid regurgitation (TR), reaching 94 ± 18° in patients with severe TR. The posterior displacement of the CS was significantly more accentuated in patients with prior CABG when compared with the patients without CABG (7.1 ± 3.7 vs 4.5 ± 2.8 mm; P = 0.0246). The decrease in luminal diameter at the CS,great cardiac vein (GCV) junction was 2.0 ± 1.0 mm, being more pronounced in patients with prior CABG versus nonCABG (26 vs 20%; P = 0.042). Stenoses and aneurysmal dilatations of the CS,GCV were encountered in 4 (5%) and 6 (8%) of patients, respectively, all of them with prior CABG, representing 12% and 18% of the CABG group. Conclusion: The CS anatomy in patients undergoing CRT is variable, and is impacted by the severity of the underlying TR and history of a prior CABG. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 436,440, April 2010) [source]

Health interventions and satisfaction with services: a comparative study of urinary incontinence sufferers living in two health authorities in England

Brenda Roe PhD, FRSH
,,This comparative study found that significantly more people with severe incontinence had contacted a health professional than had those with slight to moderate incontinence (P=0.00008). There was a significant linear trend towards people with severe incontinence seeing a health professional (P=0.00007). ,,The majority of people who were incontinent had not been asked to complete a bladder chart, which is an essential requirement for assessment and diagnosis of the type of incontinence and the subsequent health interventions that are offered. ,,Significantly more people in the health authority with an established continence advisory service had completed a bladder chart, had received physiotherapy and currently undertook pelvic floor muscle exercises than did those in the health authority without a continence service. ,,The majority of sufferers did not use any aids or appliances. Of those who did use incontinence aids, a majority bought their own. There was a significant linear trend for increased pad usage with increasing severity of incontinence (P=0.0003). ,,Significantly more people in the health authority with the continence service were satisfied with their healthcare and services, while more of those in the health authority without a service were unsatisfied (P=0.005). Significantly more people in the health authority without a service felt that healthcare and services could be improved (P=0.00001). ,,Significantly more people with severe incontinence were dissatisfied with services than were those with slight to moderate incontinence (P=0.01). [source]

Plant species as indicators of the extent of desertification in four sandy rangelands

Ping An
Abstract We examined the distribution of plants in sandy rangelands with different degrees of desertification in (i) Horqin and Mu Us sandy lands in north China, (ii) Darfur district in north-west Sudan and (iii) southern Tunisia. The severity of desertification in these areas was classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme. The following vegetation changes were observed with increasing severity of desertification: a decrease in the number of plant species, an increase in drought-tolerant plants, a decrease in the proportion of palatable grasses and the occurrence of some species in only one category of desertification, whereas other species occurred in several categories. Plant species with unique niche requirements were identified and recommended as indicators of the degree of desertification for particular areas. We discuss the characteristics of species in areas with severe desertification and the method of using plant species as indicators of the extent of desertification. Résumé Nous avons examiné la distribution des plantes dans des régions sableuses touchées à différents degrés par la désertification 1) dans les terres sableuses de Horqin et de Mu Us, dans le nord de la Chine, 2) dans le district du Darfur, au nord-ouest du Soudan et 3) dans le sud de la Tunisie. La gravité de la désertification était classifiée comme légère, modérée, sévère ou extrême. Les changements de végétation suivants ont été observés en fonction de l'accroissement de la désertification: une diminution du nombre d'espèces de plantes, une augmentation des plantes supportant la sécheresse, une diminution de la proportion de plantes appétantes, et l'occurrence de certaines espèces qui ne vivent que dans une catégorie de désertification, alors que d'autres espèces apparaissent dans plusieurs catégories. On a identifié les espèces végétales qui exigent une niche précise et on les a recommandées comme indicateurs du degré de désertification dans des zones particulières. Nous discutons des caractéristiques des espèces dans des régions où la sécheresse est sévère et de la méthode pour utiliser les espèces végétales comme indicateurs de la gravité de la désertification. [source]


ABSTRACT The pectin methyl esterase enzyme system was shown to be involved in firmness of thermally treated onion in the temperature range 50,70C. Thermal softening of onion at 90 and 100C showed an initial steep negative slope with a shallow negative slope at longer heating time. Low-temperature blanching at 70C was effective to maintain firm onion tissue exposed to excessive heating. Physical strength of onion was substantially diminished when exposed to a commercial sterilization condition where F0, extent of thermal sterilization, was 3, and/or more. Blanching in water for 120 min at 70C resulted in a maximum value for the firmness of commercially sterilized onion. Firmness of onion, blanched in calcium brine at a concentration range of 0.0,1.0% (wt) prior to heat treatment, decreased with increasing severity of thermal sterilization treatment. At F0 = 6, blanching in 0.5% calcium brine resulted in maximum firmness of thermally sterilized onion, approximately 70% of that of raw onion. [source]

Biopsy site for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer

Chan Gyoo Kim
Abstract Background:,Helicobacter pylori eradication is recommended in post-gastric cancer resection, but premalignant changes may prevent the detection of H. pylori. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate biopsy site for detecting H. pylori in gastric cancer patients. Materials and Methods:, Consecutive patients (194) with gastric adenocarcinoma were prospectively enrolled. Helicobacter pylori was evaluated by serology, histology and rapid urease test. Biopsy sites included antrum lesser curvature, upper body lesser curvature (UBLC) and upper body greater curvature (UBGC). Two biopsy specimens were obtained from each site for histological examination. One additional specimen was obtained from UBGC for the rapid urease test. Results:, The overall infection rate of H. pylori was 84.0% (95% CI 78.9,89.2). The sensitivity of histology for detecting H. pylori at various sites was: antrum (54.9%; 95% CI 45.7,63.9), UBLC (80.3%; 95% CI 72.2,87.0) and UBGC (95.1%; 95% CI 89.6,98.2). Specificities of all three biopsy sites were more than 95%. Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid urease test performed at UBGC were 96% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivities of histology decreased in correlation with increasing severity of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (both P < 0.001 using the chi-square test for trend). The proportions of moderate to marked atrophy/intestinal metaplasia at UBGC (12.8%/14.7%) were significantly lower than those at antrum (50.0%/57.8%, P < 0.001 respectively) or UBLC (40.0%/48.9%, P < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions:, The UBGC side is the most sensitive and specific biopsy site to detect H. pylori in gastric cancer patients due to less frequent atrophy and intestinal metaplasia than at the antrum or UBLC side. [source]

Circulating levels of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in lower respiratory tract infections

Abstract. Objective., To analyse the mid region of plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) levels in patients with lower respiratory tract infections to evaluate its prognostic use for the severity of disease and outcome. Design., Prospective observational study. Setting., Emergency department of a university hospital. Subjects., A total of 545 consecutive patients with lower respiratory tract infections and 50 healthy controls. Interventions., MR-proANP was measured in serum from all patients using a new sandwich immunoassay. Results., MR-proANP levels (median [IQR], in pmol L,1) were significantly higher in patients with lower respiratory tract infections when compared with controls (138.0 [74.1,279.0] vs. 72.7 [62.5,89.5], P < 0.001), with highest levels in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). MR-proANP, but not C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, gradually increased with increasing severity of CAP, classified according to the pneumonia severity index (PSI) score (P < 0.001). On admission, MR-proANP levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors when compared with survivors (293.0 [154.0,633.0] vs. 129.0 [71.4,255.0], P < 0.001). In a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for the prediction of survival of patients with CAP the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for MR-proANP was 0.69, similar when compared with the PSI (AUC 0.74, P = 0.31), and better when compared with other biomarkers, i.e. procalcitonin (AUC 0.57, P = 0.08), CRP (AUC 0.52, P = 0.02), and leucocyte count (AUC 0.56, P = 0.07). Conclusions., MR-proANP levels are increased in lower respiratory tract infections, especially in CAP. Together with other clinical, radiographic and laboratory findings, MR-proANP levels might be helpful for the risk stratification in CAP. [source]

Assessment of acid-base status of cats with naturally occurring chronic renal failure

J. Elliott
Metabolic acidosis is reported to be a common complication of feline chronic renal failure (CRF) but acid-base status of feline patients with this disease is rarely assessed by general practitioners. A cross-sectional study involving 59 cases of naturally occurring feline CRF was conducted to determine the prevalence of acid-base disturbances. Cases were categorised on the basis of their plasma creatinine concentrations as mild, moderate or severe. A group of 27 clinically healthy, age-matched cats was assessed for comparison. A low venous blood pH (<7·270) was found in 10 of the 19 severe cases (52·6 per cent), three of the 20 moderate cases (15 per cent) and none of the 20 mild cases. Acidaemia was associated with an increased anion gap contributed to by both low plasma bicarbonate and low chloride ion concentrations. Biochemical analysis of urine samples showed urine pH to decrease with increasing severity of renal failure. Urinary loss of bicarbonate was not associated with the occurrence of acidaemia and there was a tendency for urinary ammonium ion excretion to decrease as the severity of renal failure increased. Cats with naturally occurring CRF do not show plasma biochemical evidence of acid-base disturbances until the disease is advanced. [source]

Clinical measures of progression in Parkinson's disease,

Werner Poewe MD
Abstract Despite all recent advances in symptomatic therapy Parkinson's disease (PD) continues to be a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Therefore therapies that will slow or hold disease progression are a major medical unmet need in PD. Clinical measures of disease progression that have been used in disease modification trials so far have focused on indices of progression of cardinal motor features like bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor as captured by the UPDRS and the emerging need for effective dopaminergic symptomatic therapy. Progression of global disability in PD, however, is driven by additional factors beyond progressive nigrostriatal denervation leading to increasing severity of cardinal motor features. Progressive pathology in extranigral sites in the brain or peripheral autonomic nervous system contribute to poorly levodopa responsive motor symptoms like postural instability, freezing and falls or nonmotor symptoms. In addition treatment-induced motor complications also impact on PD disability. Although it is widely accepted that clinical progression of PD is multidimensional and in addition includes effects of aging, there is no consensus how to best implement more clinically meaningful endpoints for disease progression trials that would reflect these complex interactions impacting on the evolution of global disability in PD. There is an urgent need for biomarkers for disease progression that would faithfully reflect advancing neurodegeneration and resulted clinical disability in PD and that could be used in shorter term clinical trials testing putative disease modifying agents. © 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Obesity dynamics and cardiovascular risk factor stability in obese adolescents

Ram Weiss
Aim:, Cross-sectional studies showed worsening of cardiovascular risk factors with increasing severity of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity dynamics on cardiovascular risk factors and on the stability of the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese youth. Methods and results:, A longitudinal assessment of components of the MS using two definitions was performed in 186 obese adolescents (106 females/80 males, age 13.1 ± 2.5 yr). Components of the MS were assessed at baseline and after 19 ± 7 months. We stratified the cohort into three categories based on the 25th and 75th percentile of body mass index (BMI) z-score change: category 1 reduced BMI z-score by 0.09 or more, category 2 had a BMI z-score change of between ,0.09 and 0.12, and category 3 increased BMI z-score by >0.12. Subjects who reduced their BMI z-score significantly decreased their fasting and 2-h glucose levels and triglyceride levels and increased their high density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison to subjects who increased their BMI z-score. BMI z-score changes negatively correlated with changes in insulin sensitivity (r = ,0.36, p < 0.001). Among those with no MS at baseline (n = 119), 10 (8%), most of whom significantly increased their BMI z-score, developed MS. Of 67 who had MS at baseline, 33 (50%), most of whom decreased their BMI z-score, lost the diagnosis. Conclusions:, Obesity dynamics, tightly linked to changes in insulin sensitivity, have an impact on each individual component of the MS and on the stability of the diagnosis of MS in obese youth. [source]

Generalized non-stationary preventive maintenance model for deteriorating repairable systems

K. A. H. Kobbacy
Abstract This paper deals with a practical approach for the analysis and modelling of preventive maintenance (PM) data for repairable systems which have an increasing failure frequency and/or increasing severity. The concept and testing for the trend of severity of corrective work (CO) and PM are discussed. A framework for statistical analysis of interarrival times and downtimes due to CO/PM is proposed. A generalized non-stationary model for scheduling PM to maximize availability is suggested. The effect of severity on scheduling PM activities is shown through sensitivity analysis. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Cerebellar morphology in Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder

Russell H. Tobe MD
Objective Neuroanatomical and functional imaging studies have identified the cerebellum as an integral component of motor and language control. Few studies, however, have investigated the role of the cerebellum in Tourette syndrome (TS), a condition defined by the presence of semi-involuntary movements and sounds. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted in 163 persons with TS and 147 control participants. Multivariate linear regression models were used to explore effects on cerebellar surface morphology and underlying volumes for the main diagnosis effects of TS as well as comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Additionally, the correlations of symptom severity with cerebellar morphology were also assessed. Results The TS group demonstrated reduced volumes of the cerebellar hemispheres bilaterally that derived primarily from reduced gray matter in crus I and lobules VI, VIIB, and VIIIA. These decreased regional volumes accompanied increasing tic symptom severity and motoric disinhibition as demonstrated by a finger tapping test. Males had reduced volumes of these same regions compared with females, irrespective of diagnosis. Comorbid OCD was associated with relative enlargement of these regions in proportion to the increasing severity of OCD symptoms. Interpretation The cerebellum is involved in the pathogenesis of TS and tic-related OCD. Baseline gender differences in cerebellar morphology may in part account for the more prevalent expression of TS in males. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:479,487 [source]

Anal stenosis: use of an algorithm to provide a tension-free anoplasty

Zeev Duieb
Abstract Background:, Anal stenosis is a debilitating condition that often is iatrogenic in cause. Various surgical procedures to manage this problem have been described. The present study evaluates the use of different anoplasty techniques in a series of 11 patients with anal stenosis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to provide a stepwise algorithm for the anoplasty techniques used. Methods:, A series of 11 patients were evaluated for presenting symptoms, cause of anal stenosis, type of anoplasty used, complications and post-operative success in relieving symptoms. All operations were performed by one surgeon in three hospitals, and were followed up by the same surgeon and by a surgical registrar. Results:, The most common presenting symptoms were constipation and decreasing calibre of stool. The main causes of anal stenosis were previous surgery, neoplasia and fissure. Transverse closure, Y-V and diamond advancement flaps were used in an escalating manner to deal with increasing severity of stenosis. All 11 patients had some level of improvement in symptoms post-operatively. There were no long-term complications. Conclusion:, Anoplasty is a safe and successful option in the treatment of anal stenosis, and this stepwise algorithm takes the guesswork out of choosing the most appropriate procedure for each patient. [source]

Follicular miniaturization in female pattern hair loss: clinicopathological correlations

A.G. Messenger
Summary Background, The pathology of female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is characterized by an increase in the proportion of vellus follicles, manifest as a low terminal/vellus ratio. This is conventionally thought to be due to a progressive miniaturization of terminal hair follicles. There is also a prolongation of the latent period of the hair cycle (kenogen) in both male pattern hair loss and FPHL and follicles in kenogen may be difficult to classify histologically. Therefore, a low terminal/vellus ratio could be due to a preferential increase in the number of terminal follicles in kenogen rather than to a true increase in the number of vellus follicles. Objectives, To establish whether there is an increase in the absolute number of vellus follicles during the progression of FPHL, indicating a process of follicular miniaturization. Methods, We studied 42 women complaining of hair loss. The severity of the hair loss was graded clinically on a five-point scale from 1 (no obvious hair loss) to 5 (severe hair loss). Three 4-mm punch biopsies were taken from the frontal scalp of each patient, sectioned horizontally and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Two levels were studied on each biopsy: through the mid-infundibular region and through the mid-isthmus. The following were counted: total follicles, terminal follicles, vellus follicles, anagen and telogen/catagen follicles. The results from the three biopsies from each subject were averaged and statistical evaluations performed on the mean values. Results, There was a progressive decline in mean total follicle count with increasing grade of hair loss (grade 1, 317 cm,2; grade 5, 243 cm,2) and a more pronounced reduction in terminal follicle counts (grade 1, 263 cm,2; grade 5, 96 cm,2). The absolute number of vellus follicles increased from 33 cm,2 (grade 1) to 71 cm,2 (grade 4), declining to 51 cm,2 at grade 5. The terminal/vellus ratio fell from 12·8 (grade 1) to 2·3 (grade 4) and remained at this level thereafter. The proportion of follicles in telogen increased from 13·7% (grade 1) to 31·4% (grade 5). Conclusions, Our results show that there is an increase in vellus follicle numbers with increasing severity of hair loss in women with FPHL, suggesting that terminal follicles do indeed miniaturize. It is possible that there is also an increase in the number of follicles in a latent stage of telogen but this was difficult to assess from our data. The fall in total follicle counts with stabilizing of the terminal/vellus ratio in severe hair loss suggests that miniaturization does not stop with a vellus follicle but progresses to follicular deletion. [source]

Impact of faecal incontinence severity on health domains

M. Deutekom
Abstract Objective Faecal incontinence is a problem that can have a major impact on the quality of life of those affected. Our aim was to relate the severity of faecal incontinence to the impact on several general health domains. Methods Patients from a prospective diagnostic cohort study, performed in 16 medical centres in the Netherlands, were invited to the study. The severity of incontinence was determined with the Vaizey score, which ranges from 0 (continent) to 24 (totally incontinent). Based on their Vaizey score, patients were assigned to one of five severity categories. All patients completed the EuroQol-5D instrument, which evaluates the existence of problems on five health domains: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. Results Data from 259 consecutive patients (25 male) could be analysed. Their mean age was 59 years (SD ± 12). The mean duration of faecal incontinence was 8.1 years (SD ± 8). The proportion of patients reporting problems rose significantly with increasing severity of faecal incontinence in the domains of usual activities (ranging from 36% in the least severe group to 71% in the most severe group (P < 0.001)), pain/discomfort (ranging from 35% to 60%; P = 0.025), and anxiety/depression (ranging from 23% to 49%; P = 0.037). No significant trends could be observed in the domains of mobility and self-care. Conclusion There exists a significant relation between severity of incontinence and frequency of reported problems in the domains of usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. [source]