Increasing Salinity (increasing + salinity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Nitrite Toxicity to Litopenaeus vannamei in Water Containing Low Concentrations of Sea Salt or Mixed Salts

Anthony Sowers
The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. [source]

Tolerance of Soil Flagellates to Increased NaCl levels

ABSTRACT. The ability of heterotrophic flagellates to survive and adapt to increasing salinities was investigated in this study. Whole soil samples were subjected to salinities corresponding to marine conditions and clonal cultures were used to perform growth and adaptation experiments at a wide range of different salinities (0,50 ppm). More morphotypes tolerant to elevated NaCl levels were found in road verge soil that was heavily exposed to de-icing salt than in less exposed soils, though there were fewer tolerant than intolerant morphotypes in all soils examined. Heterotrophic flagellates isolated on a freshwater medium from a non-exposed soil were unable to thrive at salinities above 15 ppt, and showed reduced growth rates even at low salt salinities (1,5 ppt). The findings suggest that heterotrophic soil flagellates are less tolerant to NaCl than their aquatic relatives, possibly due to their long evolutionary history in soil, and support the idea that identical morphospecies may differ considerably with respect to physiology [source]

Loss of diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria correlates with increasing salinity in an estuary system

Anne E. Bernhard
Summary Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play an important role in nitrogen cycling in estuaries, but little is known about AOB diversity, distribution and activity in relation to the chemical and physical changes encountered in estuary systems. Although estuarine salinity gradients are well recognized to influence microbial community structure, few studies have examined the influence of varying salinity on the diversity and stability of AOB populations. To investigate these relationships, we collected sediment samples from low-, mid- and high-salinity sites in Plum Island Sound estuary, MA, during spring and late summer over 3 years. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria distribution and diversity were assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, and fragments were identified by screening amoA clone libraries constructed from each site. Most striking was the stability and low diversity of the AOB community at the high-salinity site, showing little variability over 3 years. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at the high-salinity site were not closely related to any cultured AOB, but were most similar to Nitrosospira spp. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at the mid- and low-salinity sites were distributed among Nitrosospira- like sequences and sequences related to Nitrosomonas ureae/oligotropha and Nitrosomonas sp. Nm143. Our study suggests that salinity is a strong environmental control on AOB diversity and distribution in this estuary. [source]

Diversity of planktonic photoautotrophic microorganisms along a salinity gradient as depicted by microscopy, flow cytometry, pigment analysis and DNA-based methods

Marta Estrada
Abstract The diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton was studied along a gradient of salinity in the solar salterns of Bras del Port in Santa Pola (Alacant, Spain) using different community descriptors. Chlorophyll a, HPLC pigment composition, flow cytometrically-determined picoplankton concentration, taxonomic composition of phytoplankton (based on optical microscopy) and genetic fingerprint patterns of 16S (cyanobacteria- and chloroplast-specific primers) and 18S rRNA genes were determined for samples from ponds with salinities ranging from 4% to 37%. Both morphological and genetical descriptors of taxonomic composition showed a good agreement and indicated a major discontinuity at salinities between 15% and 22%. The number of classes and the Shannon diversity index corresponding to the different descriptors showed a consistent decreasing trend with increasing salinity. The results indicate a selective effect of extremely high salinities on phytoplanktonic assemblages. [source]

The effects of salinity on aquatic plant germination and zooplankton hatching from two wetland sediments

Daryl L. Nielsen
Summary 1. The effect of increasing salinity on the emergence of zooplankton eggs and the germination of aquatic plant seeds from the sediment of two wetlands was examined. Salinity was found to cause reductions in species richness and abundance of aquatic plants and zooplankton at salinities between 1000 and 5000 mg L,1. Aquatic plants also had an associated decrease in above ground biomass. 2. Individual taxa showed different responses to salinity, and four response patterns were identified: (i) increased number of organisms emerging at 1000 mg L,1; (ii) decreased number of organisms emerging above 1000 mg L,1; (iii) decreased number of organisms emerging between 300 and 1000 mg L,1; (iv) no difference in number of organisms emerging across the range of salinities. Response patterns (iii) and (iv) were common to both plants and zooplankton, whereas response patterns (i) and (ii) were only identified for zooplankton. 3. Results indicate that there is potential for the increasing salinity in Australian rivers and wetlands to decrease the species richness of aquatic communities resulting in loss of wetland biodiversity. [source]

Effects of Salinity and Mixed Ammonium and Nitrate Nutrition on the Growth and Nitrogen Utilization of Barley

A. Ali
The absorption and utilization of nitrogen (N) by plants are affected by salinity and the form of N in the root medium. A hydroponic study was conducted under controlled conditions to investigate growth and N uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) supplied with five different NH4+ -N/NO3, -N ratios at electrical conductivity of 0 and 8 dS m,1. The five NH4+ -N/NO3 -N ratios were 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 and 100/0, each giving a total N supply of 100 mg N l,1 in the root medium. A mixed N supply of NH4+ and NO3, resulted in greater accumulation of N in plants than either NO3, or NH4+ as the sole N source. Plants produced a significantly higher dry matter yield when grown with mixed N nutrition than with NH4+ or NO3, alone. Total dry matter production and root and shoot N contents decreased with increasing salinity in the root medium. The interaction between salinity and N nutrition was found to be significant for all the variables. A significant positive correlation (r=0.97) was found between nitrogen level in the plant shoot and its dry matter yield. Wachstum und Stickstoffausnutzung bei Gerste in Abhängigkeit von Versalzung und Michungen von Ammonium und Nitrat Aufnahme und Nutzung von N durch Pflanzen wird von der Versalzung und N-Form im Wurzelbereich bestimmt. Es wurde in Hydrokultur unter kontrollierten Bedingungen Wachstum und N-Aufnahme durch Gerste (Hordeum vulgare L.) bei Anwendung von fünf unterschiedlichen NH4+ -N/NO3, -N Verhältnissen bei einer elektrischen Konduktivität von 0 und 8 dS m,1 untersucht. Die Gesamtmenge von 100 mg N l,1 im Wurzelmedium wies NH4+ -N/NO3, -N Verhältnisse von 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 und 100/0 auf. Mischungen von NH4+ und NO3, führten zu einer größeren Aufnahme durch die Pflanzen als bei alleiniger Anwendung von NO3, oder NH4+. Die Pflanzen produzierten signifikant mehr Gesamttrockenmasse mit Mischungen der beiden N-Formen im Vergleich zu alleiniger Anwendung von NH4+ oder NO3,. Die Gesamttrockenmasse sowie die N-Gehalte von Wurzel und Sproß nahmen mit steigender Versalzung ab. Versalzungs- und N-Versorgungs-Interaktion war signifikant in allen Versuchsbedingungen. Eine signifikante positive Korrelation (r=0,97) wurde zwischen Stickstoffkonzentration und der Trockenmasseproduktion der Pflanze gefunden. [source]

Differences in efficient metabolite management and nutrient metabolic regulation between wild and cultivated barley grown at high salinity

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Sabah Yousfi
Abstract Physiological and biochemical responses of Hordeum maritimum and H. vulgare to salt stress were studied over a 60-h period. Growth at increasing salinity levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl) was assessed in hydroponic culture. H. maritimum was shown to be a true halophyte via its typical behaviour at high salinity. Shoot growth of cultivated barley was gradually reduced with increasing salinity, whereas that of wild barley was enhanced at 100 and 200 mm NaCl then slightly reduced at 300 mM NaCl. The higher salt tolerance of H. maritimum as compared to H. vulgare was due to its higher capacity to maintain cell turgor under severe salinity. Furthermore, H. maritimum exhibited fine regulation of Na+ transport from roots to shoots and, unlike H. vulgare, it accumulated less Na+ in shoots than in roots. In addition, H. maritimum can accumulate more Na+ than K+ in both roots and shoots without the appearance of toxicity symptoms, indicating that Na+ was well compartmentalized within cells and substituted K+ in osmotic adjustment. The higher degree of salt tolerance of H. maritimum is further demonstrated by its economic strategy: at moderate salt treatment (100 mm NaCl), it used inorganic solutes (such as Na+) for osmotic adjustment and kept organic solutes and a large part of the K+ for metabolic activities. Indeed, K+ use efficiency in H. maritimum was about twofold that in H. vulgare; the former started to use organic solutes as osmotica only at high salinity (200 and 300 mm NaCl). These results suggest that the differences in salt tolerance between H. maritimum and H. vulgare are partly due to (i) differences in control of Na+ transport from roots to shoots, and (ii) H. maritimum uses Na+ as an osmoticum instead of K+ and organic solutes. These factors are differently reflected in growth. [source]

Effects of salt stress on purslane (Portulaca oleracea) nutrition

M. Teixeira
Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the influence of saline stress on the chemical composition of purslane (Portulaca oleracea), in particular the mineral composition. Four salinity levels were investigated using irrigation solutions with electrical conductivity values of 0.8, 6.8, 12.8 and 24.2 dS m,1 and two planting dates (May and July) were tested. Samples of full-grown leaf and stems of purslane were harvested after 7 and 15 days of the saline treatment exposure. Chemical analysis (dry matter basis) of leaves showed significant differences among the different saline treatments for all the characteristics measured. Salinity levels, planting date and harvest time significantly influenced (P < 0.05) the levels of crude protein, total lipids, ash and carbohydrate content. Salinity treatments did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect the water content of purslane leaves. The crude protein content of purslane leaves decreased with increasing salinity levels and time of exposure to treatment. However, carbohydrates and mineral residue content increased. An unusual phenomenon was noted for intermediate salinity levels, whereby an increase in total lipid content was measured in leaves of plants exposed to salinity treatments of 6.8 and 12.8 dS m,1. The highest mineral residue content was seen in leaves of purslane exposed to the highest salinity treatment. The mineral composition was also affected by salinity levels, Na and Cl uptake, and accumulation increased with increasing salinity in irrigation solution; Mg concentration was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by salinity levels, although a slight increase was seen, and Ca, K and Zn levels significantly (P < 0.05) decreased. Ca and Zn preferentially accumulated in the leaves, while K and Na values were higher in the stems. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in relative ratio of Na/K, Mg/K, Na/Ca and Mg/Ca was observed with increasing salinity levels. A decrease in the yield of purslane was only observed for the most severe saline treatment, where the highest ratio of Mg/Ca was seen. This study reveals that purslane is relatively tolerant to conditions of moderate salinity, thus improving its potential to become a key vegetable crop for animal and human consumption. [source]