Increasing Role (increasing + role)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Writing the History of Humanity: The Role of Museums in Defining Origins and Ancestors in a Transnational World

Monique Scott
ABSTRACT This article explores the question of how transnational audiences experience anthropology exhibitions in particular, and the natural history museum overall. Of interest are the ways in which natural history museums reconcile anthropological notions of humanity's shared evolutionary history,in particular, African origins accounts,with visitors' complex cultural identities. Through case studies of British, American, and Kenyan museum audiences, this research probed the cultural preconceptions that museum visitors bring to the museum and use to interpret their evolutionary heritage. The research took special notice of audiences of African descent, and their experiences in origins exhibitions and the natural history museums that house them. The article aims to draw connections between natural history museums and the dynamic ways in which museum visitors make meaning. As museums play an increasing role in the transnational homogenization of cultures, human origins exhibitions are increasingly challenged to communicate an evolutionary prehistory that we collectively share, while validating the cultural histories that make us unique. [source]

A European Legal Method?

On European Private Law, Scientific Method
This article examines the relationship between European private law and scientific method. It argues that a European legal method is a good idea. Not primarily because it will make European private law scholarship look more scientific, but because a debate on the method of a normative science necessarily has to be a debate on its normative assumptions. In other words, a debate on a European legal method will have much in common with the much desired debate on social justice in European law. Moreover, it submits that, at least after the adoption of the Common Frame of Reference by the European institutions, European contract law can be regarded as a developing multi-level system that can be studied from the inside. Finally, it concludes that the Europeanisation of private law is gradually blurring the dividing line between the internal and external perspectives, with their respective appropriate methods, in two mutually reinforcing ways. First, in the developing multi-level system it is unclear where the external borders of the system lie, in particular the borders between Community law and national law. Second, because of the less formal legal culture the (formerly) external perspectives, such as the economic perspective, have easier access and play an increasing role as policy considerations. [source]


ABSTRACT. Twenty-five million Americans play golf on the nation's 16,000 courses each year. These golf courses constitute a significant national landscape feature. Since 1878, when the game arrived in the United States, golf has filtered down the urban, economic, and social hierarchies to become accepted by and accessible to most Americans. During the ensuing thirteen decades the number, location, and layout of the nation's golf courses have responded to many of the same driving forces that impacted the nation, including decentralization, growth of the middle class, war, economic depression, suburbanization, and the increasing role of the federal government. Four epochs of golf-course growth and diffusion show the growing acceptance of the sport and depict where courses were most likely to be constructed as a result of the prevailing forces of each epoch. [source]

Development Section, April 2008

Cheryl McEwan
EDITORIAL It is a great privilege to serve as Editor for the Development section of Geography Compass. The journal is an exciting new venture in electronic publishing that aims to publish state-of-the-art peer-reviewed surveys of key contemporary issues in geographical scholarship. As the first Editor of this section, it is my responsibility to establish the key aims and innovations for this section of the journal. These include: publishing reviews of scholarship on topics of contemporary relevance that are accessible and useful to researchers, teachers, students and practitioners; developing the range of topics covered across the spectrum of development geography; helping to set agendas in development geography by identifying gaps in existing empirical and conceptual research; commissioning articles from both established and graduate/early career researchers who are working at the frontiers of development geography; and communicating the distinctiveness of Geography Compass. Part of this distinctiveness is in publishing articles that are both of scholarly excellence and accessible to a wide audience. The first volume of Geography Compass was published in 2007, covering a wide range of topics (e.g. migration, children, technology, grassroots women's organizations, civil society, biodiversity, tourism, inequality, agrarian change, participatory development, disability, spirituality) in a number of specific geographical areas (e.g. Africa/southern Africa, Caribbean, China, Peru). Forthcoming in 2008/2009 are articles on the Gambia, Latin America, the Philippines, Southeast Asia, Bangladesh and South Africa, focusing on topics such as food security, comparative post-socialism, foreign aid and fair trade. Building on these diverse and excellent articles, I plan to communicate the distinctiveness of Development in a number of ways. First, I encourage an ecumenical approach to the notion of ,development geography' and welcome contributions from scholars across a range of social science disciplines whose work would be useful to a geography audience. This is important, not least because both development and geography, in disciplinary terms, are largely European inventions. Many scholars in Latin America, Africa and Asia, for example, do not refer to themselves as either development specialists or geographers but are producing important research in areas of direct relevance to students and researchers of ,development geography'. As the first editions illustrate, I also seek to publish articles that reflect ,development' in its broadest sense, encompassing economic, (geo)political, social, cultural and environmental issues. 2008 will be an interesting year for development, with a number of important issues and events shaping discourse and policy. These include: the Beijing Olympics and increasing focus on China's role in international development; political change in a number of African countries (Kenya, Zimbabwe, South Africa); the US presidential elections and potential shifts in policy on climate change, trade and security; the impacts of the Bali roadmap on climate change in the current economic context; the increasing number of impoverished people in Asia (notably China and India), sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America (notably Brazil) that even the World Bank has acknowledged; the implications of the increasing role of philanthropic foundations (e.g. the Gates Foundation and those emerging in India and Russia) in international development. I hope to see some of these issues covered in this journal. Second, I am keen to break down the association between ,development' and parts of the world variously categorized as ,Third World', ,Global South' or ,Developing World' by publishing articles that cut across North and South, East and West. The intellectual and disciplinary practices within (Western) geography that separate those researching issues in the South and post-socialist contexts from those researching similar issues in advanced capitalist economies are, it seems, no longer sustainable or sensible. Moreover, while studies of transnational and ethical trade, neoliberalism, household economies and ,commodity chains', for example, incorporate a multitude of case studies from across the world, these tend to be understood through conceptual lenses that almost always have their theoretical antecedents in Western theorization. The notion of ,learning from' debates, policy and practice in other parts of the world is still relatively alien within the discipline. There are thus issues in how we research and teach ethically and responsibly in and about different parts of the world, and in which this journal might make a contribution. Third, and related, part of my responsibility is to ensure that Compass reflects the breadth of debate about ,development' by publishing articles written by a truly international range of scholars. This has proved to be a challenge to date, in part reflecting the newness of the journal and the difficulties posed by English language publication. However, an immediate aim is to publish the work and ideas of scholars based outside of Anglophone contexts, in the Global South and in post-socialist contexts, and to use international referees who are able to provide valuable commentaries on the articles. A longer-term aim is to also further internationalize the Editorial Board. Currently, one-third of the Editorial Board is non-UK and I plan to increase this to at least 50% in future. Fourth, I plan to ensure that the Development section takes full advantage of electronic publication and the opportunities this offers. Thus, while I am keen to retain a word limit in the interest of publishing accessible articles, the lack of constraint regarding page space enables authors to include a wide range of illustrative and other material that is impossible in print journals. I plan to encourage authors to make greater use of visual materials (maps, photographs/photo-essays, video, sound recordings, model simulations and datasets) alongside text as well as more innovative forms of presentation where this might be appropriate. Finally, in the coming year, I intend to work more closely with other Compass section Editors to realize the potential for fostering debate that cuts across subdisciplinary and even disciplinary boundaries. The journal publishes across the full spectrum of the discipline and there is thus scope for publishing articles and/or special issues on development-related topics that might best be approached through dialogue between the natural and social sciences. Such topics might include resources (e.g. water, oil, bio-fuels), hazard and risk (from environmental issues to human and state security), and sustainability and quality of life (planned for 2008). Part of the distinctiveness of Compass is that electronic-only publication ensures that articles are published in relatively quick time , in some cases less than 3 months from initial submission to publication. It thus provides an important outlet for researchers working in fast-changing contexts and for those, such as graduate and early-career researchers, who might require swift publication for career purposes. Of course, as Editor I am reliant on referees both engaging with Manuscript Central and providing reports on articles in a relatively short space of time to fully expedite the process. My experience so far has been generally very positive and I would like to thank the referees for working within the spirit of the journal. Editing a journal is, of course, a collaborative and shared endeavour. The Development Editorial Board has been central to the successful launch of Development by working so generously to highlight topics and potential authors and to review articles; I would like to take this opportunity to thank Tony Bebbington, Reg Cline-Cole, Sara Kindon, Claire Mercer, Giles Mohan, Warwick Murray, Richa Nagar, Rob Potter, Saraswati Raju, Jonathan Rigg, Jenny Robinson and Alison Stenning. The Editors-in-Chief , Mike Bradshaw and Basil Gomez , have provided invaluable advice while adding humour (and colour) to the editorial process. Colleagues at Wiley-Blackwell have provided superb support, in particular, Helen Ashton who is constantly on hand to provide advice and assistance. I look forward to working closely with these people again in the coming year, as well as with the authors and readers who are vital to ensuring that Geography Compass fulfils its remit. [source]

Systematic review and meta-analysis in anatomic pathology

M K Heatley
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are techniques of data retrieval and analysis which complement traditional narrative reviews. They are widely used in clinical medicine and are finding an increasing role in anatomical pathology. Performing high quality systematic review and meta-analysis requires the accumulation of large numbers of cases from well planned and executed studies and is facilitated if data is presented in a standardized manner. Techniques which allow data from individual patients included in a variety of different studies are now being developed indicating that in future research papers may require a more detailed description of results than in the past. This need may be met by posting anonymised data on the Internet. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are never complete since data are continually contributed and analyses constantly updated. As with any research paper, the results of these techniques require careful evaluation and the role of the expert reviewer is enlarged by these methodologies. [source]

Nonoperative imaging techniques in suspected biliary tract obstruction

HPB, Issue 6 2006
Frances Tse
Abstract Evaluation of suspected biliary tract obstruction is a common clinical problem. Clinical data such as history, physical examination, and laboratory tests can accurately identify up to 90% of patients whose jaundice is caused by extrahepatic obstruction. However, complete assessment of extrahepatic obstruction often requires the use of various imaging modalities to confirm the presence, level, and cause of obstruction, and to aid in treatment plan. In the present summary, the literature on competing technologies including endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiopancreatography (PTC), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), helical CT (hCT) and helical CT cholangiography (hCTC) with regards to diagnostic performance characteristics, technical success, safety, and cost-effectiveness is reviewed. Patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to choledocholithiasis or pancreaticobiliary malignancies are the primary focus of this review. Algorithms for the management of suspected obstructive jaundice are put forward based on current evidence. Published data suggest an increasing role for EUS and other noninvasive imaging techniques such as MRCP, and hCT following an initial transabdominal ultrasound in the assessment of patients with suspected biliary obstruction to select candidates for surgery or therapeutic ERCP. The management of patients with a suspected pancreaticobiliary condition ultimately is dependent on local expertise, availability, cost, and the multidisciplinary collaboration between radiologists, surgeons, and gastroenterologists. [source]

How the ,customer' influences the skills of the front-line worker

Anne Mcbride
Previous research illustrates how managers use the ,customer' in the service sector to develop roles and determine requisite skill sets. This article uses the evaluation of a recent workforce modernisation initiative in the NHS to provide insights into the manner in which the patient has played an increasing role in the construction of skills in healthcare. It indicates how public-funded healthcare in the NHS contains similar tensions and contradictions to service work in consumer capitalism. Although the patient is not in a position of authority, the desire of some workers to address fully the physical and psychological needs of the patient (or embodied customer) leads them to develop skills and roles that management may find hard to resource within current budgets. [source]

Downward approach to hydrological prediction

Murugesu Sivapalan
Abstract This paper presents an overview of the ,downward approach' to hydrologic prediction and attempts to provide a context for the papers appearing in this special issue. The downward approach is seen as a necessary counterpoint to the mechanistic ,reductionist' approach that dominates current hydrological model development. It provides a systematic framework to learning from data, including the testing of hypotheses at every step of analysis. It can also be applied in a hierarchical manner: starting from exploring first-order controls in the modelling of catchment response, the model complexity can then be increased in response to deficiencies in reproducing observations at different levels. The remaining contributions of this special issue present a number of applications of the downward approach, including development of parsimonious water balance models with changing time scales by learning from signatures extracted from observed streamflow data at different time scales, regionalization of model parameters, parameterization of effects of sub-grid variability, and standardized statistical approaches to analyse data and to develop model structures. This review demonstrates that the downward approach is not a rigid methodology, but represents a generic framework. It needs to play an increasing role in the future in the development of hydrological models at the catchment scale. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Optimal flow control for Navier,Stokes equations: drag minimization

L. Dedè
Abstract Optimal control and shape optimization techniques have an increasing role in Fluid Dynamics problems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs). In this paper, we consider the problem of drag minimization for a body in relative motion in a fluid by controlling the velocity through the body boundary. With this aim, we handle with an optimal control approach applied to the steady incompressible Navier,Stokes equations. We use the Lagrangian functional approach and we consider the Lagrangian multiplier method for the treatment of the Dirichlet boundary conditions, which include the control function itself. Moreover, we express the drag coefficient, which is the functional to be minimized, through the variational form of the Navier,Stokes equations. In this way, we can derive, in a straightforward manner, the adjoint and sensitivity equations associated with the optimal control problem, even in the presence of Dirichlet control functions. The problem is solved numerically by an iterative optimization procedure applied to state and adjoint PDEs which we approximate by the finite element method. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms?

Ian Manners
Twenty years ago, in the pages of the, Journal of Common Market Studies, Hedley Bull launched a searing critique of the European Community's ,civilian power' in international affairs. Since that time the increasing role of the European Union (EU) in areas of security and defence policy has led to a seductiveness in adopting the notion of ,military power Europe'. In contrast, I will attempt to argue that by thinking beyond traditional conceptions of the EU's international role and examining the case study of its international pursuit of the abolition of the death penalty, we may best conceive of the EU as a ,normative power Europe'. [source]

Extracorporeal photopheresis with permanent subcutaneous right atrial catheters

Hartmut Ständer
Summary Background: Adequate peripheral venous access is crucial for successful extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP). As this approach is not always feasible in older patients and patients with graft-versus-host disease, central venous catheters play an increasing role in providing long-term vascular access for ECP.However, not all catheters are able to deliver the minimum flow rate of 7 ml/min for ECP. Patients and Methods: Eight different permanent subcutaneous right atrial catheters were connected in vitro to the UVAR® -XTSÔ photopheresis system and median flow rates were determined. In addition, in vivo flow rates of patients who received ECP, using either peripheral or central venous access, were determined. Results: Hemodialysis catheters with an internal diameter of 2.0 or 1.5 × 3.5 mm and a length up to 48 cm provided in vitro flow rates of 27,28 ml/min, almost identical to a peripheral access needle. Central venous catheters with a length of over 90 cm reached flow rates below 7 ml/min and are impractical for ECP. The analysis of 308 ECP collection cycles with peripheral vascular access revealed an average flow rate of 31.5 ± 6.4 ml/min. Only permanent subcutaneous right atrial catheters made for hemodialysis provided similar flow rates (Quinton PermCath Dual Lumen) (33.7 ± 4.7 ml/min, n = 198). Conclusions: Permanent subcutaneous hemodialysis catheters with a length of maximally 48 cm achieve optimal flow rates for ECP. They represent therefore the central venous access of choice in patients with inadequate peripheral vascular access. [source]

Partisanship, Ideology, and Senate Voting on Supreme Court Nominees

Charles R. Shipan
Ideological concerns play a major role in determining whether a senator will vote to confirm or reject a Supreme Court nominee. Much less is understood, however, about the effects of partisanship on confirmation votes. This study investigates two aspects of partisanship: first, whether confirmation voting has become more partisan over time, even when controlling for other factors, including ideology; and second, whether partisanship modifies the influence of ideology. The results demonstrate that partisanship has played an increasing role over time and that the effects of ideology are contingent on partisanship. [source]

Role of radiology in the treatment of malignant hilar biliary strictures 1: Review of the literature

Michael WJ Hii
SUMMARY Malignant strictures of the biliary tree are an uncommon cause of obstructive jaundice. There are a number of pathological subtypes, but tumours in this region tend to have similar clinical and diagnostic features and therapeutic and prognostic implications. We review the published literature on this topic discussing diagnostic modalities and treatment options with a focus on radiological intervention. Diagnosis currently is best achieved using a range of procedures. Direct cholangiography remains the gold standard in delineating anatomy, but the invasiveness of this procedure limits its use as a purely diagnostic tool. Magnetic resonance technology, in particular magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, has an increasing role as accessibility is improved. Treatment of these tumours is difficult. Surgical resection and palliative biliary enteric bypass are the most common methods used with endoscopic and percutaneous therapies reserved for palliating patients not fit for surgery. There is little firm evidence to suggest that any one palliative modality is superior. Interventional radiology is particularly suitable for palliative management of difficult and expansive lesions as the anatomy can preclude easy access by surgical or endoscopic techniques. Good palliative results with minimal mortality and morbidity can be achieved with percutaneous stenting . [source]

Review article: the management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding

J. J. Farrell
Summary Several recent advances have been made in the evaluation and management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. This review focuses on the management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding, especially acute severe bleeding. The aim of the study was to critically review the published literature on important management issues in lower gastrointestinal bleeding, including haemodynamic resuscitation, diagnostic evaluation, and endoscopic, radiologic, and surgical therapy, and to develop an algorithm for the management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding, based on this literature review. Publications pertaining to lower gastrointestinal bleeding were identified by searches of the MEDLINE database for the years 1966 to December 2004. Clinical trials and review articles were specifically identified, and their reference citation lists were searched for additional publications not identified in the database searches. Clinical trials and current clinical recommendations were assessed by using commonly applied criteria. Specific recommendations are made based on the evidence reviewed. Approximately, 200 original and review articles were reviewed and graded. There is a paucity of high-quality evidence to guide the management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and current endoscopic, radiologic, and surgical practices appear to reflect local expertise and availability of services. Endoscopic literature supports the role of urgent colonoscopy and therapy where possible. Radiology literature supports the role of angiography, especially after a positive bleeding scan has been obtained. Limited surgical data support the role of segmental resection in the management of persistent lower gastrointestinal bleeding after localization by either colonoscopy or angiography. There is limited high-quality research in the area of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Recent advances have improved the endoscopic, radiologic and surgical management of this problem. However, treatment decisions are still often based on local expertise and preference. With increased access to urgent therapeutic endoscopy for the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy can be expected to play an increasing role in the management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. [source]

Embedding 3D models of biological specimens in PDF publications

Bernhard Ruthensteiner
Abstract By providing two examples, the option for embedding 3D models in electronic versions of life science publications is presented. These examples, presumably representing the first such models published, are developmental stages of an evertebrate (Patella caerulea, Mollusca) and a vertebrate species (Psetta maxima, Teleostei) obtained from histological section series reconstruction processed with the software package Amira. These surface rendering models are particularly suitable for a PDF file because they can easily be transformed to a file format required and components may be conveniently combined and hierarchically arranged. All methodological steps starting from specimen preparation until embedding of resulting models in PDF files with emphasis on conversion of Amira data to the appropriate 3D file format are explained. Usability of 3D models in PDF documents is exemplified and advantages over 2D illustrations are discussed, including better explanation capabilities for spatial arrangements, higher information contents, and limiting options for disguising results by authors. Possibilities for additional applications reaching far beyond the examples presented are suggested. Problems such as long-term compatibility of file format and hardware plus software, editing and embedding of files, file size and differences in information contents between printed and electronic version will likely be overcome by technical development and increasing tendency toward electronic at the cost of printed publications. Since 3D visualization plays an increasing role in manifold disciplines of science and appropriate tools for the popular PDF format are readily available, we propose routine application of this way of illustration in electronic life science papers. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Characterization of tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the African Savannah Elephant (Loxodonta africana africana)

E. A. Archie
Abstract Most African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) populations are isolated and thus threatened by a loss of genetic diversity. As a consequence, genetic analysis of African elephant populations will play an increasing role in their conservation, and microsatellite loci will be an important tool in these analyses. Previously published sets of polymorphic microsatellites developed for African elephants are all dinucleotide repeats, which are prone to typing error. Here, we characterize 11 tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the African elephant. All loci were polymorphic in 32 faecal samples and two tissue samples from 33 individual African savannah elephants. [source]

Early Lithuanian nationalism: sources of its legitimate meanings in an environment of shifting boundaries

Algis Valantiejus
The objective of this article is to formulate the problem of modernity of the nation more specifically with reference to early Lithuanian nationalism. The problem is to find out how national solidarity emerges in the modernising social context in which factors reflecting nationally relevant conflicts of group interests are more valid. The argument, to summarise, is that the decisive phase of Lithuanian nationalism came with the external religious conflict, on the one hand, and the secular liberal movement, on the other. The analysis also explains why early Lithuanian nationalism was of the ,belated' type. It was the interaction of ethno,religious factors, socio,economic interests and the rapidly increasing role of the intelligentsia that reinforced the symbolic relations of language and social solidarity. [source]

Optical properties of correlated materials , Or why intelligent windows may look dirty,

Jan M. Tomczak
Abstract Materials with strong electronic Coulomb correlations play an increasing role in modern materials applications. "Thermochromic" systems, which exhibit thermally induced changes in their optical response, provide a particularly interesting case. The optical switching associated with the metal,insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2), for example, has been proposed for use in numerous applications, ranging from anti-laser shields to "intelligent" windows, which selectively filter radiative heat in hot weather conditions. Are present-day electronic structure techniques able to describe, or , eventually even predict , such a kind of behavior? How far are we from materials design using correlated oxides? These are the central questions we try to address in this article. We review recent attempts of calculating optical properties of correlated materials within dynamical mean field theory, and summarize results for VO2 obtained within a novel scheme aiming at particularly simple and efficient calculations of optical transition matrix elements within localized basis sets. Finally, by optimizing the geometry of "intelligent windows," we argue that this kind of technique can, in principle, be used to provide guidance for experiments, thus giving a rather optimistic answer to the above questions. [source]

Disease risk analysis: a tool for primate conservation planning and decision making

D.A. Travis
Abstract Concern about emerging and re-emerging diseases plays an increasing role in conservation and management of both captive and free-ranging nonhuman primates (NHPs). Managers and policy makers must formulate conservation plans in an arena plagued by uncertainty, complexity, emotion, and politics. The risk analysis paradigm provides a framework that brings together scientists and policy experts to make better decisions for both people and animals. Risk analysis is a multidisciplinary, science-based process that provides an organized and logical approach for incorporating scientific information into policy development in the real world. By blending four specific goal-oriented stages,hazard identification, risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication,one can logically assess the probability that an adverse event, such as the introduction of an emerging disease into a naïve population, will occur. The following is a review of this process as it pertains to NHP conservation and risks associated with infectious diseases. Am. J. Primatol. 68:855,867, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

"Atlantic Revolution" or Local Difficulty: Aspects of Revolt in Brazil, 1780,1880

Dick Geary
It has become commonplace to argue that the ideals of the Enlightenment, the American War of Independence and the French Revolution inspired revolutionary struggles on both sides of the Atlantic and even played an increasing role in the inspiration of slave revolts in the Americas. This paper tests this hypothesis against two kinds of upheaval, namely slave revolt in Brazil between 1780 and 1850 and artisan protest in the so-called Praiera Rising in Brazilian Recife in 1848/9, seen by Hobsbawm and others (including some Brazilian historians) as a South American variant of the Parisian upheavals of the same year. The analysis of slave revolts in this paper, on the other hand, concludes that they were rarely inspired by Western discourse, as they were overwhelmingly the work of African slaves, who relied on African , or to be more precise , Afro-Brazilian traditions, including local cults and African Islam. In so far as there was an "Atlantic Revolution" in this case, therefore, it came from the South and not the North Atlantic. In the case of the Praiera the paper further demonstrates that the demands of free and freed Brazilian artisans for "work for all Brazilians" and the "nationalisation of the retail trade" were not inspired by the same kind of radical, anti-merchant ideology as their Parisian counterparts but were primarily driven by hostility to the competition of both slave artisans and an influx of Portuguese craftsmen. This difference it explains by the different meaning of labour in slave and non-slave society. [source]

Innovation zur Bestimmung der Erdstoff-Geokunststoff-Wechselwirkung , Pullout-, Scher- und Reibungsversuche

BAUTECHNIK, Issue 9 2004
Taner Aydogmus Dipl.-Ing.
Der Einsatz des ökonomischen und ökologischen Baumaterials "Geokunststoff" hat sich in den letzten Jahren in der Geotechnik für das Bauwesen, den Bergbau und den Umweltschutz stark verbreitet. In Form von Geotextilien, Geogittern, Geomembranen und verwandten Produkten ermöglichen sie technisch einfache, preisgünstige alternative Lösungsmöglichkeiten. Für die Berechnung der Standsicherheit von Konstruktionen mit Geokunststoffen, die für Bewehrungszwecke verwendet werden, ist die Ermittlung der "Reibungseigenschaften" in den Schichtgrenzen zwischen verschiedenen Geokunststoffen sowie zwischen Geokunststoffen und Erdstoffen unerläßlich. Zur Einschätzung der Hauptversagensmechanismen eines kunststoffbewehrten Erdkörpers werden üblicherweise Scher- und Reibungsversuche sowie nun auch verstärkt Pullout-Versuche durchgeführt. In diesem Beitrag wird ein neu entwickeltes und gebautes vollautomatisches Großrahmenschergerät mit integrierter Herausziehversuchseinrichtung vorgestellt, welches die Durchführung von vielfältigen innovativen Versuchen, mit leicht reproduzierbaren , den in-situ-Verhältnissen anpaßbaren , Randbedingungen, dem aktuellen Stand der Versuchstechnik entsprechend und nach den Vorgaben der neuen Normen (z. B. DIN 18137-3) ermöglicht. Innovation for the determination of the soil-geosynthetic interaction , pullout-, shear- and friction tests. The use of the economical and ecological construction material "geosynthetic" plays a rapidly increasing role in a variety of civil engineering, mining and environmental protection applications. Geosynthetics captured their own place as construction material due to their diversity and their specific characteristics. The applications of geosynthetics are many-sided. In the form of geotextiles, geogrids, geomembranes and related products, they make technically simple and low-priced alternative solution concepts possible. For the stability analysis of geosynthetic constructions knowledge of the friction behaviour in the geosynthetic interfaces is essential. For the assessment of the main failure mechanisms of a geosynthetic reinforced construction shear- and friction tests are usually performed as well as now also Pullout tests. In the following, a novel experimental apparatus for the examination of the interaction behaviour of soil-geosynthetic compound systems capable of performing both pullout and direct shear tests is described. In comparison with known geosynthetic testing practice, the novel testing apparatus offers the special advantage that a wide range of innovative shear and pullout test procedures can be carried out in the same device with negligible influence of test device configurations on friction test results. [source]

Lawyers, trees and money: British Columbia forest policy and the convergence of international and domestic trade considerations

Christopher J. Kukucha
At the domestic level, the BC government maintains significant control over softwood lumber as a result of provincial land ownership, executive dominance, and the role of the Ministry of Forests. This is reinforced by a close relationship between the bureaucracy and key industry associations. Under the New Democratic Party government of the 1990s, however, the policy relevance of environment, labour, and aboriginal groups increased. The election of the BC Liberals, however, diminished these interests, with the possible exception of First Nations groups. It is also important, however, to acknowledge the significance of international developments. Institutionally, these pressures contributed to bureaucratic restructuring and a changing "culture" within the Ministry of Forests. Industry relations have also been influenced by consolidation of ownership, bilateral lumber disputes with the United States, and the increasing role of non-elected legal representatives. In addition, environment and labour interests were empowered by external funding, high export demands, and a low Canadian dollar. Although these developments have created an increasingly complex policy process, it is apparent that domestic considerations remain dominant, especially traditional participants, such as the Ministry of Forests and other specific setoral interests. Sommaire: Les developements nationaux et internationaux ont des répercussions directes sur la politique forestière en Colombie-Britannique. À l'échelle nationale, le gouvernement de la C.-B. maintient un important contrôle sur le bois d'evre en rai-son de la propriété foncière provinciale, de la dominance de I'exécutif, et du rôle du ministere des ForCts. Ceci est renforcb par des liens étroits entre la bureaucratie et les associations clés de l'industrie. Cependant, sous le gouvernement du Nouveau Parti Démocratique des années 1990, la pertinence des politiques des groupes environne-mentaux, syndicaux et autochtones s'est accrue. L'élection des Libéraux et C.-B. a réduit ces intéréts, a l'exception des groupes des Premières Nations. Cependant, il faut aussi reconnaître l'importance des développements intemationaux. Sur le plan institutionnel, ces pressions ont contribuéà une restructuration bureaucratique et a l'évolution de la « culture » au sein du ministère des Forê Les relations indus-trielles ont aussi été influencées par une consolidation de la propriété, les conflits bilatéraux avec les États-Unis au sujet du bois, et le rde croissant des mandataires légaux non élus. En outre, les intér& environnementaux et de main-d'aeuvre ont vu leurs pouvoirs accrus par le financement externe, les demandes d'exportation Plevees et la faiblesse du dollar canadien. Quoique ces changements aient Créé un processus de politiques de plus en plus complexe, il est évident que les considérations nationales dominent, en particulier celles qui sont préconisées par les participants traditionnels, comme le ministére des Forêts et d'autres intérêts sectoriels particuliers. [source]

China's Exchange Rate Movements and Corporate Currency Invoicing Strategies

Jingtao Yi
F31; F41; L11 Abstract Since China introduced a new managed floating exchange rate regime in 2005, the persistent appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar has led Chinese firms to reassess their choice of invoice currency among the dollar and other international alternatives to price their exports. The present paper performs a systematic invoice currency analysis by surveying the published literature, summarizing criteria for decision-making, and evaluating the choices available to Chinese exporters implementing currency invoicing strategies to maximize expected profits. This study finds that the euro could play an increasing role as the invoice currency of Chinese firms, although the US dollar will still play a dominant role. Chinese exporters might shift gradually from the dollar to the euro in the face of the falling dollar, balancing between the two by necessity. [source]

"Silent Orality": Toward a Conceptualization of the Digital Oral Features in CMC and SMS Texts

Oren Soffer
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) and short messages service (SMS) play an increasing role in contemporary interpersonal communication. Studies on the linguistic style of these means often refer to its hybrid discursive nature, which combines the formal written register and the informal oral features. This article conceptualizes the oral features of digital CMC and SMS text against the background of two previous eras of orality: the residual-manuscript orality of the Middle Ages and the "secondary orality" of electronic mass communication. It argues that digital orality is unique in the silence of its manifestations, as texts are not converted into the audial sphere. This new type of orality is also unique in that it is celebrated: Its users intentionally toy with the language. « L'oralité silencieuse » : pour une conceptualisation des caractéristiques orales numériques de la CMC et des messages SMS La communication médiée par ordinateur (CMC) et les services d'envoi de messages courts (SMS) jouent un rôle croissant dans la communication interpersonnelle contemporaine. Les études menées sur le style linguistique de ces moyens de communication font souvent référence à sa nature discursive hybride, qui combine le registre formel de l'écrit et les caractéristiques informelles de l'oral. Cet article conceptualise les caractéristiques orales de la CMC et du SMS avec en toile de fond deux ères de l'oralité précédentes : l'oralité résiduelle-manuscrite du Moyen Âge et l'« oralité secondaire » de la communication électronique de masse. Il soumet que l'oralité numérique est unique dans le silence de ses manifestations, puisque les textes ne sont pas convertis dans la sphère auditive. Ce nouveau type d'oralité est aussi unique en ce qu'il est célébré : ses utilisateurs jouent intentionnellement avec la langue. ,,Stumme Oralität": Zu einem Konzept digitaler oraler Eigenschaften in computervermittelten Texten und SMS-Nachrichten Computervermittelte Kommunikation und SMS-Nachrichten spielen eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle in der heutigen interpersonalen Kommunikation. Studien zum linguistischen Stil dieser Mittel weisen oft auf deren hybride diskursive Natur hin, die das offiziell geschriebene Register und informelle mündliche Eigenschaften kombiniert. Dieser Artikel konzeptualisiert die mündlichen Eigenschaften von digitaler computervermittelter Kommunikation und SMS-Texten vor dem Hintergrund zweier vorangegangener Epochen von Mündlichkeit: die residuelle Oralität des Mittelalters und die ,sekundäre Oralität, der elektronischen Massenkommunikation. Es wird argumentiert, dass die digitale Oralität hinsichtlich ihrer Manifestationen einzigartig ist, da Texte nicht in die audiale Sphäre überführt werden. Dieser neue Typ von Oralität ist auch dahingehend einzigartig, da er gefeiert wird: Als des Nutzers absichtliches Spiel mit der Sprache. La "Oralidad Silenciosa": Hacia una Conceptualización de las Características Orales Digitales de los Textos de la CMC y los SMS Resumen La comunicación mediada por la computadora (CMC) y el servicio de mensajes cortos (SMS) juegan un rol creciente en la comunicación interpersonal contemporánea. Los estudios sobre el estilo lingüístico de estos medios se refieren a menudo a su naturaleza discursiva híbrida, que combina el registro escrito formal y las características informales de lo oral. Este artículo conceptualiza las características orales de los textos digitales de la CMC and los SMS contra los antecedentes de 2 eras previas de la oralidad: el manuscrito residual de la oralidad de la Edad Media y la ,segunda oralidad' de los medios electrónicos de comunicación masiva. Discuto que la oralidad digital es única en el silencio de sus manifestaciones, dado que los textos no son convertidos a la esfera auditiva. Este tipo nuevo de oralidad es único también porque es celebrado: sus usuarios juegan intencionalmente con el lenguaje. [source]

Oceanic islands as model systems for ecological studies

Peter M. Vitousek
Aim The purposes of this paper are to suggest that a greater use of model systems would advance our understanding of ecology, and to illustrate that oceanic islands are valuable model systems for ecosystem studies in particular. Location The illustrations discussed herein result from studies in the Hawaiian Islands. Methods Sequences of sites that are similar in most respects but differ widely in temperature, precipitation or substrate age have been developed and analysed in the Hawaiian Islands. Process studies, experiments and models arrayed on these gradients are used to determine fundamental controls over ecosystem processes, with a precision that cannot be duplicated in continental ecosystems. Results Increasing temperatures enhance rates of decomposition to a greater extent than plant production, in soil organic matter as well as litter. Ecosystem-level losses of N by fractionating pathways are greater in drier sites. Sea spray and long-distance dust transport play increasing roles in the nutrient economy of ecosystems as soils become progressively older. Main conclusions All of the results describe processes that occur in continental as well as island ecosystems, but a number of features of islands make the processes more amenable to analysis on islands. [source]

On the evolution of statistical methods as applied to clinical trials

D. Machin
Abstract. This paper describes how statistical methods have evolved in parallel with activities associated with randomized control trials. In particular we emphasize the pivotal role of two papers published in British Journal of Cancer, and the paper describing the Cox proportional hazards model. In addition, the importance of early papers on estimating the sample size required for trials is highlighted. Later developments including the increasing roles for competing risks, multilevel modelling and Bayesian methodologies are described. The interplay between computer software and statistical methodological developments is stressed. Finally some future directions are indicated. [source]