Increasing Resistance (increasing + resistance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Increasing Resistance of Tubular Epithelial Cells to Apoptosis by shRNA Therapy Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

C. Du
Renal tubular epithelial cells (TEC) die by apoptosis or necrosis in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Fas/Fas ligand-dependent fratricide is critical in TEC apoptosis, and Fas promotes renal IRI. Therefore, targeting Fas or caspase-8 may have therapeutic potential for renal injury in kidney transplant or failure. RNA silencing by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) is a novel strategy to down-regulate protein expression. Using this approach, silencing of Fas or caspase-8 by shRNA to prevent TEC apoptosis and IRI was evaluated. IRI was induced by renal artery clamping for 45 or 60 min at 32°C in uninephrectomized C57BL/6 mice. Here, we showed that Fas or pro-caspase-8 expression was significantly knocked down in TEC by stable expression of shRNA, resulting in resistance to apoptosis induced by superoxide, IFN-,/TNF-, and anti-Fas antibody. Inferior vena cava delivery of pHEX-small interfering RNA targeting Fas or pro-caspase-8 resulted in protection of kidney from IRI, indicated by reduction of renal tubular injury (necrosis and apoptosis) and serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen. Our data suggest that shRNA-based therapy targeting Fas and caspase-8 in renal cells can lead to protection of kidney from IRI. Attenuation of pro-apoptotic proteins using genetic manipulation strategies such as shRNA might represent a novel strategy to promote kidney allograft survival from rejection or failure. [source]

Advanced glycation endproducts: what is their relevance to diabetic complications?

N. Ahmed
Glycation is a major cause of spontaneous damage to proteins in physiological systems. This is exacerbated in diabetes as a consequence of the increase in glucose and other saccharides derivatives in plasma and at the sites of vascular complications. Protein damage by the formation of early glycation adducts is limited to lysine side chain and N-terminal amino groups whereas later stage adducts, advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), modify these and also arginine and cysteine residues. Metabolic dysfunction in vascular cells leads to the increased formation of methylglyoxal which adds disproportionately to the glycation damage in hyperglycaemia. AGE-modified proteins undergo cellular proteolysis leading to the formation and urinary excretion of glycation free adducts. AGEs may potentiate the development of diabetic complications by activation of cell responses by AGE-modified proteins interacting with specific cell surface receptors, activation of cell responses by AGE free adducts, impairment of protein,protein and enzyme,substrate interactions by AGE residue formation, and increasing resistance to proteolysis of extracellular matrix proteins. The formation of AGEs is suppressed by intensive glycaemic control, and may in future be suppressed by thiamine and pyridoxamine supplementation, and several other pharmacological agents. Increasing expression of enzymes of the enzymatic defence against glycation provides a novel and potentially effective future therapeutic strategy to suppress protein glycation. [source]

Immunisation with non-integral OMPs promotes pulmonary clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Linda D. Thomas
Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that can cause fatal acute lung infections in critically ill individuals. Lung damage due to chronic infections in cystic fibrosis sufferers is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this group. The bacterium produces various immunomodulatory products that enable it to survive in the lung. Innate and increasing resistance to antibiotic therapy shown by this organism heightens the need for development of a vaccine. This study reports the identification of six non-integral protein antigens; Pa 13, azurin, acyl carrier protein (ACP), amidase, aminopeptidase and KatE, purified from a mucoid strain of P. aeruginosa. N-terminal amino acid sequencing was used to identify these proteins and, based on their ascribed functions, determined that their normal cellular location was cytosolic. A rat model of acute pulmonary infection was used to investigate the ability of these protein antigens to enhance pulmonary clearance of a live P. aeruginosa challenge. Mucosal immunisation with four of the six antigens significantly enhanced bacterial clearance from both the lavage fluid and lung tissue. The greatest level of clearance was demonstrated for the antigens; KatE, aminopeptidase and amidase. Enhanced bacterial clearance was maintained when the antigens amidase and aminopeptidase were produced in recombinant form. When delivered parenterally, aminopeptidase demonstrated its continued efficacy as a vaccine candidate. This study has demonstrated that non-integral outer membrane proteins are antigenic and protective and warrant further investigation as potential components of a vaccine. [source]

High Level of Antimicrobial Resistance in French Helicobacter pylori Isolates

HELICOBACTER, Issue 1 2010
Josette Raymond
Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen responsible for serious diseases including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The recommended triple therapy included clarithromycin but increasing resistance has undermined its effectiveness. It is therefore important to be aware of the local prevalence of antimicrobial resistance to adjust treatment strategy. Materials and Methods: Overall, 530 biopsies were collected between 2004 and 2007. The antimicrobial susceptibility of H. pylori was determined by E-test and molecular methods. Results: Among these, 138/530 (26%) strains were resistant to clarithromycin, 324/530 (61%) to metronidazole and 70/530 (13.2%) to ciprofloxacin. Whereas no resistance against amoxicillin and tetracycline was observed, only one strain was resistant to rifampicin. Compared to the patients never treated for H. pylori infection, the prevalence of resistance was significantly higher in patients previously treated (19.1% vs 68% for clarithromycin; 13.2% vs 53.3% for both clarithromycin and metronidazole). The trend analysis revealed an increase of primary resistance to ciprofloxacin between 2004 and 2005 (7.3%) vs 2006,2007 (14.1%) (p = .04) and the secondary resistance reached 22.7% in 2007. Interestingly, 27 biopsies (19.6%) contained a double population of clarithromycin-susceptible and -resistant strains. Conclusions: The reported high prevalence of clarithromycin and multiple resistances of H. pylori suggest that the empiric therapy with clarithromycin should be abandoned as no longer pretreatment susceptibility testing has assessed the susceptibility of the strain. As culture and antibiogram are not routinely performable in most clinical laboratories, the use of molecular test should be developed to allow a wide availability of pretreatment susceptibility testing. [source]

Understanding cisplatin resistance using cellular models

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 11 2007
Britta Stordal
Abstract Many mechanisms of cisplatin resistance have been proposed from studies of cellular models of resistance including changes in cellular drug accumulation, detoxification of the drug, inhibition of apoptosis and repair of the DNA adducts. A series of resistant models were developed from CCRF-CEM leukaemia cells with increasing doses of cisplatin from 100 ng/ml. This produced increasing resistance up to 7-fold with a treatment dose of 1.6 ,g/ml. Cisplatin resistance in these cells correlated with increases in the antioxidant glutathione, yet treatment with buthionine sulphoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, had no effect on resistance, suggesting that the increase in glutathione was not directly involved in cisplatin resistance. Two models were developed from H69 SCLC cells, H69-CP and H69CIS200 using 100 ng/ml or 200 ng/ml cisplatin respectively. Both cell models were 2-4 fold resistant to cisplatin, and have decreased expression of p21 which may increase the cell's ability to progress through the cell cycle in the presence of DNA damage. Both the H69-CP and H69CIS200 cells showed no decrease in cellular cisplatin accumulation. However, the H69-CP cells have increased levels of cellular glutathione and are cross resistant to radiation whereas the H69CIS200 cells have neither of these changes. This suggests that increases in glutathione may contribute to cross-resistance to other drugs and radiation, but not directly to cisplatin resistance. There are multiple resistance mechanisms induced by cisplatin treatment, even in the same cell type. How then should cisplatin-resistant cancers be treated? Cisplatin-resistant cell lines are often more sensitive to another chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel (H69CIS200), or are able to be sensitized to cisplatin with paclitaxel pre-treatment (H69-CP). The understanding of this sensitization by paclitaxel using cell models of cisplatin resistance will lead to improvements in the clinical treatment of cisplatin resistant tumours. IUBMB Life, 59: 696-699, 2007 [source]

Restoration of Lake Geneva: Expected versus observed responses of phytoplankton to decreases in phosphorus

Orlane Anneville
Abstract Long-term phytoplankton responses in Lake Geneva to a decline in phosphorus (P) loading are examined in terms of summer (July,September) biomass and community structure. With the rapid development of human activity on its banks and within its catchment area in the 1960s, this large subalpine hydrosystem shifted from oligotrophy to eutrophy within approximately one decade. Measures to reduce P loading were initiated successfully in the mid-1970s, when total P concentrations in the winter overturn altered from 90 ,g/L in 1980 to 40 ,g/L in 1998. Until the 1990s, algal descriptors improved as expected (biomass decline, reappearance of diatom species, increased contribution of nanoplankton). Then, paradoxically, and in contrast to the reappearance of oligotrophic species, summer algal biomass began to increase. Pre-summer (period prior to the beginning of the clear water phase) dissolved inorganic phosphorus concentrations and summer phytoplankton composition presented similar interannual trends. However, the succession of phytoplankton structure during the reoligotrophication phase differed greatly from that during the eutrophication period, and a recent abnormal upward trend in algal densities is mainly the result of the development of large species that formerly were only common from late September until November. This community change, mainly triggered by filamentous (Mougeotia gracillima, Tribonema) or motile forms (Dinobryon sociale, Cryptophycea), seems to have been induced by the earlier and greater deepening of the P-depleted layer. In addition to milder summers, this massive development of larger forms seems to be favoured by four of their biological features: tolerance to warm temperatures, tolerance to low-light intensity (might exploit deeper layers where P is not yet limiting), shapes not only providing a large surface to volume ratio or motility (adaptation to low-nutrient concentrations), but increasing resistance to zooplankton grazing. This paradoxical trend, perhaps reinforced by the decline on roach Rutilus rutilus abundance (an opportunistic planktivore), is likely to remain until the P-depleted zone is extended below the layers that can be frequently resupplied in nutrients by hydrodynamic processes. [source]

Elevation of XPA protein level in testis tumor cells without increasing resistance to cisplatin or UV radiation

Beate Köberle
Abstract Most testicular germ cell tumors are curable using cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and cell lines from these tumors are unusually sensitive to cisplatin and other DNA-damaging agents. It has been suggested that this might be caused by a lower-than normal nucleotide excision repair (NER) activity. Previous studies found that cell lines from testicular germ cell tumors have on average about one-third the level of the NER protein XPA in comparison to cell lines from other tumors. We asked whether over-expression of XPA protein would alleviate the cellular sensitivity and increase the DNA repair capacity of a testis tumor cell line. Increasing XPA levels in 833K cells by 10-fold did not increase resistance to UV irradiation. XPA was localized to the cell nucleus in all cell lines, before and after exposure to UV-radiation. 833K cells were proficient in removing UV radiation-induced photoproducts from the genome and increased XPA did not enhance the rate of removal. Further, over-expressing functional XPA protein did not correlate with increased resistance of 833K testis tumor cells to cisplatin. Thus, although the amount of XPA in this testis tumor cell line is lower than normal, it is sufficient for NER in vivo. The relative sensitivity of testis tumor cells to cisplatin, UV radiation, and other DNA damaging agents is likely related not to NER capacity, but to other factors such as the integrity of the p53 pathway in these cells. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Mutation in the ATP-binding site of BCR-ABL in a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia with increasing resistance to STI571

Christophe Barthe
Summary. The Abl kinase inhibitor STI571 (imatinib mesylate) induces haematological remissions in many patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) but advanced stage CML usually becomes resistant to STI571. We describe a patient in whom progressive resistance to STI571 correlated with the appearance of a mutation in the Bcr-Abl kinase domain. This was a G to A transition that resulted in a glutamic acid to lysine substitution at position 255 (E255K) in the Abl type 1a protein. We suggest that the acquisition of point-mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of Bcr-Abl may cause progressive clinical resistance to STI571. [source]

Involvement of CD147 in regulation of multidrug resistance to P-gp substrate drugs and in vitro invasion in breast cancer cells

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 7 2007
Qing-Quan Li
Multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) display variations in invasive and metastatic behavior. We aimed to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying this observation and transfected vectors carrying CD147, a glycoprotein enriched on the surface of tumor cells that stimulates the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and specific shCD147 into MCF7 and MCF7/Adr cells, respectively. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, we found that overexpression of CD147 in MCF7 cells up-regulated MDR1, MMP2, and MMP9 on both transcription and expression levels, which promoted tumor cells metastasis and conferred them multidrug resistance to P-gp substrate drugs, as determined by in vitro invasion assay and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. On the other hand, silencing of CD147 in MCF7/Adr cells led to the opposite effect. Moreover, Erk1/2 in CD147-overexpressing clones were observed to be highly activate and after treatment with U0126, an Erk1/2-specific inhibitor, the expression of MDR1, MMP2 and MMP9 were decreased significantly. Thus, CD147 may assume a dual role, since it had intrinsic stimulative effects on tumor invasion in vitro as well as increasing resistance to P-gp substrate drugs. (Cancer Sci 2007; 98: 1064,1069) [source]

Respiratory complications related to bulbar dysfunction in motor neuron disease

S. Hadjikoutis
Bulbar dysfunction resulting from corticobulbar pathway or brainstem neuron degeneration is one of the most important clinical problems encountered in motor neuron disease (MND) and contributes to various respiratory complications which are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Chronic malnutrition as a consequence of bulbar muscle weakness may have a considerable bearing on respiratory muscle function and survival. Abnormalities of the control and strength of the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles may cause upper airway obstruction increasing resistance to airflow. Bulbar muscle weakness prevents adequate peak cough flows to clear airway debris. Dysphagia can lead to aspiration of microorganisms, food and liquids and hence pneumonia. MND patients with bulbar involvement commonly display an abnormal respiratory pattern during swallow characterized by inspiration after swallow, prolonged swallow apnoea and multiple swallows per bolus. Volitional respiratory function tests such as forced vital capacity can be inaccurate in patients with bulbofacial weakness and/or impaired volitional respiratory control. Bulbar muscle weakness with abundant secretions may increase the risk of aspiration and make successful non-invasive assisted ventilation more difficult. We conclude that an evaluation of bulbar dysfunction is an essential element in the assessment of respiratory dysfunction in MND. [source]