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Struggling with Poverty: Implications for Theory and Policy of Increasing Research on Social Class-Based StigmaANALYSES OF SOCIAL ISSUES & PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 1 2009
Wendy R. Williams
Low-income people are stigmatized in a number of ways, including being negatively stereotyped and discriminated against both interpersonally and institutionally (see Lott & Bullock, 2007 for a comprehensive review). Yet psychologists have not focused much attention on social class in general, nor on social class-based stigma in particular. This article argues that by resolving three main problems in the literature (the achieved/ascribed discrepancy, the complexity of operationalizing social class, and the seeming lack of identification with one's social class), psychologists are in a unique position to use their knowledge to aid practitioners and policymakers in ameliorating the consequences of poverty. Thus, this article focuses on how better to incorporate social class into the stigma literature and how this research can be linked to social policy initiatives. [source]
Preventive interventions among children exposed to trauma of armed conflict: a literature reviewAGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 2 2010
Abstract Increasing research is available on the preconditions for child mental health and optimal development in traumatic conditions, whereas less is known how to translate the findings into effective interventions to help traumatized children. This literature review analyses the effectiveness of psychosocial preventive interventions and treatments and their theoretical bases among children traumatized in the context of armed conflicts (war, military violence, terrorism and refugee). The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive interventions in preventing emotional distress and impairment and promoting optimal emotional-cognitive and social development. The second task is to analyze the nature of the underlying mechanisms for the success of preventive interventions, and the theoretical premises of the choice of intervention techniques, procedures and tools. We found 16 relevant published studies, but an examination of them revealed that only four of them had experimental designs strong enough that they could be included in the meta-analysis. While the subjective reports of the researchers suggested that systematic preventive interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD and depressive symptoms among children traumatized due to armed conflict, the more objective results of the meta-analysis and the weaknesses in designs uncovered during the meta-analysis undermine such a conclusion. Additionally, a majority of the reported preventive interventions focused only on children's biased cognitive processes and negative emotions, while only a few aimed at influencing multiple domains of child development and improving developmental functioning on emotional, social and psychophysiological levels. It is concluded that substantial additional work needs to be done in developing effective preventive interventions and treatments for children traumatized by exposure to war and violence. Aggr. Behav. 36:95,116, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
The Current and Future Role of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Coronary Artery DiseaseJOURNAL OF INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
MICHAEL J. LIPINSKI B.S.
With increasing research on vulnerable plaques and uncertainty regarding which lesions require revascularization, the goal of this review is to clarify the indications for percutaneous coronary intevention and discuss which lesions do not warrant treatment by intervention. This paper also briefly reviews the potential advantages and limitations of technology that may enable detection of atherosclerotic plaques that are prone to rupture and discusses the future utility of these technologies in prevention of acute coronary syndromes. Providing an evidence-based understanding of lesion morphology and clinical variables that influence outcome enables the interventional cardiologist to determine which atherosclerotic plaques require PCI. [source]
Physical Activity and Cancer: Lessons Learned from Nutritional EpidemiologyNUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 11 2001
Christine M. Friedenreich Ph.D.
Convincing epidemiologic evidence currently exists for an association between physical activity and the prevention of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce the risk of cancer at several other sites. With increasing research on this topic, it is apparent that studies of physical activity and cancer have numerous methodological similarities with studies of nutrition and cancer. Lessons learned from nutritional epidemiology that can be applied to studies of physical activity and cancer prevention and recommendations for future research are discussed in this review. [source]
Dynamics of growth and dissemination of Salmonella in vivoCELLULAR MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 10 2010
Kathryn G. Watson
Summary The last decade has witnessed increasing research on dissemination of bacterial pathogens in their hosts and on the processes that underlie bacterial spread and growth during organ colonization. Here, we discuss work on the mouse model of human typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This has revealed the use of several routes of systemic dissemination that result in colonization and growth within the spleen and liver, the major sites of bacterial proliferation. We also highlight techniques that enable in vivo analysis of the infecting population at the spatiotemporal and single cell levels. These approaches have provided more detailed insights into the events underlying the dynamics of Salmonella replication, spread and clearance within host organs and tissues. [source]