Increasing Recognition (increasing + recognition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Maintaining Case-Based Reasoners: Dimensions and Directions

David C. Wilson
Experience with the growing number of large-scale and long-term case-based reasoning (CBR) applications has led to increasing recognition of the importance of maintaining existing CBR systems. Recent research has focused on case-base maintenance (CBM), addressing such issues as maintaining consistency, preserving competence, and controlling case-base growth. A set of dimensions for case-base maintenance, proposed by Leake and Wilson, provides a framework for understanding and expanding CBM research. However, it also has been recognized that other knowledge containers can be equally important maintenance targets. Multiple researchers have addressed pieces of this more general maintenance problem, considering such issues as how to refine similarity criteria and adaptation knowledge. As with case-base maintenance, a framework of dimensions for characterizing more general maintenance activity, within and across knowledge containers, is desirable to unify and understand the state of the art, as well as to suggest new avenues of exploration by identifying points along the dimensions that have not yet been studied. This article presents such a framework by (1) refining and updating the earlier framework of dimensions for case-base maintenance, (2) applying the refined dimensions to the entire range of knowledge containers, and (3) extending the theory to include coordinated cross-container maintenance. The result is a framework for understanding the general problem of case-based reasoner maintenance (CBRM). Taking the new framework as a starting point, the article explores key issues for future CBRM research. [source]

Regional cerebral brain metabolism correlates of neuroticism and extraversion

Thilo Deckersbach Ph.D.
Abstract Factor-analytic approaches to human personality have consistently identified several core personality traits, such as Extraversion/Introversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Consciousness, and Openness. There is an increasing recognition that certain personality traits may render individuals vulnerable to psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and depression. Our purpose in this study was to explore correlates between the personality dimensions neuroticism and extraversion as assessed by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and resting regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglu) in healthy control subjects. Based on the anxiety and depression literatures, we predicted correlations with a network of brain structures, including ventral and medial prefrontal cortex (encompassing anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex), insular cortex, anterior temporal pole, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. Twenty healthy women completed an 18FFDG (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) positron emission tomography (PET) scan at rest and the NEO-FFI inventory. We investigated correlations between scores on NEO-FFI Neuroticism and Extraversion and rCMRglu using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Within a priori search territories, we found significant negative correlations between Neuroticism and rCMRglu in the insular cortex and positive correlations between Extraversion and rCMRglu in the orbitofrontal cortex. No significant correlations were found involving anterior cingulate, amygdala, or ventral striatum. Neuroticism and Extraversion are associated with activity in insular cortex and orbitofrontal cortex, respectively. Depression and Anxiety 23:133,138, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Diabetes care in childhood and adolescence

P. R. Betts
Abstract The presentation of diabetes in young people has changed significantly over recent years. Not only has there been a rising incidence of Type 1 diabetes, especially in young children, but also there is an increasing recognition of Type 2 diabetes. Young people are also increasingly being diagnosed with genetic defects of B-cell function and with diabetes in association with cystic fibrosis and other chronic diseases. There have also been significant changes in the pattern of paediatric diabetes care. This is increasingly being provided by a specialized paediatric multidisciplinary team in each health district working to agreed national standards. Despite improvements, diabetes control is still suboptimal with a high incidence of complications being reported in young adults. The challenge over the next few years is the provision of a uniform, equitable and first class paediatric service throughout the UK together with the introduction of new approaches to care, aiming to improve individual diabetic control and reduce long-term complications. Increased collaboration with adult colleagues is needed to enable the transition of care in adolescence to a service that young adults perceive to meet their needs, encourage their attendance and improve their diabetes control and quality of life. A national paediatric diabetes register together with regular audit will encourage these objectives. [source]

Closer to the Shifting Ground: The Rise of Relationship in God-Talk

DIALOG, Issue 3 2005
By Paul R. Sponheim
Abstract:, The article argues that God-talk has changed significantly over the last fifty years and identifies the rise of the notion of relationship (reflecting postmodern dissatisfaction with modernity) as a key factor in this change. That factor is cited in Trinitarian studies, the Creator's relationship with and to the creatures, the science and religion conversation, the connection with context, and the increasing recognition of the adjectival character of theology. In closing the author looks ahead to further relational work in soteriology, anthropology and metaphysics. [source]

The Slovak national SD strategy process: a mix of achievements and shortcomings

Michal Sedla
Abstract National strategies for sustainable development are gaining increasing recognition as an instrument to reconcile needs of development and environmental protection by improving policy-making procedures. The paper assesses the Slovak sustainable development strategy in the context of two key documents, the National Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Slovak Republic (MESR, 2001a) and the Action Plan for Sustainable Development of the Slovak Republic for 2005,2010 (OGSR, 2005). Focus is mainly placed on horizontal policy integration, but institutional arrangements and mechanisms for implementation, monitoring and review, stakeholder participation and vertical integration are also assessed. Based on the results of a series of interviews with ministerial planners and utilizing the example of the Working Group for Environmental Education, the paper identifies barriers to horizontal policy integration. The main conclusion is that improvement of mechanisms for horizontal policy integration is offset by recession in other areas, including public participation. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


Terje Wessel
ABSTRACT. Contemporary urban theory has started to question the elevation of diversity as a panacea for enduring urban problems , segregation, prejudice and intergroup hostility. This critique coincides with an opposite tendency within classic contact theory and research. The latter tradition has developed an increasing enthusiasm for face-to-face interaction. The contact hypothesis, which presupposes established contact, has received conclusive support independent of target groups and contact settings. Research on ,lived diversity', which includes both contact and lack of contact, offers two supplementary insights. It shows, on the one hand, that boundaries are inscribed in social spaces. Physical proximity between ethnic and social groups tends to have a minor effect on interaction. Interaction, on the other hand, is not essential to attitude formation. Both subfields within contact research have confirmed that urban space may act as a catalyst for tolerant attitudes. This observation corresponds with increasing recognition of affective states, such as empathy, anxiety and group threat. Contact research has therefore, in summary, transcended the scope of the contact hypothesis. It has expanded into the realm of urban theory, which foreshadows future collaboration between the two traditions. Some key points for such exchange are suggested at the end of the article. Future research should combine an open-ended approach to casual contact with a diversified conception of diversity and a richer conception of urban space. A move in this direction would leave substantial space for geographical research. [source]

Insiders and outsiders: Levels of collaboration in research partnerships across resource divides

With increasing recognition of the health and psychosocial challenges in developing countries, more research in these countries is essential. Research collaborations between wealthier and less wealthy countries are, however, complex. A partnership model has been proposed which emphasizes the importance of mutually respectful and beneficial relationships in international research. Using an example of a mother-infant intervention project in South Africa we describe the elements of an equitable partnership model of research. An issue which has been overlooked, however, is the reality of power differentials within the poorer countries themselves. We show that there are many intersecting levels of relationships within intercountry research, and suggest that power dynamics within countries deserves equal attention as international issues. Based on our experiences, we present some tentative guidelines for international research which builds long-term capacity and recognizes the importance of multiple levels of analysis and interaction. [source]

Plant strategy theories: a comment on Craine (2005)

Summary 1It is suggested that arguments concerning the nature of primary plant strategies could have been resolved more rapidly by reference to older literature relating to the behaviour of solutes in the rhizosphere and by more active programmes of plant trait screening. 2The critique of CSR theory in Craine (2005) is rejected largely on the basis that it misunderstands the role of fundamental and proximal controls on vegetation composition (sensu Welden & Slauson 1986). 3The ,way forward' advocated in Craine (2005) is flawed in its exclusive reliance on competition experiments. Recent progress in community and ecosystem ecology is strongly related to an increasing recognition of the declining importance of competition in unproductive or heavily disturbed environments. [source]

B-KIDE: a framework and a tool for business process-oriented knowledge infrastructure development

Markus Strohmaier
The need for an effective management of knowledge is gaining increasing recognition in today's economy. To acknowledge this fact, new promising and powerful technologies have emerged from industrial and academic research. With these innovations maturing, organizations are increasingly willing to adapt such new knowledge management technologies to improve their knowledge-intensive businesses. However, the successful application in given business contexts is a complex, multidimensional challenge and a current research topic. Therefore, this contribution addresses this challenge and introduces a framework for the development of business process-supportive, technological knowledge infrastructures. While business processes represent the organizational setting for the application of knowledge management technologies, knowledge infrastructures represent a concept that can enable knowledge management in organizations. The B-KIDE Framework introduced in this work provides support for the development of knowledge infrastructures that comprise innovative knowledge management functionality and are visibly supportive of an organization's business processes. The developed B-KIDE Tool eases the application of the B-KIDE Framework for knowledge infrastructure developers. Three empirical studies that were conducted with industrial partners from heterogeneous industry sectors corroborate the relevance and viability of the introduced concepts. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The elderly and undue influence inter vivos

LEGAL STUDIES, Issue 2 2003
Fiona R Burns
An important demographic and social trend is becoming indisputably evident in the UK. The population is ageing, and a clearly discernible group of elderly persons is growing. As this trend continues, it will be necessary to reconsider the effectiveness and application of the law from the perspective of the elderly claimant. While it has been recognised that there must be a legal scheme to oversee the care and protection of persons, including elders, who are unable to care for their interests due to severe disability, it is becoming evident that even elders who are apparently healthy and able may be vulnerable. Undue influence inter vivos is a significant legal doctrine upon which elderly people have relied in recent times to set aside gifs, contracts and guarantees which they (or their representatives) have considered in hindsight were not in their best interests. This paper seeks to provide an analysis of and contribute to an understanding of the doctrine of undue influence from the perspective of the elderly claimant in the UK. The paper considers actual and presumed undue influence and the impact of the House of Lords decision in Royal Bank of Scotland plc v Etridge (No2). It will be argued that the law of undue influence inter vivos is in transition from a nineteenth-century doctrine which did not confer a special legal status on the elderly to one which is applied in the context of an increasing recognition that the events leading up to the transaction and the circumstances of the case may indicate that elders need the relief which the doctrine affords. Nevertheless, the transition to a modem system of undue influence for the elderly is incomplete. There remain outstanding issues which need consideration before it can be said that there is a comprehensive or logically coherent approach to elders and undue influence. [source]

Review article: interstitial nephritis associated with the use of mesalazine in inflammatory bowel disease

5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) has replaced sulphasalazine as first line therapy for mild to moderately active inflammatory bowel disease and is widely used. A number of reports have linked oral 5-ASA therapy to chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis and this relationship is now well established. Despite increasing recognition of the potential for this serious adverse event, guidelines for monitoring renal function in patients prescribed 5-ASA preparations are not widely employed. Whilst the incidence of this adverse event in the population of patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with mesalazine is low, the morbidity in an affected individual is high with some cases progressing to end-stage renal disease. Routine monitoring of renal function is simple and inexpensive and could prevent this outcome. Based on the available data, serum creatinine should be estimated prior to commencing treatment, monthly for the first 3 months, 3-monthly for the next 9 months, 6-monthly thereafter and annually after 5 years of treatment. [source]

Disturbance influences the outcome of plant,soil biota interactions in the invasive Acacia longifolia and in native species

OIKOS, Issue 7 2010
Luís M. Carvalho
Interrelated causes of plant invasion have been gaining increasing recognition. However, research on this subject has mainly focused around conceptual models. Here we explore whether plant,soil biota feedbacks and disturbance, two major factors capable of facilitating invasive plants in introduced ranges, interact to preferentially benefit exotics compared to native plants. We investigated the influence of fire disturbance on plant,soil biota interactions for the invasive Acacia longifolia and two dominant natives (Cytisus striatus and Pinus pinaster) in Portuguese dune systems. In the first experiment, we grew exotic and native plants in soil inoculated with soil biota from unburned or recently burned soils collected in an area with small invasion intensity by A. longifolia. Soil biota effects on the exotic legume A. longifolia changed from neutral to positive after fire, whereas the opposite outcome was observed in the native legume C. striatus, and a change from negative to neutral effects after fire occurred in the native P. pinaster. Fire reduced mycorrhizal colonization in all species and rhizobial colonization in C. striatus but not in A. longifolia. In the second experiment, we grew the exotic and native plants with conspecific and heterospecific soil biota from undisturbed soils (area with low invasion intensity by A. longifolia), and from post-fire soils (area affected by a fire ,12 years ago and currently heavily invaded by A. longifolia). The exotic benefited more from post-fire than from undisturbed soil biota, particularly from those associated with natives. Natives did not experience detrimental effects with invasive-associated soil biota. Our results show that fire disturbance affected the functional interactions between soil biota and plants that may benefit more the exotic than some native species. Disturbance may open a window of opportunity that promotes invader success by altering soil enemy and mutualistic impacts. [source]

Efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of delirium in elderly patients

Abstract Background:, Despite increasing recognition of delirium as a serious complication of physical illness, little has been reported in this area. Interest has been raised in treatment options other than haloperidol, such as atypical antipsychotic agents. Methods:, A 2-week open-label trial of risperidone for the treatment of delirium was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerance of this medication in elderly patients. Twenty-two patients with DSM-IV-defined delirium were investigated. All patients had the hyperactive,hyperalert variant of delirium. Patients received a fixed dose of risperidone (mean 1.5 ± 0.7 mg; range 0.5,3 mg). Delirium was assessed using the Delirium Rating Scale (DRS) at baseline and on Days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 after the initiation of risperidone treatment. Clinical and demographic data, as well as risperidone therapy related information, were collected. Results:, Delirium resolved in all patients over the course of treatment. The mean period over which delirium resolved was 4.0 ± 2.9 days. The mean DRS score at baseline was 20.7 ± 3.0. The DRS score improved from baseline to Day 1 of treatment and continued to improve until the study end-point. Mild side-effects were present in 27.3% of patients. Stepwise logistic regression identified a decrease of 2 points or higher on the DRS on Day 1 associated with side-effects. There were no significant differences in the response to treatment with the different doses of risperidone used. Conclusion:, Our findings indicate that low-dose risperidone (0.5,3.0 mg/day) is effective and safe for the treatment of delirium in elderly patients, and that an early response on Day 1 of treatment may be associated with side-effects in these patients. [source]

Football fandom and post-national identity in the New Europe

Anthony King
ABSTRACT Through European club football, we can begin to detect the outlines of a new Europe of competing cities and regions which are being disembedded from their national contexts into new transnational matrices. Focusing on a specific network of Manchester United fans, broadly located in the city of Manchester, this article examines the development of European consciousness among this group of individuals. This consciousness does not consist of a European supranationalism but rather of a new emphasis on the locale of Manchester and an increasing recognition that Manchester United and the city of Manchester must compete autonomously with other major clubs and cities in Europe. [source]

Practitioner Review: Approaches to assessment and treatment of children with DCD: an evaluative review

Peter H. Wilson
Background:, Movement clumsiness (or Developmental Coordination Disorder , DCD) has gained increasing recognition as a significant condition of childhood. However, some uncertainty still exists about diagnosis. Accordingly, approaches to assessment and treatment are varied, each drawing on distinct theoretical assumptions about the aetiology of the condition and its developmental course. Method:, This review evaluates the current status of different approaches to motor assessment and treatment for children with DCD. These approaches are divided according to their broad conceptual origin (or explanatory framework): Normative Functional Skill Approach, General Abilities Approach, Neurodevelopmental Theory, Dynamical Systems Theory, and the Cognitive Neuroscientific Approach. Conclusions:, Each conceptual framework is shown to support assessment and treatment methods with varying degrees of conceptual and psychometric integrity. The normative functional skill approach supports the major screening devices for DCD and cognitive (or top-down) approaches to intervention. The general abilities approach and traditional neurodevelopmental theory are not well supported by recent research. The dynamical systems approach supports promising trends in biomechanical or kinematic analysis of movement, ecological task analysis, and task-specific intervention. Finally, and more recently, the cognitive neuroscientific approach has generated some examples of process-oriented assessment and treatment based on validated (brain,behaviour) models of motor control and learning. A multi-level approach to movement assessment and treatment is recommended for DCD, providing a more complete representation of motor development at different levels of function , behavioural, neurocognitive, and emotional. [source]

Effect of Gene-environment Interactions on Mental Development in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian Mothers and Newborns

Shuang Wang
Summary The health impact of environmental toxins has gained increasing recognition over the years. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are known to affect nervous system development in children, but no studies have investigated how polymorphisms in PAH metabolic genes affect child cognitive development following PAH exposure during pregnancy. In two parallel prospective cohort studies of non-smoking African American and Dominican mothers and children in New York City and of Caucasian mothers and children in Krakow, Poland, we explored the effect of gene-PAH interaction on child mental development index (MDI). Genes known to play important roles in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs were selected. Genetic variations in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. We explored the effects of interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 21 polymorphisms or haplotypes in these genes on MDI at 12, 24, and 36 months among 547 newborns and 806 mothers from three different ethnic groups. Significant interaction effects between haplotypes and PAHs were observed in mothers and their newborns in all three ethnic groups after Bonferroni correction. The strongest and most consistent effect observed was between PAH and haplotype ACCGGC of the CYP1B1 gene. [source]

Enhancing the effectiveness of policy-relevant integrative research in rural areas

AREA, Issue 4 2009
Piran C L White
There has been much debate about the importance of policy-relevant research in geography over the last decade. There has also been an increasing recognition by policymakers of the importance of integrative (interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary) approaches to policy-relevant research. However, geographers have been more reluctant than their colleagues in other social and natural sciences to embrace integrative research collaborations. For integrative research to achieve its full potential and to encourage greater participation from the geographical research community, we need to increase our understanding of its potential value, but also some of the challenges that it poses, and how these can be overcome. In this paper, we consider the processes involved in conducting successful integrative research from the perspective of researchers involved in these projects. We base our analysis on the results of a questionnaire survey of international integrative research programmes on environmental issues in rural areas, combined with our own experiences of working in integrative research. We conclude that effective integrative research depends on the establishment of a clear conceptual framework, the use of appropriate temporal and spatial scales in the research, effective language and communication, time and commitment, and trust and respect. We also highlight the value of stakeholder involvement in integrative research to ensure the policy relevance of the work and provide a mechanism to assist with effective knowledge transfer of the results. [source]

Psychological therapies for bipolar disorder: the role of model-driven approaches to therapy integration

Steven H Jones
Objectives:, The psychological and social aspects of bipolar disorder are receiving increasing recognition. Recently, there have been promising developments in psychological interventions, but there is scope for further improvement of therapeutic outcomes. This paper argues for the use of more detailed psychological models of bipolar disorder to inform the further development of therapeutic approaches. Method:, Evidence for psychological, family and social factors in bipolar disorder is reviewed. The efficacy of current individual and family interventions are discussed. A model, which has potential to synthesize group and individual approaches, is outlined. Results:, Psychological, social and family factors have important influences on the onset, course and outcome of bipolar disorder. Interventions based on vulnerability stress models have proved effective. However, to enhance efficacy future developments need to be based on models that integrate current understandings of the multiple levels at which mood fluctuations occur. A particular recent model is discussed which leads to specific proposals for future intervention research. Conclusions:, Psychological and family approaches to BD have much potential. They clearly have a role in conjunction with appropriate pharmacological treatment. If this potential is to be fully realized future developments need to be based on psychological models that can accommodate the complexity of this illness. [source]

Obstacles to involving children and young people in foster care research

Robyn Gilbertson
ABSTRACT Despite increasing recognition of the importance of including the perspectives of children and young people in care in alternative care research, in practice this is not always a straightforward matter. This paper describes the recruitment of disruptive young people in care under the jurisdiction of the South Australian statutory authority to three studies on placement instability. Non-response rates of 72.5% and 82% are reported. A large number of subjects were excluded because agency social workers did not cooperate with the project, and more subjects were excluded for reasons which suggest high levels of distress in this population. The dilemma of providing a voice to distressed subjects when distressed subjects are excluded from research is discussed, and the appointment of an independent representative for children in care to review research proposals and to negotiate research access to children is proposed. [source]

Clostridium difficile in food,innocent bystander or serious threat?

J. S. Weese
Abstract Clostridium difficile is a critically important cause of disease in humans, particularly in hospitalized individuals. Three major factors have raised concern about the potential for this pathogen to be a cause of foodborne disease: the increasing recognition of community-associated C. difficile infection, recent studies identifying C. difficile in food animals and food, and similarities in C. difficile isolates from animals, food and humans. It is clear that C. difficile can be commonly found in food animals and food in many regions, and that strains important in human infections, such as ribotype 027/NAP1/toxinotype III and ribotype 078/toxinotype V, are often present. However, it is currently unclear whether ingestion of contaminated food can result in colonization or infection. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the role of C. difficile in community-associated diarrhoea: its source when it is a food contaminant, the infective dose, and the association between ingestion of contaminated food and disease. The significant role of this pathogen in human disease and its potential emergence as an important community-associated pathogen indicate that careful evaluation of different sources of exposure, including food, is required, but determination of the potential role of food in C. difficile infection may be difficult. [source]