Increasing Ratio (increasing + ratio)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Growth, fat content and fatty acid profile of South American catfish, surubim (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) juveniles fed live, commercial and formulated diets

M. Arslan
Summary South American catfish, barred surubim (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) juveniles (117.6 ± 11.8 mg individual weight; 28.3 ± 2.5 mm total length) were fed various diets: one live (Tubifex worms), two commercial (Aglo Norse and Bio Kyowa), and one semi-purified formulated diet (75% peptide based protein) over a 2-week period. Fish fed the Aglo Norse diet showed the highest growth performance, but cannibalism also was very high (42%). Fish fed peptide based formulated diet demonstrated the lowest growth rate, with no cannibalism. The highest survival was achieved with fish fed Tubifex worms (100%). Lipid level in the whole body of the fish fed four different experimental diets did not differ significantly, averaging 3.6 ± 0.7%. Fatty acid composition of neutral and phospholipid fractions of whole body lipids of fish reflected the fatty acid composition of the diets. The high level of 20:4n -6 in Tubifex worms resulted in a high level of this fatty acid in the tissue of fish fed this diet. It remains uncertain how high survival and no cannibalism is related to dietary lipids/fatty acids. In all cases, the increasing ratio of n -3 HUFA (highly unsaturated fatty acids)/n -6 HUFA in phospholipid fractions suggested the elongation and desaturation of 18:3n -3 to 22:6n -3 via 20:5n -3. Moreover, in respect to the 20:4n -6 levels in the diets, an increase in the concentration of this fatty acid in phospholipid fraction suggests that South American catfish can transform linoleate into arachidonate. [source]

Destabilisation of homogeneous bubbly flow in an annular gap bubble column

Fahd M. Al-Oufi
Abstract Experimental results are presented to show that there are very significant differences in the mean gas void fractions measured in an open tube and a annular gap bubble column, when operated at the same gas superficial velocity, using a porous sparger. Measurements were carried out in a vertical 0.102,m internal diameter column, with a range of concentric inner tubes to form an annular gap, giving diameter ratios from 0.25 to 0.69; gas superficial velocities in the range 0.014,0.200,m/s were investigated. The mean gas void fraction decreases with increasing ratio of the inner to outer diameter of the annular gap column and the transition to heterogeneous flow occurs at lower gas superficial velocities and lower void fractions. Two reasons are proposed and validated by experimental investigations: (1) the presence of the inner tube causes large bubbles to form near the sparger, which destabilise the homogeneous bubbly flow and reduce the mean void fraction; this was confirmed by deliberately injecting large bubbles into a homogeneous dispersion of smaller bubbles, and (2) the shape of the void fraction profiles changes with gap geometry and this affects the distribution parameter in the drift-flux model. Both of these effects serve to reduce the mean gas void fraction in an annular gap bubble column compared to an open tube at the same gas superficial velocity. Des résultats expérimentaux sont présentés pour montrer qu'il existe de très grandes différences dans les fractions de vide gazeux moyennes mesurées dans un tube ouvert et une colonne à bulles à espace annulaire, lorsqu'ils sont utilisés à la même vitesse superficielle de gaz, au moyen d'un aérateur poreux. On a effectué des mesures dans une colonne verticale avec un diamètre interne de 0.102,m, avec une portée de tubes internes concentriques pour former un espace annulaire, procurant des rapports de diamètre de 0.25 à 0.69; des vitesses superficielles de gaz de 0.014 à 0.200,m/s ont été étudiées. La fraction de vide gazeux moyenne diminue avec le rapport croissant du diamètre interne à externe de la colonne à espace annulaire et la transition à la circulation hétérogène se produit à des vitesses superficielles de gaz et fractions de vide plus basses. Deux raisons sont proposées et validés par les vérifications expérimentales: (1) la présence du tube interne provoque la formation de grandes bulles près de l'aérateur, ce qui déstabilize l'écoulement à bulles homogène et réduit la fraction de vide moyenne; cet état a été confirmé en injectant délibérément de grandes bulles dans une dispersion homogène de plus petites bulles et, (2) la forme des profils de fraction de vide change avec la géométrie de l'espace qui les sépare, ce qui a des conséquences sur le paramètre de distribution du modèle à flux de dérive. Ces deux effets servent à réduire la fraction de vide gazeux moyenne dans une colonne à bulles à espace annulaire, en comparaison avec un tube ouvert à la même vitesse superficielle de gaz. [source]

Power consumption and maximum energy dissipation in a milliliter-scale bioreactor

Ralf Hortsch
Abstract Mean power consumption and maximum local energy dissipation were measured as function of operating conditions of a milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor (V = 12 mL) with a gas-inducing impeller. A standard laboratory-scale stirred tank bioreactor (V = 1,200 mL) with Rushton turbines was used as reference. The measured power characteristics (Newton number as function of Reynolds number) were the same on both scales. The changeover between laminar and turbulent flow regime was observed at a Reynolds number of 3,000 with the gas-inducing stirrer on a milliliter-scale. The Newton number (power number) in the turbulent flow regime was 3.3 on a milliliter-scale, which is close to values reported for six-blade Rushton turbines of standard bioreactors. Maximum local energy dissipation (,max) was measured using a clay/polymer flocculation system. The maximum local energy dissipation in the milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor was reduced compared with the laboratory-scale stirred tank at the same mean power input per unit mass (,ø), yielding ,max/,ø , 10 compared with ,max/,ø , 16. Hence, the milliliter-scale stirred tank reactor distributes power more uniformly in the reaction medium. These results are in good agreement with literature data, where a decreasing ,max/,ø with increasing ratio of impeller diameter to reactor diameter is found (d/D = 0.7 compared with d/D = 0.4). Based on these data, impeller speeds can now be easily adjusted to achieve the same maximum local energy dissipation at different scales. This enables a more reliable and robust scale-up of bioprocesses from milliliter-scale to liter-scale reactors. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2010 [source]

Expression of lumican, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan with antitumour activity, in human malignant melanoma

S. Brézillon
Summary Background., The family of small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), which includes decorin, lumican, biglycan and fibromodulin, constitutes an abundant component of the skin extracellular matrix. We previously demonstrated that human lumican inhibits melanoma growth and progression in a mouse experimental model, by regulating cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Aim., The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of lumican and decorin in human malignant melanoma and adjacent peritumoral tissue, to understand better their role in the control of growth and invasion of human melanoma. Methods., Expression of both proteoglycans was studied by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies in 34 malignant melanomas, 12 Hutchinson's melanotic freckles and 4 cutaneous metastatic melanomas. Results., We showed that lumican and decorin are located in the dermis and in the peritumoral stroma of malignant melanoma, but are not found in melanoma cells or dense tumour tissue. In the healthy dermis, distant from the tumour, the increasing ratio of lumican to decorin was inversely correlated with the proliferation of the tumour cells (P = 0.035). The comparison of the level of expression of lumican protein in superficial vs. nodular subtypes of malignant melanomas showed a decrease of lumican but not decorin in the peritumoral stroma of nodular subtypes. In the peritumoral stroma, the level of expression of lumican but not decorin decreased significantly (P = 0.016) with increasing Clark levels. In addition, immunocytochemical and reverse transcription PCR analyses of malignant melanoma cell lines (A-375, HT-144) and of MRC-5 and dermal fibroblasts from healthy donors in vitro confirmed that dermal fibroblasts are responsible for lumican and decorin synthesis in skin. Conclusions., Lumican may regulate vertical progression of human malignant melanoma, but further study is necessary to clarify the antitumour mechanism and the downstream signal transduction pathways involved. [source]

A dating intercomparison study on Late Stone Age coastal midden deposits, South Africa

Mark D. Bateman
The southern and western coastlines of South Africa have an extensive archaeological record with many sites associated with widespread eolian deposits. While much of this rich archaeological record is based on cave sites, evidence of Late Stone Age occupation is additionally preserved in the form of open-site shell middens. We present here a comparative study of the application of amino acid racemization (AAR), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and radiocarbon analyses to three Late Stone Age (LSA) midden sites found within dunes on the southern coastline of South Africa. Preliminary geochronological analyses suggest that middens offer opportunity to fill in gaps in what is still a fragmentary archaeological record. Results show OSL and radiocarbon ages in good agreement, illustrating the potential to date not only the middens but also the surrounding dunes that constituted the dwelling sites. AAR results show increasing ratios with age and also that the application of paired shell and "whole rock" AAR can provide insights into the degree of biogenic sediment recycling at buried midden sites. However, the work also highlights that caution is required when OSL sampling sediment associated with middens which may have undergone human disturbance and that further work is required to improve the regional marine reservoir correction for radiocarbon dating in this part of South Africa. The study also illustrates that AAR will only provide useful data provided that middens have been sufficiently deeply buried to overcome fluctuations in environmental variables that affect the racemization rate and that inter-genus comparisons should be avoided. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]