Increasing Protein Levels (increasing + protein_level)

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Selected Abstracts

Influence of different sources and levels of dietary protein and lipid on the growth, feed efficiency, muscle composition and fatty acid profile of Snakehead Channa striatus (Bloch, 1793) fingerling

Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko
Abstract Nine isoenergetic (18.5 kJ g,1) diets were formulated, in a 3 × 3 factorial design, by varying three levels of dietary protein (350, 400 and 450 g kg,1) at each of three levels of dietary lipid (65, 90 and 115 g kg,1) accordingly. Each diet was hand fed two times daily for 8 weeks to triplicate homogenous groups of eight fish (average weight 3.34 ± 0.02 g) per tank connected to a recirculation system. Results showed that the feed efficiency and growth performance significantly (P<0.05) increased with increasing protein level at the two lower lipid levels (65 and 90 g kg,1), respectively, as indicated by indices such as %weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio and feed intake, but did not at the highest lipid level (115 g kg,1). The muscle polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content declined with increasing dietary protein level at the lipid levels producing the highest growth, suggesting that the utilization of PUFA influences growth. Whereas the muscle monounsaturated fatty acids level was generally lower than the dietary levels in all the treatments tested, indicating preferential catabolism for energy, the muscle saturated fatty acids level was comparatively higher than in the diets, indicating selective deposition. Docosa hexaenoic acid (22:6n3, DHA), which was very low in the diet and in the initial fish, was higher in the muscle of some of the treatments, indicating the ability of Channa striatus to desaturate and elongate short-chain PUFA to long-chain HUFA, due to the availability of dietary 18:3n3 and 20:5n3 (the precursors for DHA biosynthesis). It could be concluded, based on the results of this trial, that a diet formulated to contain 65 g kg,1 lipid and 450 g kg,1 protein, with a gross energy of 18.5 kJ g,1 and a dietary n3/n6 PUFA ratio of about 0.1, is sufficient to promote good feed efficiency and growth performance in C. striatus fingerling. [source]

Investigation of the Effects of Salinity and Dietary Protein Level on Growth and Survival of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

Martin Perez-Velazquez
It is presumed that in hypo- and hypersaline environments, shrimp's requirements for some specific nutrients, such as protein, may differ from those known in the marine habitat; however, few investigations have been conducted in this area of study. In the present investigation, the effects of salinity and dietary protein level on the biological performance, tissue protein, and water content of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were evaluated. In a 3 × 4 factorial experiment, juvenile shrimp with an average initial weight of 0.36 ± 0.02 g were exposed for 32 d to salinities of 2, 35, and 50 ppt and fed experimental diets with crude protein contents of 25, 30, 35, and 40%. A significant effect of salinity on growth of shrimp was detected, with the growth responses (final weight, weight gain) ranked in the order 2 ppt (3.87, 3.50 g) > 35 ppt (3.40, 3.04 g) > 50 ppt (2.84, 2.47 g). No effects of dietary protein level or an interaction between salinity and protein on growth of shrimp were observed under the experimental conditions of this study. Percent survival of shrimp fed the highest protein content (40%, survival of 74%) was, however, significantly lower than those of shrimp fed the other feeds (25, 30 and 35% protein, survival of 99, 91, and 94%, respectively), a result likely associated with the concentration of total ammonia nitrogen, which increased significantly at increasing protein levels. Final water content of whole shrimp was significantly lower in animals exposed to 50 ppt (70.8%) than in shrimp held at 2 (73.7%) and 35 ppt (72.3%). No effect of salinity, protein, or their interaction was observed on the protein content of whole shrimp. The results of the present study are in agreement with reports of superior and inferior growth of L. vannamei reared in hypo- and hypersaline environments, respectively, as compared to what is generally observed in seawater. [source]

Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance and whole body composition of summerling and winterling spotted barbel (Hemibarbus maculates Bleeker)

Abstract Six test diets with protein levels varying from 250 to 500 g kg,1 were fed to six triplicate groups of summerling (initial weight: 1.56 g) and seven test diets with protein levels varying from 200 to 500 g kg,1 were fed to seven triplicate groups of winterling (initial weight: 9.49 g) for 8 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) of summerling significantly increased with increasing dietary protein levels from 250 to 350 g kg,1 and slightly declined, but without statistical significance at a dietary protein level of 400 g kg,1, then further significantly decreased with increasing protein levels to 450 and 500 g kg,1; WG of winterling increased significantly with increasing dietary protein levels from 200 to 300 g kg,1 (P < 0.05), and above this level, WG had a tendency to decrease with increasing dietary protein levels. Winterling fed diets with 300 and 400 g kg,1 of dietary protein had significantly higher FE than those fed other diets. WG data analysis by quadratic regressions showed that the optimum dietary protein levels required for the maximum growth of summerling and winterling were 374 and 355 g kg,1 of dry diet respectively. Protein efficiency ratio of both summerling and winterling negatively correlated with levels of dietary protein. The whole body moisture, protein, lipid and ash of summerling after being fed various test diets for 8 weeks were significantly different among treatments (P < 0.05). The whole body moisture and fat of winterling were also significantly affected by dietary protein levels (P < 0.05), while the whole body protein and ash of winterling were not (P > 0.05). [source]

Protein requirement for maintenance and maximum growth of two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris) juveniles

Abstract The effects of various dietary protein levels on growth performance, whole body composition and nutrient utilization were studied in two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris), a candidate species for aquaculture. Fish (initial weight 6.1 g) were fed to satiety six iso-energetic diets, containing 5%, 12.5%, 25%, 35%, 45% or 55% of crude protein during 72 days. Fish fed 35% and 45% protein attained better growth and feed utilization than the other groups (P < 0.05). Daily growth index and feed conversion ratio were the poorest for fish fed 5% and 12.5% protein (P < 0.001), while the 25% and 55% protein groups had intermediate performance. Lipid retention increased significantly from 13.7% to 30.1% (P < 0.0001) and protein retention decreased from 35.5% to 21.3% (P < 0.01) with increasing protein levels from 12.5% to 45%. Muscle protein, lipid and energy concentrations were not significantly affected by dietary protein level. The estimated protein requirement for maintenance and maximum growth of two-banded seabream growing from 6 to 20 g were 7.5% and 35.7%, respectively. Protein requirements as calculated from body protein gain were 2.3 and 6.5 g of protein intake per kilogram body weight per day. [source]

Effects of dietary protein levels on the growth performance, digestive capacity and amino acid metabolism of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

Yong Liu
Abstract This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of protein levels on the growth performance, digestive capacity and amino acid metabolism of juvenile Jian carp. Brown fish meal was used as the sole protein source in the present study. Six isoenergetic experimental diets containing 14.4 MJ kg,1 of digestible energy and 220,495 g crude protein kg,1 diets were fed to triplicate groups of 50 fish with a mean initial weight of 16.67 ± 0.01 g for 45 days. Per cent weight gain (PWG) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) improved with an increase in the dietary protein levels up to 330 g kg,1 diet. The condition factor, relative gut length, intestinal folds height, hepatopancreas and intestine protein content improved with an increase in the protein levels up to 330,385 g kg,1 diet. Trypsin, creatinkinase, Na+, K+ -ATPase and alkaline phosphatase activities generally followed the same tendency as that of growth parameters. Amylase and ,-glutamyl transpeptidase (,-GT) activities were negatively correlated with increasing protein levels from 220 to 330 g kg,1 diet, and no differences were found thereafter. Lipase activity was unaffected by protein levels. Lactobacillus amount was increased with protein levels up to 275 g kg,1 diet, while Aeromonas amount followed the opposite pattern. Escherichia coli amount was not influenced by dietary protein levels. Glutamate,oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activities in the hepatopancreas and plasma ammonia concentration (PAC) were not influenced by protein levels between 220 and 275 g kg,1 diet, but significantly increased with increasing protein levels from 275 to 440 g kg,1 diet, and remained similar thereafter. Glutamate,pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities significantly increased with protein levels >275 g kg,1 diet. Based on the broken-line model, the dietary protein requirement for PWG of Jian carp (16.7,55.0 g) was estimated to be 341 g kg,1 diet with a digestible energy of 14.4 MJ kg,1 diet. [source]