Increasing Productivity (increasing + productivity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Population structure and establishment of the threatened long-lived perennial Scorzonera humilis in relation to environment

Guy Colling
Summary 1The intensification of agriculture has resulted in the decline of many plant species of nutrient-poor wet grasslands. At some sites local populations of long-lived characteristic species have persisted and might benefit from recent extensification schemes. However, little is known about the population biology of these plants, and the prospects for the populations are uncertain. 2We studied the population structure and establishment of the long-lived Scorzonera humilis in 23 populations in Luxembourg and neighbouring Belgium. Two types of populations could be distinguished according to their population structure: regenerating populations, with a high proportion of plants with only one or a few rosettes, and aged populations, with a low proportion of small, young plants but a high proportion of individuals with many rosettes. The total density of Scorzonera individuals was higher in regenerating than in aged populations. 3Within sites, S. humilis was restricted to more open and nutrient-poor patches. The composition of the vegetation in plots where S. humilis was present was significantly different from that of plots without the species, indicating that S. humilis is restricted to particular microhabitats. 4In multiple regression analyses, environmental variables explained a large part of the variation in the total density of genets, the density of genets of different size and the density of rosettes. The main variables of influence were site productivity and soil moisture. With increasing productivity and decreasing soil moisture the proportion of small genets decreased and that of large genets increased. Increased productivity had contrasting effects at the genet and ramet (rosette) levels. While genet density decreased, ramet density increased, indicating that if a site is fertilized, recruitment of new genets and survival of genets is reduced, but growth of surviving genets is increased. 5The results of a sowing experiment indicated that an aged population structure was due to a lack of recruitment. The number of seeds that germinated and the proportion of seedlings that survived until the next summer were positively correlated with soil moisture and negatively with productivity. Germination rate and establishment success were significantly higher in Molinion grassland than in the Calthion grasslands. 6The results suggest that for long-lived species the size and number of populations may not be good indicators of the status of a species. In S. humilis large populations (> 1000 genets) still exist, but all are of the aged type. In order to preserve existing populations of S. humilis, management should aim to reduce productivity and increase soil moisture. [source]

CAD-based automated robot programming in adhesive spray systems for shoe outsoles and uppers

J. Y. Kim
Most shoe manufacturing processes are not yet automated; it puts restrictions on increasing productivity. Among them, adhesive application processes particularly are holding the most workers and working hours. In addition, the working environment is very poor due to the toxicity of adhesive agents. In the case of automating an adhesive application process by using a robot, robot teaching by playback is difficult to produce high productivity because the kinds of shoes to be taught mount up to several thousands. To cope with it, it is necessary to generate robot working paths automatically according to the kind, the size, or the right and the left of shoes, and also to teach the generated paths to a robot automatically. This paper presents a method to generate three-dimensional robot working paths off-line based on CAD data in an automatic adhesive spray system for shoe outsoles and uppers. First, this paper describes how to extract the three-dimensional data of an outsole outline from a two-dimensional CAD drawing file. Second, it describes how to extract the three-dimensional data of an upper profiling line from the three-dimensional scanning data that is opened in a three-dimensional CAD program. Third, it describes how to generate robot working paths based on the extracted data and the nozzle setting parameters for adhesive spray. Also, a series of experiments for adhesive spray is performed to verify the effectiveness of the presented methods. This study will do much for increasing productivity in shoe manufacturing as a core work of a robotic adhesive spray system. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Economic Feasibility of Aquaculture of Spiny Lobsters Jasus edwardsii in Temperate Waters

Andrew Jeffs
Around the world there is strong interest in the aquaculture of spiny lobsters (family Palinuridae). However, there is little published information about the economic feasibility of spiny lobster aquaculture. For more than 20 yr there has been experimental grow out of the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii in New Zealand in land-based systems using seed animals (puerulus) taken from the wild. These studies provide sufficient information on growth, mortality, food conversion, handling and capital costs to enable an assessment of the economic feasibility of the commercial culture of spiny lobsters in temperate waters. This assessment suggests that profitable spiny lobster aquaculture will rely on greatly reducing the infrastructure and operating costs of land-based farming operations, as well as lowering feed and labor costs. Financial simulations suggest that increasing productivity through faster growth rates and lowered culture mortalities will only have a minor effect on profitability unless infrastructure and operating costs can be reduced significantly. Seacage culture or sea ranching of spiny lobsters may offer a means of avoiding high infrastructure costs associated with land-based farming operations. The development of a cost-effective artificial feed would also appear to be a priority for improving the economic outlook for culturing spiny lobsters. The results of this study are relevant to the economics of spiny lobster culture developments in other temperate regions of the world. [source]

Factors affecting methane production and mitigation in ruminants

ABSTRACT Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) and that emitted from enteric fermentation in livestock is the single largest source of emissions in Japan. Many factors influence ruminant CH4 production, including level of intake, type and quality of feeds and environmental temperature. The objectives of this review are to identify the factors affecting CH4 production in ruminants, to examine technologies for the mitigation of CH4 emissions from ruminants, and to identify areas requiring further research. The following equation for CH4 prediction was formulated using only dry matter intake (DMI) and has been adopted in Japan to estimate emissions from ruminant livestock for the National GHG Inventory Report: Y = ,17.766 + 42.793X , 0.849X2, where Y is CH4 production (L/day) and X is DMI (kg/day). Technologies for the mitigation of CH4 emissions from ruminants include increasing productivity by improving nutritional management, the manipulation of ruminal fermentation by changing feed composition, the addition of CH4 inhibitors, and defaunation. Considering the importance of ruminant livestock, it is essential to establish economically feasible ways of reducing ruminant CH4 production while improving productivity; it is therefore critical to conduct a full system analysis to select the best combination of approaches or new technologies to be applied under long-term field conditions. [source]


Jens J. Krüger
L16; O12; O33; L60 ABSTRACT The sources of aggregate productivity growth are explored using detailed data for four-digit US manufacturing industries during 1958,96 and a decomposition formula that allows us to quantify the contribution of structural change. Labour productivity as well as total factor productivity are considered with either value-added or employment shares serving as aggregation weights. It is shown that structural change generally works in favour of industries with increasing productivity. This effect is particularly strong in the years since 1990, in high-tech industries and in durable goods producing industries. The impact of the computer revolution can be clearly identified. [source]