Increasing Production (increasing + production)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Facial Soft Tissue Depths in Craniofacial Identification (Part I): An Analytical Review of the Published Adult Data,

Carl N. Stephan Ph.D.
Abstract:, With the ever increasing production of average soft tissue depth studies, data are becoming increasingly complex, less standardized, and more unwieldy. So far, no overarching review has been attempted to determine: the validity of continued data collection; the usefulness of the existing data subcategorizations; or if a synthesis is possible to produce a manageable soft tissue depth library. While a principal components analysis would provide the best foundation for such an assessment, this type of investigation is not currently possible because of a lack of easily accessible raw data (first, many studies are narrow; second, raw data are infrequently published and/or stored and are not always shared by some authors). This paper provides an alternate means of investigation using an hierarchical approach to review and compare the effects of single variables on published mean values for adults whilst acknowledging measurement errors and within-group variation. The results revealed: (i) no clear secular trends at frequently investigated landmarks; (ii) wide variation in soft tissue depth measures between different measurement techniques irrespective of whether living persons or cadavers were considered; (iii) no clear clustering of non-Caucasoid data far from the Caucasoid means; and (iv) minor differences between males and females. Consequently, the data were pooled across studies using weighted means and standard deviations to cancel out random and opposing study-specific errors, and to produce a single soft tissue depth table with increased sample sizes (e.g., 6786 individuals at pogonion). [source]

Potato glycoalkaloids: formation and strategies for mitigation

Prabhat K Nema
Abstract With the increasing production and consumption of potato and its products, glycoalkaloid (GA) formation and toxicity are likely to become an important focus for food safety researchers and public health agencies. Not only the presence of GA, particularly in the form of ,-solanine and ,-chaconine, but also the changes occurring as a result of various post-harvest handling practices and storage, are critical issues influencing the quality of stored potatoes. Studies on various factors (pre-harvest, during harvest and post-harvest) affecting GA have been carried out from time to time, but it is difficult to compare the results of one study with another due to wide variation in the parameters chosen. This review aims to develop a clear understanding of these issues. Published information on the types of GA, their effects on health, their typical concentrations in potatoes, their formation mechanisms, and how their levels can be controlled by following appropriate post harvest practices and storage regimes are critically analysed. The levels of GA in potato can be controlled effectively by adopting appropriate post-harvest practices. Further studies are necessary, however, to investigate best practices, which either check completely or retard substantially their formation. Copyright 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Reduced apoptosis in BALB/c mice infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus

SUMMARY We evaluated levels of apoptosis and the immune response ex vivo in BALB/c mice infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and cytokine production were measured in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) without exposure to H. polygyrus antigens in culture. The inhibited apoptosis and cytokine production reported might reflect a state of cell hyporesponsiveness in the prepatent phase of infection. These changes were accompanied by changes in the percentage of CD4+ cells in MLN and popliteal lymph nodes (PLN). The prolonged reduction in apoptosis coexisted with induced cell proliferation, elevated TNF-,, IL-12p70, IFN-,, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-, synthesis, but lowered IL-4 and IL-2 levels. In the chronic phase of infection an increasing production of IFN-,, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-10 and TGF-, with decreasing concentrations of other cytokines resulted in restored apoptosis. The cytokine response in serum showed moderate production of TNF-,, temporary involvement of IL-12p70, induction of IFN-, and IL-10 synthesis, as well as growing IL-6 and MCP-1 production. It is suggested that a synchronized synthesis of distinct cytokines is accompanied by different levels of inhibited apoptosis during the prepatent and chronic phases of H. polygyrus infection in BALB/c mice. We suggest that immunosuppression provoked by the nematode is not the outcome of parasite-induced apoptosis, but rather results from a hyporesponsiveness experienced by cells during H. polygyrus infection. [source]

Qualitative and quantitative ultrastructural analysis of the membrane rearrangements induced by coronavirus

Mustafa Ulasli
Summary Coronaviruses (CoV) are enveloped positive-strand RNA viruses that induce different membrane rearrangements in infected cells in order to efficiently replicate and assemble. The origin, the protein composition and the function of these structures are not well established. To shed further light on these structures, we have performed a time-course experiment in which the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-induced membrane rearrangements were examined qualitatively and quantitatively by (immuno)-electron microscopy. With our approach we were able to confirm the appearance of 6, previously reported, membranous structures during the course of a complete infection cycle. These structures include the well-characterized double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), convoluted membranes (CMs) and virions but also the more enigmatic large virion-containing vacuoles (LVCVs), tubular bodies (TBs) and cubic membrane structures (CMSs). We have characterized the LVCVs, TBs and CMSs, and found that the CoV-induced structures appear in a strict order. By combining these data with quantitative analyses on viral RNA, protein synthesis and virion release, this study generates an integrated molecular and ultrastructural overview of CoV infection. In particular, it provides insights in the role of each CoV-induced structure and reveals that LVCVs are ERGIC/Golgi compartments that expand to accommodate an increasing production of viral particles. [source]

Anti-inflammatory properties of heat shock protein 70 and butyrate on Salmonella -induced interleukin-8 secretion in enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells

J. J. Malago
Summary Intestinal epithelial cells secrete the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 in the course of inflammation. Because heat shock proteins (Hsps) and butyrate confer protection to enterocytes, we investigated whether they modulate Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. serovar Enteritidis)-induced secretion of IL-8 in enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 cells incubated with or without butyrate (0,20 m M, 48 h) were infected with S. serovar Enteritidis after (1 h at 42C, 6 h at 37C) or without prior heat shock (37C). Levels of Hsp70 production and IL-8 secretion were analysed using immunostaining of Western blots and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The cells secreted IL-8 in response to S. serovar Enteritidis and produced Hsp70 after heat shock or incubation with butyrate. The IL-8 secretion was inhibited by heat shock and butyrate concentrations as low as 02 m M for crypt-like and 1 m M for villous-like cells. In a dose-dependent manner, higher butyrate concentrations enhanced IL-8 secretion to maximal levels followed by a gradual but stable decline. This decline was associated with increasing production of Hsp70 and was more vivid in crypt-like cells. In addition, the higher concentrations abolished the heat shock inhibitory effect. Instead, they promoted the IL-8 production in heat-shocked cells even in the absence of S. serovar Enteritidis. We conclude that heat shock and low concentrations of butyrate inhibit IL-8 production by Caco-2 cells exposed to S. serovar Enteritidis. Higher butyrate concentrations stimulate the chemokine production and override the inhibitory effect of the heat shock. The IL-8 down-regulation could in part be mediated via production of Hsp70. [source]