Increasing Presence (increasing + presence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Geomicrobiology of deep-sea deposits: estimating community diversity from low-temperature seafloor rocks and minerals

GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Daniel R. Rogers
ABSTRACT The role of deep-sea microbial communities in the weathering of hydrothermal vent deposits is assessed using mineralogical and molecular biological techniques. The phylogenetic diversity of varied deep-sea bare rock habitats associated with the oceanic spreading centre at the Juan de Fuca Ridge was accessed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and rDNA sequencing. The mineralogical composition of the deposits used for phylogenetic analysis was determined by X-ray diffraction in order to determine the proportion and composition of sulphide minerals, and to determine degree of alteration associated with each sample. RFLP analyses resulted in 15 unique patterns, or Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Most environments examined were dominated by only one or two OTUs, which often comprised approximately 60% of the rDNA clones generated from that environment. Only one environment, the Mound, had a representative rDNA clone from every OTU identified in this study. For one other environment, ODP sediments, rDNA clones were all contained in a single OTU. The diversity of the microbial community is found to decrease with decreasing reactivity of the sulphide component in the samples and with increasing presence of alteration products. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that OTUs contain representatives of the epsilon-, beta- and gamma-subdivisions of the Proteobacteria. OTU1, which dominates clone libraries from every environment and is increasingly dominant with increasing rock alteration, is closely related to a group of chemolithoautotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria that have been recently isolated from the deep sea. The apparent abundance and widespread distribution within the samples examined of the putative iron-oxidizing bacteria that may be represented by OTU1 suggests that this physiological group could play an important role in rock-weathering and carbon fixation at the seafloor. [source]

New labour and reform of the English NHS: user views and attitudes

Andrew Wallace PhD
Abstract Background, The British National Health Service has undergone significant restructuring in recent years. In England this has taken a distinctive direction where the New Labour Government has embraced and intensified the influence of market principles towards its vision of a ,modernized' NHS. This has entailed the introduction of competition and incentives for providers of NHS care and the expansion of choice for patients. Objectives, To explore how users of the NHS perceive and respond to the market reforms being implemented within the NHS. In addition, to examine the normative values held by NHS users in relation to welfare provision in the UK. Design and setting, Qualitative interviews using a quota sample of 48 recent NHS users in South East England recruited from three local health economies. Results, Some NHS users are exhibiting an ambivalent or anxious response to aspects of market reform such as patient choice, the use of targets and markets and the increasing presence of the private sector within the state healthcare sector. This has resulted in a sense that current reforms, are distracting or preventing NHS staff from delivering quality of care and fail to embody the relationships of care that are felt to sustain the NHS as a progressive public institution. Conclusion, The best way of delivering such values for patients is perceived to involve empowering frontline staffs who are deemed to embody the same values as service users, thus problematizing the current assumptions of reform frameworks that market-style incentives will necessarily gain public consent and support. [source]

Removing pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds from wastewater by photocatalysis

Omatoyo K Dalrymple
Abstract Widespread concerns continue to be raised about the increasing presence of emerging contaminants in the environment. Such compounds include a wide range of persistent organic chemicals, including pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds whose effects are poorly known, often because they have only begun to enter the environment and are showing up in wastewater treatment plants. The occurrence and behavior of these compounds in wastewater are key issues with regard to water reclamation and reuse. Treatment plants are now faced with the challenge of removing the compounds from their effluent before they enter natural waterways. In this regard, photocatalysis is a promising technology for wastewater treatment that offers many advantages over conventional and some advanced treatment options. The application of photocatalysis for the removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds for wastewater is comprehensively surveyed in this paper. This treatment technology is not intended to replace conventional systems but to supplement for higher-quality effluent. The assessment places emphasis on the process fundamentals, advantages, and disadvantages of the technology. It also focuses on the current limitations and future research needs. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

The Obvious Aspects of Ecological Underprivilege in Ankarana, Northern Madagascar

On the basis of research conducted in the Ankarana region of northern Madagascar, I discuss the speculating that Malagasy participants in the local sapphire trade do about foreign ecotourists who come to this region. Although some have been promoting international ecotourism in the region as a viable means to a sustainable future for local people and ecosystems, others, including many of the observers discussed here, see the rise of the ecotourist trade and the increasing presence of its clients in Ankarana as signs of foreigners' long-standing interests in Malagasy resources. I argue that to understand the perspectives of these critical observers, it is necessary to appreciate what they take to be obvious about ecotourism and the conservation projects with which they are commonly associated. [source]

Migrant women in male-dominated sectors of the labour market: a research agenda

Parvati Raghuram
Abstract There is a growing literature on female labour migration, but much of this focuses on women who move to work in labour-market sectors where a large proportion of workers are women. This paper argues that there has been much less study of women who migrate to work in male-dominated sectors of the labour market, and explores the nature of this lacuna within research on female migration. It then highlights the increasing presence of women migrants in the ICT sector as one example of an area that has received little study. Finally, the paper explores some reasons why a study of female migrant's experiences in male-dominated sectors of the labour market is important, and what it can add to existing research on female migration more generally. In particular, it urges us to view gender as it intersects and overlaps with other social divisions to produce complex landscapes of female mobility. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Interfirm Modularity and Its Implications for Product Development,

Nancy Staudenmayer
Industries characterized by interfirm modularity, in which the component products of different firms work together to create a system, are becoming increasingly widespread. In such industries, the existence of a common architecture enables consumers to mix and match the products of different firms. Industries ranging from stereos, cameras, and bicycles to computers, printing, and wireless services are now characterized by interfirm modularity. While the increasing presence of this context has been documented, the implications for the product development process remain underdeveloped. For the present study, in-depth field-based case studies of seven firms experiencing an environment of interfirm modularity were conducted in order to deepen understanding of this important phenomenon. What unique challenges did this context pose and why? What solutions did firms experiment with, and which seemed to work? Based on an inductive process of data analysis from these case studies, three primary categories of challenges raised by this environment were identified. First, firms were frustrated at their lack of control over the definition of their own products. The set of features and functions in products were constrained to a great extent by an architecture that the firm did not control. Second, while an environment of interfirm modularity should in theory eliminate interdependencies among firms since interfaces between products are defined ex-ante, the present study found, ironically, that interdependencies were ubiquitous. Interdependencies continually emerged throughout the product development process, despite efforts to limit them. Third, firms found that the quantity and variegated nature of external relationships made their management exceedingly difficult. The sheer complexity was daunting, given both the size of the external network as well as the number of ties per external collaborator. Partners with whom control over the architecture was shared often had divergent interests,or at least not fully convergent interests. The solutions to these challenges were creative and in many cases counter to established wisdom. For instance, research has suggested many ways for a firm to influence architectural standards. While the firms in the present sample followed some of this advice, they also focused on a more neglected aspect of architecture,the compliance and testing standards that accompany modules and interfaces. By concentrating their efforts in a different area, even smaller firms in this sample were able to have some influence. Instead of focusing on the elimination of interdependencies, it was found that firms benefited from concentrating on the management of interdependencies as they emerged. Finally, while layers of management and "bureaucracy" are often viewed as unproductive, these firms found that adding structure, through positions such as Relationship Manager, was highly beneficial in handling the coordination and control of a wide range of external relationships. [source]

Ingestion of multiple veterinary drugs and associated impact on vulture health: implications of livestock carcass elimination practices

G. Blanco
Abstract Veterinary drugs present in livestock carcasses may be ingested by scavengers and may cause important declines in their populations, as reported for diclofenac in Asia. Drug content of carcasses may depend on the prevailing livestock operations and legal regulations for carcass elimination. In Spain, the main stronghold of vultures in Europe, legal measures to mitigate the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have caused the lack or scarcity of unstabled livestock carcasses available for avian scavengers, and the parallel increase in use of dumps of livestock carcasses supplied by farms, especially of intensively medicated pigs and poultry. We evaluated temporal trends in the presence and concentration of antibiotics and other veterinary drugs, and their associated health impacts on three vulture species, due to the ban of abandoning unstabled livestock carcasses in the countryside since the BSE crisis. An increasing presence and concentration of antibiotics since the BSE crisis, and residues of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) and four anti-parasitics were found in the vultures. Quinolones were associated with infection by opportunistic pathogens in the three species and with generalized damage to internal organs in the cinereous vulture, but no clear health impacts of NSAIDs and anti-parasitics were found. Given that there is no evidence of BSE transmission risk due to the abandonment of unstabled livestock carcasses in the countryside, this traditional practice in the Mediterranean region should be legalized in order to increase the availability, dispersion and quality of food for threatened scavengers. Once legalized, this practice should be prioritized over the spatially concentrated disposal of large amounts of carcasses from medicated stabled livestock to reduce the risk and effects of drug ingestion and acquisition and transmission of pathogens by vultures. [source]

PPPs: Nature, Development And Unanswered Questions

Jane Broadbent
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are the newest and latest "new public management" development for the public services. PPPs are becoming a worldwide development, although the origins can be traced to the United Kingdom's private finance initiative (PFI), which remains the most advanced and developed form of PPP. This paper explores the development of PPPs, concentrating first on the PFI and then tracing the increasing presence of PPPs in Europe, the Americas and Australasia. [source]

Diversification des populations dans la région de Montréal: de nouveaux défis de la gestion urbaine

Sylvie Paré
Sommaire: Certaines organisations municipales s'efforcent de mieux répondre aux nouveaux besoins associés aux transformations de la population métropolitaine. Une perspective de meilleures pratiques face aux nouveaux défis de la gestion urbaine se dessine progressivement pour les banlieues et anciennes banlieues des villes situées dans les différentes couronnes au Nord et au Sud de Montréal. Après un bref aperçu des transformations de la population, nous examinons les groupes susceptibles d'avoir des besoins particuliers. S'ensuivent un exposé des types d'interventions entreprises par les municipalités québécoises dans ces domaines, puis les objectifs de recherche ainsi que la méthodologie. Finalernent, nous présentons les résultats à partir de l'analyse des données recueillies dans dix-sept municipalités de plus de 3 000 habitants, excluant la Ville de Montréal. Nous avons retenu quatre variables: population immigrante, minorités visibles, familles monoparentales et familles à faible revenu. Les municipalités retenues se situent à un niveau élevé pour l'un ou l'autre de ces fadeurs ou encore pour leur combinaison. Il n'y a pas forcément de liens entre la forte présence des divers sous-groupes et l'existence de politiques et programmes. Un phénomèe intéressant se présente quant à la présence de politiques pour les personnes âgées car la majorité des municipalités font preuve d'innovation à cet égard. Abstract: Some municipalities are adopting initiatives designed to better respond to needs associated with the changing composition of the urban population. This research aims to identify "best practices" of municipal administration in the suburban ring around Montreal, in particular with respect to the development of programs and policies designed to accommodate emerging populations with special needs. After a brief presentation of the changing demographics of such populations, the authors examine in greater detail specific groups that require special attention. They then present the different types of initiatives developed by Quebec municipalities to respond to identified needs discuss the objectives and methods of their research. They analyse data collected in seventeen municipalities in the Montreal area that have at least 3,000 residents, excluding the City of Montreal. Research focuses on four types of sub-populations: immigrants, visible minorities, single-parent families, and low-income families. All of the municipalities included in our study have a higher than average incidence of one or more of these sub-populations. Data does not reveal a strong relationship between municipal initiatives and the presence of the different sub-groups. On the other hand, nearly all municipalities have developed initiatives to respond to the increasing presence of the elderly. [source]

The impact of childhood conditions and concurrent morbidities on child health and well-being

E. Waters
Abstract Background Understanding the impact of illnesses and morbidities experienced by children and adolescents is essential to clinical and population health programme decision making and intervention research. This study sought to: (1) examine the population prevalence of physical and mental health conditions for children and quantify their impact on multiple dimensions of children's health and well-being; and (2) examine the cumulative effect of concurrent conditions. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study of 5414 children and adolescents aged 5,18 years, and examined parental reports of child health and well-being using the parent-report Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) PF50 13 scales are scored on a 0,100 pt scale with clinically meaningful differences of five points and the presence of childhood conditions (illnesses and health problems). Results Asthma, dental, vision and allergies are the most commonly identified health problems for children and adolescents, followed by attention- and behaviour-related problems (asthma 17.9,23.2%, dental 11.9,22.7%, vision 7.2,14.7%, chronic allergies 8.8,13.9%, attention problems 5.1,13.8% and behaviour problems 5.7,12.0%). As the number of concurrent health problems increase, overall health and well-being decreases substantively with mean differences in CHQ scale scores of 14 points (,7.69 to ,21.51) for physical health conditions, and 28 points (,5.15 to ,33.81) for mental health conditions. Conclusions Children's health and well-being decreases linearly with increasing presence and frequency of health problems. Having three or more conditions concurrently significantly burdens children's health and well-being, particularly for family-related CHQ domains, with a greater burden experienced for mental health conditions than physical health conditions. [source]