Increasing Population (increasing + population)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Terms modified by Increasing Population

  • increasing population density
  • increasing population size

  • Selected Abstracts

    Interactions between land use, habitat use, and population increase in greater snow geese: what are the consequences for natural wetlands?

    Gilles Gauthier
    Abstract The North American greater snow goose population has increased dramatically during the last 40 years. We evaluated whether refuge creation, changes in land use on the wintering and staging grounds, and climate warming have contributed to this expansion by affecting the distribution, habitat use, body condition, and migration phenology of birds. We also reviewed the effects of the increasing population on marshes on the wintering grounds, along the migratory routes and on the tundra in summer. Refuges established before 1970 may have contributed to the initial demographic increase. The most important change, however, was the switch from a diet entirely based on marsh plants in spring and winter (rhizomes of Scirpus/Spartina) to one dominated by crops (corn/young grass shoots) during the 1970s and 1980s. Geese now winter further north along the US Atlantic coast, leading to reduced hunting mortality. Their migratory routes now include portions of southwestern Québec where corn production has increased exponentially. Since the mid-1960s, average temperatures have increased by 1,2.4°C throughout the geographic range of geese, which may have contributed to the northward shift in wintering range and an earlier migration in spring. Access to spilled corn in spring improved fat reserves upon departure for the Arctic and may have contributed to a high fecundity. The population increase has led to intense grazing of natural wetlands used by geese although these habitats are still largely undamaged. The foraging in fields allowed the population to exceed limits imposed by natural marshes in winter and spring, but also prevented permanent damage because of their overgrazing. [source]

    Future hydroclimatology of the Mekong River basin simulated using the high-resolution Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) AGCM

    Anthony S. Kiem
    Abstract Analysis of future Japan Meteorological Agency atmospheric general circulation model (JMA AGCM) based climate scenarios for the Mekong River basin (MRB) indicates that annual mean precipitation will increase in the 21st century (2080,2099) by 4·2% averaged across the basin, with the majority of this increase occurring over the northern MRB (i.e. China). Annual mean temperatures are also projected to increase by approximately 2·6 °C (averaged across the MRB). As expected, these changes also lead to significant changes in the hydrology of the MRB. All MRB subbasins will experience an increase in the number of wet days in the ,future' and, importantly for sustainable water resources management and the mitigation of extreme events (e.g. floods and droughts), the magnitude and frequency of what are now considered extreme events are also expected to increase resulting in increased risk of flooding, but a reduction in the likelihood of droughts/low-flow periods,assuming water extraction is kept at a sustainable level. Despite the fact that the climate change impact projections are associated with significant uncertainty, it is important to act now and put in place policies, infrastructure and mitigation strategies to protect against the increased flooding that could occur. In addition, despite this study indicating a decrease in the number of ,low-flow' days, across most of the MRB, further analysis is needed to determine whether the reduction in low-flow days is enough to compensate for (and sustain) the rapidly increasing population and development in the MRB. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Healthcare for Older Persons, A Country Profile: Nigeria

    Bola O. Akanji PhD
    The Nigerian population is undergoing demographic transition, with an increasing population of older people. Nuclear and extended family members traditionally care for older persons at home. We have observed changes in home living conditions due to reduced family size, and urban migration for economic reasons are likely to affect the care of older people. The inadequately funded healthcare system has placed little emphasis on the care of older people because there are more-pressing health problems and funding for older people is limited. This paper advocates improved attention to the health needs of older people through improved budgetary allocation, revision of the training curriculum of all cadres of health staff to include geriatrics, and utilization of primary healthcare facilities. [source]

    Increased survival and breeding performance of double breeders in little penguins Eudyptula minor, New Zealand: evidence for individual bird quality?

    Edda Johannesen
    The little penguin Eudyptula minor is unique among penguin species in being able to fledge chicks from two clutches in one breeding season. Pairs laying two clutches in a given season make a higher reproductive investment, and may be rewarded by a higher reproductive success as they may raise twice as many chicks as pairs laying one clutch. The higher effort made by pairs laying two clutches could correlate negatively with survival, future reproductive performance or offspring survival, indicating a cost of reproduction. Conversely, a positive relationship between the number of clutches produced in a given breeding season and survival, future reproductive performance or offspring survival would indicate that birds laying two clutches belonged to a category of birds with higher fitness, compared to birds laying only one clutch in the season. In this study we used a long-term data set taken from an increasing population of little penguins in Otago, SE New Zealand. We modelled the relationship between the number of clutches laid in a breeding season and survival probability, reproductive performance in the next breeding season and first year survival of offspring using capture-recapture modelling. Birds laying two clutches produced 1.7 times more fledglings during a breeding season than pairs laying one clutch. We found that birds laying two clutches had a higher probability of breeding in the following breeding season, a higher probability of laying two clutches in the following breeding season and a higher survival probability. There was no overall difference in post-fledging survival between the young of birds producing one clutch and the young of birds producing two clutches. However, the survival of young of single clutch breeders declined with laying date, whereas the young of double clutch breeders had the same survival rate irrespective of laying date. For a subset of data with birds of known age, we found evidence that the probability of laying two clutches increased with age. However, there were also indications for differences among birds in the tendency to lay two clutches that could not be attributed to age. We tentatively interpret our results as evidence of quality difference among little penguin breeders. [source]

    Participatory planning, management and alternative livelihoods for poor wetland-dependent communities in Kampala, Uganda

    Robert Kabumbuli
    Abstract The paper is based on an on-going 3-year study in the wetland communities of Kampala. The study uses participatory methods and aims to contribute to (i) the development of low-income wetland communities, (ii) to prepare these communities to become less dependent on wetlands without receding into poverty, and (iii) the better management of the wetlands. The communities in direct dependence and intimate interaction with Nakivubo wetlands are mainly poor, live and work under hazardous conditions, and their activities pose a threat to the ecological function of the wetlands. Yet these wetlands are important for filtering the city's waste and storm water before it flows into Lake Victoria's Murchison Bay, which is Kampala's source of piped water. Government approaches to the problem of wetland encroachment have largely failed because they are confrontational, and are not consistent or participatory. The study has in the first year conducted a series of activities including stakeholder analysis, resource analysis, livelihood analysis, a questionnaire survey and action planning. Preliminary data show that wetland dependency is very high among the poor nearby communities. They practice cultivation, brick-making and harvesting of wetland vegetation. However, these activities are under threat because wetland resources are dwindling due to increasing population and over-use. Livelihoods are threatened not only by the decreasing productivity of the wetland, but also by the ever-present government threat to evict wetland encroachers to restore its ecology. The study therefore works with communities to prepare for less dependence on wetlands so that they do not suddenly recede into worse poverty if they are evicted. They formulate strategies to enhance alternative livelihood, and for management of the wetland. Action plans have been formulated to address the situation through a newly created association. [source]

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of triple test in second-trimester maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome: an experience from Taiwan with decreasing birth rate but increasing population of old pregnant women

    Hsiao-Lin Hwa PhD
    Objectives, We intended to assess the cost-effectiveness of adding unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome in Taiwan, where there is a decreasing birth rate but an increasing trend of old women having pregnancies. Methods, We used logistic regressions to estimate the risk of Down's syndrome with maternal age and different combinations of biomarkers. Cost-effectiveness analysis was presented in terms of the average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Sensitivity analyses with different parameters were performed. Results, Given a cut-off point of 1:270 for the confirmation of Down's syndrome with amniocentesis, the average cost per case averted for maternal age above 35 years only, double test [alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)] and triple test (AFP, hCG and uE3) were estimated as $14 561, $42 367 and $37 424. The additional costs per case averted for double test and triple test (compared with maternal age above 35 years) were $135 950 and $77 394, respectively. The additional cost per case averted for triple test was $15 199 compared with double test. Conclusions, The performance of triple test is not only more effective in detecting Down's syndrome cases but also more cost-effective than double test in this study. [source]

    Reducing the Incidence of Denture Stomatitis: Are Denture Cleansers Sufficient?

    Anto Jose MSc
    Abstract Purpose:,Candida albicans is the predominant oral yeast associated with denture stomatitis. With an increasing population of denture wearers, the incidence of denture stomatitis is increasing. Effective management of these patients will alleviate the morbidity associated with this disease. The aim of this study was to examine the capacity of four denture cleansers to efficiently decontaminate and sterilize surfaces covered by C. albicans biofilms. Materials and Methods: Sixteen C. albicans strains isolated from denture stomatitis patients and strain ATCC 90028 were grown as mature confluent biofilms on a 96-well format and immersed in Dentural, MedicalÔ Interporous®, Steradent Active Plus, and Boots Smile denture cleansers according to the manufacturers' instructions or overnight. The metabolic activity and biomass of the biofilms were then quantified, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to examine treated biofilms. Results: Dentural was the most effective denture cleanser, reducing the biomass by greater than 90% after 20 minutes. Steradent Active plus was significantly more effective following 10-minute immersion than overnight (p < 0.001). All cleansers reduced the metabolic activity by greater than 80% following overnight immersion; however, Boots Smile exhibited significantly reduced metabolic activity following only a 15-minute immersion (p < 0.001). SEM revealed residual C. albicans material following Dentural treatment. Conclusions: This study showed that denture cleansers exhibit effective anti- C. albicans biofilm activity, both in terms of removal and disinfection; however, residual biofilm retention that could lead to regrowth and denture colonization was observed. Therefore, alternative mechanical disruptive methods are required to enhance biofilm removal. [source]

    Paraquat and sustainable agriculture

    Richard H Bromilow
    Abstract Sustainable agriculture is essential for man's survival, especially given our rapidly increasing population. Expansion of agriculture into remaining areas of natural vegetation is undesirable, as this would reduce biodiversity on the planet. Maintaining or indeed improving crop yields on existing farmed land, whether on a smallholder scale or on larger farms, is thus necessary. One of the limiting factors is often weed control; biological control of weeds is generally of limited use and mechanical control is either often difficult with machinery or very laborious by hand. Thus the use of herbicides has become very important. Minimum cultivation can also be important, as it reduces the power required to work the soil, limits erosion and helps to maintain the organic matter content of the soil. This last aspect helps preserve both the structure of soil and its populations of organisms, and also sustains the Earth's soil as a massive sink for carbon, an important consideration in the light of global warming. The introduction of the bipyridinium herbicide paraquat in the early 1960s greatly facilitated weed control in many crops. Paraquat has the unusual property of being active only by direct spray onto plants and not by uptake from soil in which strong binding deactivates it. Together with its rapid action in light in killing green plant tissue, such properties allow paraquat to be used in many crops, including those grown by low-tillage methods. This paper reviews the ways in which agricultural systems have been and are being developed to make use of these properties, and provides a risk/benefit analysis of the world-wide use of paraquat over nearly 40 years. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Remanding Women in Custody: Concerns for Human Rights

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 3 2007
    Elaine Player
    Concern about the increasing population of women in prison has tended to focus on the sentencing of female offenders. It is often overlooked that about one in five women held in custody is there on remand, awaiting trial or sentence, and that most of them will not receive a prison sentence at the end of the process. This article examines the legal grounds for a custodial remand and explores the extent to which individual rights guaranteed under the European Convention are adequately protected. It is argued that women are particularly disadvantaged by the laws governing bail and by their practical application in the criminal justice system; and that the pre-trial detention of so many women routinely violates the spirit of the Convention by allowing questionable claims to social utility to prevail over the right to liberty and to a fair trial. [source]

    The impacts of aquaculture development on food security: lessons from Bangladesh

    Khondker Murshed E-Jahan
    Abstract Fish contribute a significant amount of animal protein to the diets of people in Bangladesh, about 63% of which comes from aquatic animals. In Bangladesh, fish is mainly derived from two sources: capture and culture. Aquaculture has shown tremendous growth in the last two decades, exhibiting by about 10% average annual growth in production. Capture fisheries, although still the major source of supply of fish, have become static or are in decline due to over-fishing and environmental degradation, and it is now believed that aquaculture has the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for fish from the increasing population. At present, aquaculture production accounts for about one-third of the total fish production in Bangladesh. This paper examines the impact of an aquaculture development project in Bangladesh on food security, with particular emphasis on the poor. The analysis shows a positive impact of aquaculture development on employment, income and consumption. A number of implications for policy in areas that might strengthen these outcomes are discussed and recommendations are presented. [source]

    Morphological characteristics of on-farm water storages and their similarity to natural water bodies in the Border Rivers Catchment, Australia

    Susan Lutton
    Abstract 1.Natural wetlands throughout the world are under threat from water resource development required to support an ever increasing population. In the Border Rivers Catchment in Queensland, Australia, a large irrigation industry and highly variable flow regime have necessitated the building of large on-farm water storages. With the decline in number and size of natural wetlands, the presence of these storages on the floodplain has raised the question of their suitability as alternative habitat for aquatic fauna. This paper explores the variety of water storage types in the Border Rivers Catchment and how their morphology compares with that of natural wetlands , in particular, factors likely to influence aquatic biodiversity. 2.Storages and natural wetlands formed two distinct groups based on morphology. Storages tended to be large, deep structures with a more regular shape while natural wetlands were irregular and shallow with large perimeters. Although there was a degree of variability amongst the storage sites, a large proportion fell into one group and were considered ,typical storages'. Typical storages contained tailwater and had the following characteristics: situated 3,km from the source river, 10 years old, embankment height of 5,m, area of 400,000,m2, perimeter of 2.5,km and capacity of 1,700,000,m3. 3.Due to their uniform structure we believe that most on-farm storages are unlikely to support as diverse or abundant an aquatic population as natural wetlands. The presence of tailwater and associated chemicals is also likely to reduce the aquatic biodiversity of storages compared with natural wetlands. While they may be unsuitable as replacement wetlands, given their numbers they could provide significant aquatic habitat across the landscape, if managed effectively. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement in Children and Adolescents After Previous Repair of Congenital Heart Disease

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 11 2009
    Aron-Frederik Popov
    Abstract Due to improved outcome after surgery for congenital heart defects, children, adolescents, and grown-ups with congenital heart defects become an increasing population. In order to evaluate operative risk and early outcome after mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in this population, we reviewed patients who underwent previous repair of congenital heart defects. Between July 2002 and November 2008, 15 (10 male and 5 female) consecutive patients (mean age 14.5 ± 10.5 years) underwent mechanical AVR. Hemodynamic indications for AVR were aortic stenosis in four (27%), aortic insufficiency in eight (53%), and mixed disease in three (20%) after previous repair of congenital heart defects. All patients had undergone one or more previous cardiovascular operations due to any congenital heart disease. Concomitant cardiac procedures were performed in all of them. In addition to AVR, in two patients, a mitral valve exchange was performed. One patient received a right ventricle-pulmonary artery conduit replacement as concomitant procedure. The mean size of implanted valves was 23 mm (range 17,29 mm). There were neither early deaths nor late mortality until December 2008. Reoperations were necessary in five (33%) and included implantation of a permanent pacemaker due to complete atrioventricular block in two (15%), mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis due to moderate to severe mitral regurgitation in one (7%), aortocoronary bypass grafting due to stenosis of a coronary artery in one (7%), and in one (7%), a redo subaortic stenosis resection was performed because of a secondary subaortic stenosis. At the latest clinical evaluation, all patients were in good clinical condition without a pathological increased gradient across the aortic valve prosthesis or paravalvular leakage in echocardiography. Mechanical AVR has excellent results in patients after previous repair of congenital heart defects in childhood, even in combination with complex concomitant procedures. Previous operations do not significantly affect postoperative outcome. [source]

    Mass regulation in response to predation risk can indicate population declines

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 10 2007
    Ross MacLeod
    Abstract In theory, survival rates and consequent population status might be predictable from instantaneous behavioural measures of how animals prioritize foraging vs. avoiding predation. We show, for the 30 most common small bird species ringed in the UK, that one quarter respond to higher predation risk as if it is mass-dependent and lose mass. Half respond to predation risk as if it only interrupts their foraging and gain mass thus avoiding consequent increased starvation risk from reduced foraging time. These mass responses to higher predation risk are correlated with population and conservation status both within and between species (and independently of foraging habitat, foraging guild, sociality index and size) over the last 30 years in Britain, with mass loss being associated with declining populations and mass gain with increasing populations. If individuals show an interrupted foraging response to higher predation risk, they are likely to be experiencing a high quality foraging environment that should lead to higher survival. Whereas individuals that show a mass-dependent foraging response are likely to be in lower quality foraging environments, leading to relatively lower survival. [source]

    A practical method for predicting the short-time trend of bivoltine populations of Ips typographus (L.) (Col., Scolytidae)

    M. Faccoli
    Abstract:,Ips typographus is the main spruce pest of European forests. In most areas of the Italian Alps there are two generations per year; overwintering adults fly in May looking for trees suitable for breeding, their offspring emerge in summer, 7,8 weeks after tree colonization, and the adults of the second generation emerge in spring of the following year after overwintering under the bark or in the litter. A long-term population monitoring was carried out in north-east Italy with the aim at developing a prediction model able to estimate the population density of the following year. Between 1996 and 2004, pheromone traps monitored populations of I. typographus annually. Monitoring lasted 4 months (May,August), with replacement of pheromone dispensers after 8 weeks. Insects trapped before dispenser change were called ,spring captures' (May,June), and included both overwintering and re-emerging adults. Beetles caught after dispenser change were called ,summer captures' (July,August), and included the adults of the first generation. The results show a high positive correlation between the ratio of summer and spring captures of one year (Summerx/Springx), and the ratio of total captures of the following year (Yx+1) and those of the current year (Yx) (Yx+1/Yx). Summerx/Springx lower than 0.62 indicate decreasing populations in the following year (Yx+1/Yx <1), whereas Summerx/Springx higher than 0.62 indicate increasing populations (Yx+1/Yx >1). The applicability of the model in the study of I. typographus risk of outbreak and in the forest management is discussed. The prediction of the short-time trend of the population allows assessing its density in the following year, and therefore the risk of outbreak. [source]

    Rainforest habitat resistance to the migration of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in south-eastern Queensland

    Mohammad Golam N Azam
    Abstract, This paper tests the hypothesis that habitat differences affect the migratory ability of the Chilean predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, an introduced biological control agent of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. It is suggested that habitat resistance accounts for the species' inability to invade rainforests in south-eastern Queensland, Australia. Like its prey, P. persimilis migrates to distant plants on air currents. To test our hypothesis, populations of the Chilean predatory mite were established on potted bean plants in both remnant rainforest and adjacent open fields, and their migration monitored using sticky traps. Overall it was found that prey populations on leaves were similar in both habitats, but those of predators were about 20% lower in rainforest. However, the numbers of both predators and prey caught on sticky traps in rainforest were about 6% and 25%, respectively, of those caught in open fields, indicating a strongly reduced rate of aerial migration in the forest. The number of P. persimilis caught on the sticky traps increased with increasing populations of predators on foliage. Thus, dense vegetation inhibits the movement of air currents and inhibits colonisation by both predators and, to a lesser extent, spider mites. These results suggest that the inhibition of aerial migration is one reason for lower numbers of P. persimilis in forest habitats, both because its own vagility is restricted, and because its prey is less able to disperse. [source]