Increasing Popularity (increasing + popularity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Contact sensitization from Compositae-containing herbal remedies and cosmetics

Evy Paulsen
The Compositae (Asteraceae) family of plants is currently an important cause of allergic plant contact dermatitis in Europe. The family comprises some of the oldest and most valued medicinal plants, and the increasing popularity of herbal medicine and cosmetics may theoretically result in a growing number of Compositae sensitizations from these sources. According to the literature at least 15 species, including among others arnica (Arnica montana), German and Roman chamomile (Chamomilla recutita and Chamaemelum nobile), marigold (Calendula officinalis), Echinacea and elecampane (Inula helenium), have been suspected of sensitization or elicitation of Compositae dermatitis. Epidemiological data are available for 2 species only, arnica and German chamomile, the rest of the evidence being anecdotal. Based on this, sensitization seems to occur relatively frequently with a few species such as arnica and elecampane, and occurs rarely with the majority, especially the widely used German chamomile. Sesquiterpene lactones are the most important allergens, but there are a few cases of sensitization from a coumarin, a sesquiterpene alcohol and a thiophene. The risk of elicitation of dermatitis by using Compositae-containing products in Compositae-sensitive individuals is by-and-large unknown. [source]

Statistical approaches in landscape genetics: an evaluation of methods for linking landscape and genetic data

ECOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2009
Niko Balkenhol
The goal of landscape genetics is to detect and explain landscape effects on genetic diversity and structure. Despite the increasing popularity of landscape genetic approaches, the statistical methods for linking genetic and landscape data remain largely untested. This lack of method evaluation makes it difficult to compare studies utilizing different statistics, and compromises the future development and application of the field. To investigate the suitability and comparability of various statistical approaches used in landscape genetics, we simulated data sets corresponding to five landscape-genetic scenarios. We then analyzed these data with eleven methods, and compared the methods based on their statistical power, type-1 error rates, and their overall ability to lead researchers to accurate conclusions about landscape-genetic relationships. Results suggest that some of the most commonly applied techniques (e.g. Mantel and partial Mantel tests) have high type-1 error rates, and that multivariate, non-linear methods are better suited for landscape genetic data analysis. Furthermore, different methods generally show only moderate levels of agreement. Thus, analyzing a data set with only one method could yield method-dependent results, potentially leading to erroneous conclusions. Based on these findings, we give recommendations for choosing optimal combinations of statistical methods, and identify future research needs for landscape genetic data analyses. [source]

Elite Consensus as a Determinant of Alliance Cohesion: Why Public Opinion Hardly Matters for NATO-led Operations in Afghanistan

Sarah Kreps
Despite the increasing popularity of fighting wars through multilateral coalitions, scholars have largely been silent on the question of how public opinion in member states affects alliance cohesion. This article assesses public opinion data for states contributing to operations in Afghanistan. It finds that despite the unpopularity of the war, leaders have largely bucked public opinion and neither reduced nor withdrawn troops from NATO-led operations in Afghanistan. Theoretical expectations about international cooperation and evidence from case studies point to elite consensus as the reason why leaders are not running for the exits in Afghanistan when their publics would prefer that they do. As the article shows, operating through a formal institution such as NATO creates systemic incentives for sustained international cooperation. The result is that elite consensus inoculates leaders from electoral punishment and gives states' commitments to Afghanistan a "stickiness" that defies negative public opinion. A formal alliance such as NATO may therefore create more policy constraints than an ad hoc coalition but also increase the costs of defection and confer a degree of staying power that is unexpected given the adverse public opinion environment. [source]

Across-sample Incomparability of R2s and Additional Evidence on Value Relevance Changes Over Time

Zhaoyang GuArticle first published online: 9 OCT 200
Abstract:, Given the increasing popularity of across-sample R2 comparisons in accounting research, this paper illustrates why the regression R2s are incomparable across samples and the general nature of this problem. The regression residual dispersion with proper control for scale is proposed as the alternative measure of explanatory power for across-sample comparisons. In market-on-accounting variable regressions, this measure can be conveniently interpreted as the degree of accounting-based pricing errors and be used as a measure of value relevance of accounting information. As an application, the issue of over-time value relevance changes is re-visited. In contrast to prior mixed findings based on the R2 measure, a decline of value relevance since the early 1970s is robustly detected using the alternative measure. [source]

Application of visual tracking for robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery

Xiaoli Zhang
With the increasing popularity of laparoscopic surgery, the demand for better modes of laparoscopic surgery also increases. The current laparoscopic surgery mode requires an assistant to hold and manipulate the endoscope through commands from the surgeon. However, during lengthy surgery procedures, accurate and on-time adjustment of the camera cannot be guaranteed due to the fatigue and hand trembling of the camera assistant. This article proposes a practical visual tracking method to achieve automated instrument localization and endoscope maneuvering in robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Solutions concerning this approach, such as, endoscope calibration, marker design, distortion correction, and endoscope manipulator design are described in detail. Experimental results are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed method. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Group Identification: The Influence of Group Membership on Retail Hardware Cooperative Members' Perceptions

Leslie McClintock Stoel
Due to the increasing popularity of retail cooperatives in hardware retailing, a new competitive dynamic has emerged, a hybrid of intratype/intergroup competition. Individual members of one cooperative group now fight for market share with one or more members of competing cooperative groups, in an effort to attain individual goals, as well as group goals. A model of competition that includes both individual and group conditions was tested. Results of the structural equation model (SEM) show that the data fit the theoretical model well (,2=12.414, 8 df, p=0.134, NFI=0.990, NNFI=0.993, CFI=0.996). Our results indicate that, for members of cooperative groups, feelings of identification with the cooperative group resulted in increased perceptions of conflict with a rival who was a member of a competing cooperative and that feelings of group identification influenced beliefs about the importance of competitive behaviors relative to that rival. [source]

Histopathologic examination of axillary sentinel lymph nodes in breast carcinoma patients

FRCPath, Giuseppe Viale MD
Abstract The axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has gained increasing popularity as a novel surgical approach for staging patients with breast carcinoma and for guiding the choice of adjuvant therapy with minimal morbidity. Patients with negative SLNB represent a subset of breast carcinoma patients with definitely better prognosis, because their pN0 status is based on a very thorough examination of the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), with a very low risk of missing even small micrometastatic deposits, as compared with routine examination of the 20 or 30 lymph nodes obtained by the traditional axillary clearing. The histopathologic examination of the SLNs may be performed after fixation and embedding in paraffin, or intraoperatively on frozen sections. Whatever is the preferred tracing technique and surgical procedure, the histopathologic examination of each SLN must be particularly accurate, to avoid a false-negative diagnosis. Unfortunately, because of the lack of standardised guidelines or protocols for SLN examination, different institutions still adopt their own working protocols, which differ substantially in the number of sections cut and examined, in the cutting intervals (ranging from 50 to more than 250 ,m), and in the more or less extensive use of immunohistochemical assays for the detection of micrometastatic disease. Herein, a very stringent protocol for the examination of the axillary SLN is reported, which is applied either to frozen SLN for the intraoperative diagnosis, and to fixed and embedded SLN as well. J. Surg. Oncol. 2004;85:123,128. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The scope, motivation and dynamic of Guest Engineering

R & D MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2001
Michael Lewis
The exchange of technical personnel between organizational actors in a supply network has become known as Guest Engineering (GE). Despite increasing popularity as an inter-organisational arrangement (especially in the automotive sector) it has generated relatively little academic research and therefore this paper seeks to extend our understanding of GE by exploring how its scope is determined, what motivates the participants and how the relationships evolve. The paper draws on extant GE, supply networks and Resource-Based View (RBV) literature to derive research propositions that are used to analyse empirical work carried out with four automotive suppliers and four automotive OEMs. A number of preliminary conclusions are drawn. At a micro-project level, the criticality of the individual ,playing the GE role' is highlighted, as are related concerns that collaborative team structures often fail to address broader social/cultural characteristics. At a macro-project level, the study argues that difficulties and mistrust will often characterise integrated and competitively successful GE relationships. Finally, at a strategic level, GE needs to be understood as a process of resource transfer and transformation, and therefore the management of interdependency and power asymmetry are core considerations in effective adoption. The paper concludes with recommendations for further critical and practical work. [source]

Use of Foley's catheter to gain access for retroperitoneoscopy

Amar Shah
With the increasing popularity of laparoscopic urologic surgery, many different methods have been used to dissect the extraperitoneal space and gain access to the kidney and ureter. We present our initial experience using a Foley catheter to gain retroperitoneal access. This technique was successfully used in 30 children. We have not encountered any major complications and recommend its use in children. [source]

Brain abnormalities in antisocial individuals: implications for the law

Yaling Yang B.S.
With the increasing popularity in the use of brain imaging on antisocial individuals, an increasing number of brain imaging studies have revealed structural and functional impairments in antisocial, psychopathic, and violent individuals. This review summarizes key findings from brain imaging studies on antisocial/aggressive behavior. Key regions commonly found to be impaired in antisocial populations include the prefrontal cortex (particularly orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), superior temporal gyrus, amygdala,hippocampal complex, and anterior cingulate cortex. Key functions of these regions are reviewed to provide a better understanding on how deficits in these regions may predispose to antisocial behavior. Objections to the use of imaging findings in a legal context are outlined, and alternative perspectives raised. It is argued that brain dysfunction is a risk factor for antisocial behavior and that it is likely that imaging will play an increasing (albeit limited) role in legal decision-making. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


BIOETHICS, Issue 3 2008
ABSTRACT Observers who note the increasing popularity of bioethics discussions often complain that the social sciences are poorly represented in discussions about things like abortion and stem-cell research. Critics say that bioethicists should be incorporating the methods and findings of social scientists, and should move towards making the discipline more empirically oriented. This way, critics argue, bioethics will remain relevant, and truly reflect the needs of actual people. Such recommendations ignore the diversity of viewpoints in bioethics, however. Bioethics can gain much from the methods and findings from ethnographies and similar research. But it is misleading to suggest that bioethicists are unaware of this potential benefit. Not only that, bioethicists are justified in having doubts about the utility of the social science approach in some cases. This is not because there is some inherent superiority in non-empirical approaches to moral argument. Rather, the doubts concern the nature of the facts that the sciences would provide. Perhaps the larger point is that disagreements about the relationship between facts and normative arguments should be seen as part of the normal inquiry in bioethics, not evidence that reform is needed. [source]

Dried blood spot sampling in combination with LC-MS/MS for quantitative analysis of small molecules

Wenkui Li
Abstract The collection of whole blood samples on paper, known as dried blood spot (DBS), dates back to the early 1960s in newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders. DBS offers a number of advantages over conventional blood collection. As a less invasive sampling method, DBS offers simpler sample collection and storage and easier transfer, with reduced infection risk of various pathogens, and requires a smaller blood volume. To date, DBS-LC-MS/MS has emerged as an important method for quantitative analysis of small molecules. Despite the increasing popularity of DBS-LC-MS/MS, the method has its limitations in assay sensitivity due to the small sample size. Sample quality is often a concern. Systematic assessment on the potential impact of various blood sample properties on accurate quantification of analyte of interest is necessary. Whereas most analytes may be stable on DBS, unstable compounds present another challenge for DBS as enzyme inhibitors cannot be conveniently mixed during sample collection. Improvements on the chemistry of DBS card are desirable. In addition to capturing many representative DBS-LS-MS/MS applications, this review highlights some important aspects of developing and validating a rugged DBS-LC-MS/MS method for quantitative analysis of small molecules along with DBS sample collection, processing and storage. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Investigation of Protein,Ligand Interactions by Mass Spectrometry

CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 4 2007
Andrea Sinz Prof.
Abstract The rate of drug discovery is greatly dependent on the development and improvement of rapid and reliable analytical methods that allow screening for protein,ligand interactions. The solution-based methods for investigating protein,ligand interactions by mass spectrometry (MS), which are discussed in this paper, are hydrogen/deuterium exchange of protein backbone amide hydrogens, and photoaffinity labeling. Moreover, MS analysis of intact noncovalent protein,ligand complexes is described. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR,MS) with its ultra-high resolution and excellent mass accuracy is also considered herein as it is gaining increasing popularity for a mass spectrometric investigation of protein,ligand interactions. [source]

Parameters for Successful Implant Integration Revisited Part I: Immediate Loading Considered in Light of the Original Prerequisites for Osseointegration

FACD, Oded Bahat BDS
ABSTRACT Purpose: With the increasing popularity and publication of loading implants at the time of placement, including at time of dental extraction and simultaneous with reconstructive procedures, the objective was to evaluate known variables identified for a traditional unloaded healing period and determine the applicability of these variables to immediate loading. Materials: A total of 124 published reports available as of January 2008 that contained information about loading from the time of surgery up to 3 months postsurgically were examined in light of published variables affecting osseointegration based on a 2 stage surgical approach. Methods: The articles were examined to differentiate between immediate loading (within the initial 48 hours) and early/delayed loading of implants. Success or survival criteria were noted, and where reasons for failure were available, categorized according to six variables considered as determinants for maintaining a long-term bone-to-implant contact. Results: Approximately 60 of the 124 reports described immediately loading implants within 48 with single-tooth, partial, and full-arch restorations, as well as implant overdentures. The implant success or survival rates ranged from 70.8% to 100%. Most studies considered implant survival to be the only criterion for success. Conclusions: Of six parameters identified in 1981 as influencing osseointegration, two parameters (the status of the bone/implant site and implant loading conditions) appear to have diagnostic implications, whereas three (implant design, surgical technique, and implant finish) may affect immediate loading positively or adversely. [source]