Increasing Loss (increasing + loss)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Chromogenic in situ hybridization analysis of melastatin mRNA expression in melanomas from American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I and II patients with recurrent melanoma

L. Hammock
Objective:, To determine whether loss of melastatin (MLSN) is a universal phenomenon in American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I and II melanoma patients who experienced recurrence. Material and methods:, Paraffin blocks of primary melanomas (PMs) were retrieved from 30 patients who had a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy and developed recurrent melanoma (AJCC stage I and II). Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) methods were utilized to evaluate the expression of MLSN mRNA. These results were correlated with clinicopathologic data. Results:, Variable, heterogeneous expression of MLSN mRNA was identified in normal, in situ and invasive melanocytes within and between cases. For the invasive PM component, 24 (80%) had focal, regional or complete loss of MLSN mRNA. The remaining 20% had either regional or total partial downregulation of MLSN mRNA. Intact MLSN mRNA expression was present regionally in 14/30 (47%), with mean relative tumor area of 38%, range 5,85%. Increasing loss of MLSN mRNA significantly correlated with increasing tumor depth and microsatellites (r = 0.1/0.4, p = 0.04). However, thin, AJCC T stage 1a PM had higher relative mean loss than intermediate AJCC T stage 2a/2b/3a thickness PM (65% vs. 34%/48%/25%). Increasing loss of MLSN mRNA significantly impacted on disease free survival (DFS) by multivariate analysis (58 vs. 0% 2 years DFS, , 75 vs. >75% mRNA loss, p = 0.02). Decreased overall survival significantly correlated with increasing age and vascular invasion on multivariate analysis. Conclusion:, Extensive loss of MLSN in PM correlated with aggressive metastatic melanoma. Ancillary testing for MLSN mRNA expression by CISH could offer a means to more accurately identify AJCC stage I and II patients at risk for metastatic disease, who could benefit from adjuvant therapy. [source]

Tuberculosis control and managed competition in Colombia

Maria Patricia Arbelaez
Abstract Law 100 introduced the Health Sector Reform in Colombia, a model of managed competition. This article addresses the effects of this model in terms of output and outcomes of TB control. Trends in main TB control indicators were analysed using secondary data sources, and 25 interviews were done with key informants from public and private insurers and provider institutions, and from the health directorate level. We found a deterioration in the performance of TB control: a decreasing number of BCG vaccine doses applied, a reduction in case finding and contacts identification, low cure rates and an increasing loss of follow up, which mainly affects poor people. Fragmentation occurred as the atomization and discontinuity of the technical processes took place, there was a lack of coordination, as well as a breakdown between individual and collective interventions, and the health information system began to disintegrate. The introduction of the Managed Competition (MC) in Colombia appeared to have adverse effects on TB control due to the dominance of the economic rationality in the health system and the weak state stewardship. Our recommendations are to restructure the reform's public health component, strengthen the technical capacity in public health of the state, mainly at the local and departmental levels, and to improve the health information system by reorienting its objectives to public health goals. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

,The Day of Burning': Eviction and Reinvention in the Margins of Northwest Zimbabwe

Amanda Hammar
A violent eviction in a remote northwestern corner of Zimbabwe in late 1997 provides a prism through which to explore the changing dynamics of competition over space, power and production in Zimbabwe's agrarian margins, where con?ict over wildlife and agriculture has intensi?ed and the state has become a key player. The article argues that in its quest to (re)gain control over one such location, the state has had to construct it as space of violence in order to de-civilize it and reinvent it as a wilderness zone. The ,day of burning' is taken not only as a signi?er of the violent potential of such competition, but also as a metaphor for the state's increasing loss of legitimacy in the margins: that is, the ,burning away' of any residue of illusion about the state as either the democratic embodiment of the people's will or compassionate provider of services and security. [source]

Potassium cycling and losses in grassland systems: a review

M. Kayser
Abstract Cycling of potassium in grassland systems has received relatively little attention in research and practice in recent years. Balanced nutrient systems require consideration of nutrients other than nitrogen (N). Potassium (K) is needed in large amounts and is closely related to N nutrition. In intensive dairy farming, surpluses of K arise from the input of concentrates and fertilizer and are returned to the grassland and may lead to increasing K content in the soil. Organic farming, on the other hand, is characterized by limitations in input of nutrient sources and quantities. Leaching of K from grassland is usually low, but high levels of available soil K, high K input from fertilizer or at urine patches lead to increasing losses. High K inputs have a negative influence on Mg and Ca uptake by plants and can cause accelerated leaching of these cations. High levels of K have been associated with inducing nutrition-related dairy cow health problems such as milk fever (hypocalcaemia) and grass tetany (hypomagnesaemia). This review gives an overview of the cycling of potassium and related cations in grassland systems especially with regard to leaching losses and identifies limitations to knowledge. [source]